Army Strategic Communication and Long Lines in the Cold War in Europe - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Army Strategic Communication and Long Lines in the Cold War in Europe

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4/25/2008 U.S. Army Electronic Technology & Devices Lab. Fort Monmouth,NJ * Uniform of the Day 4/25/2008 * U.S. Army Electronic Technology & Devices Lab. Fort ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Army Strategic Communication and Long Lines in the Cold War in Europe


1
(No Transcript)
2
Abstract
  • The period of 1950 to 1960 represented an
    unprecedented buildup of US military forces in
    Europe. This was accompanied by a strategic long
    lines comm. requirement unparalleled in the
    history of the U.S. Army. Limited technology
    required adaptation of existing commercial
    equipment. The 102d Signal Bn. (MWRR) provided
    a multichannel backbone for USAREUR from 1955
    to 1967.

3
Signal Corps in Vacuum Tech Age
4
Occupation and the Constabulary
  • Long Line recovery of the German
  • Infrastructure (Lorenz VHF) Deutche Post was
  • required.
  • German underground wire infrastructure not
    suitable for Army use.
  • No strategic theater system in place, only
    various tactical net to net Comm.

5
Berlin Blockade
  • Demonstrated Occupation level communications
    inadequate.
  • Berlin cable and telephone lines cut. HF jammed.
  • Deutche Post Bocksberg link to Berlin only
    multichannel available (commercial).
  • Realigned national policy to defend Western
    Europe.

6
Reach Back
  • Two cables available, Hamburg(diplomatic) and
    Cherbourg.
  • Army ACAN network used HF radio, limited to 2 or
    3 voice channels, 15 TTY channels.
  • HF sites at Orleans and Neuostheim.
  • Tape radio relay sites use manual paper to paper
    transfer.
  • HF affected by sun spots, outages for days.

7
Defend Europe (1950)
  • Army grows from 50,000 to 500,000
  • Combat units to Czech E. German border
  • Hq. 7th Army and USAREUR in Germany
  • Hq NATO in France
  • Berlin Brigade reinforced
  • Strategic and Tactical infrastructure TBD
  • Build up competes with Korean Police Action

8
Requirements and Goals
  • Provide multichannel comm. from Paris to Munich
    (SAC) and to Berlin. Mimic Bell Tel.
  • Backbone architecture expandable.
  • USAREUR asset, peace time application.
  • Use military and commercial equipment and
    practices. Paid by German reparations.
  • Contractor built permanent facilities.
  • Lease German physical property for 99 years.

9
Available Potential Assets
  • AN/FRC-23/26 S-Band 24 channels PPM
  • Siemens Halski commercial 24 channel PPM
  • Lorenz VHF commercial 24 channel FDM
  • AN/TRC-6 C-Band 8 channels PPM
  • Philco Commercial C-Band 24 channel PPM
  • Bell Telephone long haul 960 channel C-Band FDM
    -as used since 1948 coast to coast
  • AN/TRC-8 230 to 250 Mhz

10
Personnel
  • Require large number of Microwave repairmen
    (281.1 MOS).
  • Two shifts in Signal School at Fort Monmouth.
  • Compete with US Army Long Lines in Japan.
  • Create new TDA with career growth potential for
    RA.
  • Conscripts not eligible due to training length.

11
USAREUR Multichannel Radio Telephone Network is
Born
  • 4th Signal Group tasked to plan network 1951.
  • Largest LL network operated by U.S.Army.
  • Contracts awarded 1952 for German portion
    Lorenz AG (VHF) in South Berlin link
    Siemens-Halski (microwave) else ware. Paid
    for by German WW2 reparation funds.
  • Adaptation of commercial grade equipment.

12
4th Sig. Gp. Command Structure
  • 315th Signal Bn is transferred 20 Oct 1953 to
    manage the new network
  • 315th pulls together various MW units to
    incorporate into network (503 Sig. Co.,550 Sig.
    Co.,22 Sig. Det., 506 Sig. Plt.7793 Sig. rel.
    Pl)
  • 315th supports 7th Army Cmd. Post manuvers
  • 315th Conducts test shots in France for Fr. Link
  • Support HICOG network-State Dept.

13
315 th Signal Bn (Constr)
  • Atlanta, Georgia Reserve unit
  • Activated early 1951, sent to Fort Jackson
  • Gyroed to Worms, West Germany late 1951
  • Strung wire in Worms area
  • Transferred to Karlsruhe Oct 1953 less personnel
    and equipment, renamed MWRR

14
Progress USAREUR Multichannel Network
  • Southern VHF Lorenz Network operational in 1954.
  • Siemens-Halski network near completion 1954.
  • Spring 1954 -French link from German border to
    Maison Fort begun using AN/FRC-23/26.
  • July 1954-french link operational.
  • Spring 1955- Overall network operational 53
    sites. KSL given operational control.

