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SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS: Moving from Waste Management to Materials Management - Overview -

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Title: SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS: Moving from Waste Management to Materials Management - Overview -


1
SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS Moving from Waste
Management to Materials Management - Overview -
  • Derry Allen
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 2008 Symposium on Innovating for Sustainable
    Results
  • Integrated Approaches for Energy, Climate, and
    the Environment
  • Chapel Hill, NC
  • January 9, 2008

2
Materials Getting Oriented
  • Major Natural Resource Systems
  • Air
  • Ecosystems
  • Energy
  • Land
  • Materials
  • Water
  • Non-renewable materials
  • minerals metals
  • (e.g., iron, lead, gravel)
  • non-renewable organics
  • (e.g., petroleum products)
  • very large flows - infrastructure level
  • (e.g., erosion, earth moving)
  • Renewable organic materials
  • (e.g., lumber, paper, food)

3
Materials in the 21st Century
  • 21st Century Issues Drivers Barriers for
    Sustainability
  • - Population, economy technology links
    changes
  • - Pressures to use/reuse all resources more
    sustainably
  • - Realization that waste should signal
    opportunity
  • Recent report card on materials
  • - Materials used/waste generated going up
  • - Materials used/capita up, materials used/GDP
    down
  • - Outputs of harmful materials - mixed
  • - Most resources returned to environment as
    wastes within one year
  • - Atmosphere is biggest dumping ground for
    wastes
  • from WRI The Weight of Nations Material
    Outflows from Industrial Economies (2000)
  • Materials challenge How to use materials more
    sustainably?
  • Use materials more efficiently, throughout the
    total resource cycle, and shift to
    environmentally preferable materials.
  • from EPA Everyday Choices Opportunities for
    Environmental Stewardship (2005)

4
Sustainable Materials Management
  • Sustainable Materials Management is an approach
    to promote sustainable materials use, integrating
    actions targeted at reducing negative
    environmental impacts and preserving natural
    capital throughout the life-cycle of materials,
    taking into account economic efficiency and
    social equity.
  • - Organization for Economic Cooperation and
    Development (OECD)

5
The Flow of Materials
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Resource Extraction
Materials Processing
Product Manufacture
Product Use
Collection Processing
Materials Disposal
Recycle
Re-use
Re-manufacture
Renew
6
The Flow of Materials
  • (Expanded version)

7
12 Ways To Manage Materials
  • Within each stage
  • 1. Improve/minimize extraction/harvesting.
  • 2. Process materials efficiently - reduce
    waste/energy use.
  • 3. Improve product design/manufacture, incl.
    materials choices.
  • 4. Improve use of product.
  • 5. Increase reuse, remanufacture, recycling.
  • 6. Discourage use of waste disposal facilities.
  • Between the stages
  • 7. Reuse the product.
  • 8. Remanufacture the product.
  • 9. Recycle the product or byproduct.
  • 10. Locate/move facilities to minimize the
    transportation
  • Across all stages
  • 11. Measure material flows (What gets measured
    gets managed.)
  • 12. Focus on needs/solutions, not the products
    themselves.

8
The Flow of Materials Policy and Program
Approaches
Rethink What are the different ways to get the
value/service that we wanted in the first place?
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Water
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Land
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Air
Resource Extraction
Materials Processing
Product Manufacture
Product Use
Collection Processing
Materials Disposal
Recycle
Re-use
Re-manufacture
Renew
Natural resource policy Design for
Environment Product policy Waste
Characterization National security Dematerializat
ion Product Stewardship Waste Policy Lean
Manufacturing WEEE, RoHS, REACT (Municipal/Industr
ial) Packaging Labeling Taxes/fees/incentives,
Supply Chain Management, government purchasing,
Green Chemistry/Engineering, individual
behavior, management of hazardous chemicals,
other resource use (e.g. energy), Environmental
Management Systems, Material Flow Analysis, Life
Cycle Analysis, Industrial Ecology, Ecological
Footprint, Zero Waste, Cradle-to-Cradle, Sound
Material Cycle Society, Circular Economy, Natural
Capitalism, Sustainability, Sustainable Materials
Management, RCRA Vision
9
Sustainable Materials Viewpoints Government
Roles
  • Two broad substantive points of view
  • - Materials (multiple sources, products waste
    streams)
  • - Products (multiple materials, similar waste
    streams)
  • Several broad organizational points of view
  • - Government, private sector, individuals,
    public-private partnerships
  • Types of government action
  • - Incentives, partnerships, encourage voluntary
    action
  • - Traditional command and control regulations
  • - Information to support all of the above
  • Levels of organization and government
  • - International, National, State, Local