15
102d Signal Bn. (MWRR)
  • Constituted 12/1/44 -Heavy Construction
  • Re-designated light constr. 5/1/45
  • Returned to CONUS 5/2/45
  • De-activated Camp Miles Standish,Mass
  • While inactive designated MWRR 2/1/55
  • Activated 3/18/55 Smiley Barracks, Karlsruhe
  • De-activated Nov 1967
  • Po River Valley, North Appenine Campaigns

16
102d Signal Bn.
  • TDA structure
  • Roughly 700 personnel
  • Five lettered Companies (B HQ in Munich)
  • Subordinate to 4th Signal Group
  • Excluded the Berlin terminal
  • Konigstuhl control center
  • Lt. Col. William Felty first CO, (last CO of
    315)

17
102d Sig. Bn Locations
  • Bn. Hq/Hq. Det- Feudenheim
  • Co. A-Frankfurt (FKT)
  • Co. B-Munich (MNH)
  • Co. C-Kaiserslautern (KLN)
  • Co. D-Vernou, France
  • Co. E-Heidelberg (KSL)
  • Did not operate Berlin Terminal

18
USAREUR MULTICHANNEL RADIO TELEPHONE NETWORK
19
Training
  • US Army Signal School, Fort Monmouth, NJ 26-30
    weeks -MOS 281.1
  • Equip. AN/FRC-23/26, AN/TRC-29, AN/TCC-13
  • In-Theater- Siemens-Halski, Lorenz AG, OJT
  • High School guaranteed school choice prog.
  • Only open to RA (no US) 3 year enlistment
  • Basic Signal Officers Course, Fort Monmouth

20
USAREUR Multichannel Radio Telephone Network
Operational
  • Network operational 1955
  • 53 sites participating
  • 102d Sig. Bn strength approx. 700
  • Dial class A service available in Germany Fr.
  • Contractor support at terminals
  • Largest ARMY Long Line project ever
  • High reliability for vacuum technology era.

21
Portrait of a Typical siteHohenstadt Radio
Station
  • Isolated site (814 meters elevation)
  • Six personnel (E-7, SP1, four SP2s)
  • Two Lorenz systems 48 channels (HPG,SGT, KSL)
  • Emergency 40 KW generator
  • Logistics support from 4th AD Goeppingen
  • Difficult Winter conditions.

22
Physical Security
  • HST to be defended by 6 M-1 carbines and one
    Browning 30 Cal Crew served weapon.
  • Network considered expendable in wartime.
  • Station to be destroyed if threatened.
  • Curious validation/confirmation process.
  • Combat Passes available in site safe.
  • No realistic order of battle available.

23
A Unpleasant Sea Voyage
24
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25
Stuttgart Terminal Site
26
Munich Terminal Site
27
Walt and Dorit 1957
28
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29
Hohenstadt Cook
30
Lorenz VHF Equipment
31
US Forces Civilian License Plates
32
Tour Jacket Front
33
Tour Jacket Back
34
Uniform of the Day
35
Hohenstadt K-9 Security Dog
36
Digging Out
37
Hohenstadt Severe Weather
38
Hohenstadt Snow Storm
39
Snow
40
Military Payment Certificate (MPC)
41
USAREUR Ration Card
42
Troposcatter the beginning of the end
  • Troposcatter emerged from the Signal Corps Labs
    in the early 1960.
  • Did not require line of sight operation.
  • Extended distances and decrease no. of relays
  • No need for manpower intensive relays and
    difficulty to defend those relays.
  • Feasibility demonstrated in Viet Nam using
    commercial equipment ( BACK PORCH).

43
The System is Aging
  • Demands of wideband requirements in the 1960s
    Tax the network.
  • Viet Nam experience shows value of tropo.
  • Planners are delayed due to Viet Nam needs.
  • Signal Corps Labs Develop military hardware.
  • STRATCOM planners evolve to new system.
  • Change over begins.
  • 102d Signal Bn. Will not be the new owner.

44
The End
  • The USAREUR Multichannel Radio Telephone Network
    is decommissioned in Nov. 1967.
  • The 102d Signal Bn is deactivated shortly.
  • The 68th Signal Bn. Takes over all remaining
    sites that remain active using tropo.
  • Additional duties include CEMATARY network.
  • This becomes the forerunner of the ET/A backbone
    (digital).

45
References
  • http//groups.msn.com/TheOne-Oh-Duece
  • http//www.usarmygermany.com/Sont.htm
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