10
Material Flow Accounts
  • MF Accounts quantify material flows, tracking the
    movement of materials from extraction to
    manufacturing, product use, reuse/recycling and
    eventual disposal, and showing emissions to the
    environment at each step.
  • MF Accounts enable Material Flow Analysis. They
    are an information tool with many uses in the
    public and private sectors. They can lead to a
    variety of insights, public policies and private
    actions.
  • Methodologies and prototypes exist, but countries
    are at different stages of development. An active
    international and U.S. dialogue is under way.
  • Long-term vision Create material flow accounts
    that are at least as good as economic accounts.

11
MF Accounts in the U.S.
  • U.S. prototypes include
  • - World Resources Institute
  • - Resource Flows The Material Basis of
    Industrial Economies (1997)
  • - The Weight of Nations Material Outflows from
    Industrial Economies (2000)
  • - Material Flows in the United States A
    Physical Accounting of the U.S. Industrial
    Economy (2007 - forthcoming)
  • - Yale University Stocks Flows Project
  • - NY Academy of Sciences (NY-NJ Harbor Project)
  • - WA State used MFA to help plan Beyond
    Waste
  • National Academy of Sciences Materials Count
    The Case for Material Flows Analysis (2003)
  • Interagency Paper MFA How They Can Be Used As
    An Information Tool for 21st Century Public
    Policy (2003)
  • U.S. Government data sources EPA, USGS, DOE,
    USDA, DOC, others
  • U.S. is in the middle of the international pack.

12
Example U.S. Flows of Lead
Source Journal of Industrial Ecology, Vol. 1,
No. 1 (1997)
13
Example Flows of Iron Steel
E.U. Environmental hot-spots" of the EU iron
steel system, 2000 (million tonnes)
Source OECD (from Moll, et al. 2005)
14
Example Construction Materials
15
EPA-State Vision 2020 Project
  • Joint effort of EPA and State officials to build
    roadmap for RCRA Vision (report published by
    EPA in 2002, outlining a vision of a materials
    management society)
  • Identify key materials/product groups in terms of
    flows and overall environmental impacts based on
  • Existing data (material flows, life-cycle
    impacts, energy, water, waste)
  • Global trends that could affect materials
    (population, economics, technology, energy
    water resources, security)
  • Simple analysis of key resource flows
  • Identify necessary actions by governments and
    others
  • Systems perspective recognizing
    interconnectedness of environment and economy
  • Emphasize actions in early stages of material
    flow lifecycle.

16
Vision 2020 Project Steps
  • Identify key materials/products.
  • - Project drawing on information from U.S.
    Government (EPA, DOE, USGS, USDA), World
    Resources Institute, OECD, JIE, EIPRO, others in
    US and abroad.
  • - Other studies suggest careful look at housing,
    food and transport.
  • Identify necessary actions by governments and
    others.
  • - Assess governments ability to address
    challenges using a material flow or systems
    approach. What is the proper role for government?
    What changes are needed synergies, refocus,
    new capabilities?
  • - What are the roles for others?
  • - Consider lessons learned from past efforts.
  • Expect to complete report in 2008.
  • - How to assure success?

17
Materials International Initiatives
  • G8
  • - Evian (2003), Sea Island (2004), Gleneagles
    (2005),
  • St. Petersburg (2006), Heiligendamm (2007),
    Hokkaido (2008)
  • - 3Rs Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
  • OECD
  • - Material Flow Accounts guidance, survey
    (2008)
  • - Sustainable Materials Management
  • - Barriers to international trade of recyclable
    materials
  • - Proposed Council Recommendation
  • UNEP
  • - International Panel for Sustainable Resource
    Management
  • - OECD-UNEP Conference on Resource Efficiency
    (April 2008)

18
For Further Information
  • http//www.epa.gov/osw/vision.htm
  • http//www.epa.gov/sustainability
  • http//www.epa.gov/innovation
  • http//www.epa.gov/epr
  • http//www.epa.gov/dfe
  • http//minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/
  • http//www.ecy.wa.gov/beyondwaste/
  • http//www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn0309089441
  • http//materials.wri.org/
  • Frederick W. (Derry) Allen
  • Counselor, Office of Environmental Policy
    Innovation
  • Office of Policy, Economics and Innovation
    (1807T)
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW
  • Washington, DC 20460 USA
  • Tel 1-202-566-2167
  • Fax 1-202-566-2211
  • Email allen.derry_at_epa.gov
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