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School-Community Mental Health Partnerships: A Key to Neighborhood Revitalization

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School-Community Mental Health Partnerships: A Key to Neighborhood Revitalization Colleen Cicchetti, Ph.D. Director, Advocacy and Community-Linked Mental Health ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: School-Community Mental Health Partnerships: A Key to Neighborhood Revitalization


1
School-Community Mental Health Partnerships A
Key to Neighborhood Revitalization
  • Colleen Cicchetti, Ph.D.
  • Director, Advocacy and Community-Linked Mental
    Health Services Program
  • Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
    Childrens Memorial Hospital
  • Assistant Professor, Northwestern Feinberg School
    of Medicine
  • Co-Chair School-Age Committee, Illinois
    Childrens Mental Health Partnership

2
Today...
  • Introduction and Overview
  • Why School Mental Health
  • The Three-Tiered Framework
  • Initiatives Contributing to the Three-Tiered
    Framework
  • Why School-Community Partnerships
  • Steps for Creating School-Community Partnerships
  • Assessing School and Community Resources

3
Why School Mental Health?
4
7.5 Million U.S. Children with Unmet MH Need
  • 6 to 7.5 U.S. children received MH services in
    1997
  • Only 21 of children in need received services
    within year
  • Uninsured especially vulnerable
  • Courtesy of Tara Mehta, Ph.D. University of
    Illinois-Chicago

5
Why SMH? The need
  • Around 20 of youth present with an emotional/
    behavioral disorder
  • Around 10 present with significant impairment
  • Only 16 to 33 receive any services
  • Of those youth who receive services, 75 receive
    them in schools
  • 10 of Illinois children suffer from a mental
    illness severe enough to impair daily life, only
    20 receive any help
  • 23 of Illinois and 34 of Chicago adolescents
    exhibit signs of depression

6
Mental Health is a Major Public Health Issue
  • impairment for those directly affected and their
    family members
  • societal/population effects
  • cost to society across multiple domains
  • health care dollars
  • impact upon social structures schools,
    employers, lost income, school drop out and
    mortality

7
What isnt working for Kids, Families and
Communities?
  • Little or no emphasis on prevention or early
    intervention
  • Only a small percentage of children who need
    treatment receive it
  • Little coordination among families, agencies and
    schools
  • Unequal access to services
  • Resources are not maximized
  • Families are not fully engaged as partners

7
8
Why SMH? School setting
  • Schools are the most universal and natural
    setting
  • Over 52 million US youth in 114,000 schools
  • Over 6 million adults work in these schools
  • Students and staff comprise 20 percent of the
    U.S. population
  • --New Freedom Commission, 2007

9
Why Behavioral Health in Schools?
  • Research shows that preventive behavioral health
    improves students positive behavior and reduces
    negative behavior.
  • Effective Social Emotional Learning in schools
    significantly improves
  • Social-emotional skills
  • Attitudes about self and others
  • Social interactions
  • Effective Social Emotional Learning in schools
    significantly decreases
  • Emotional distress
  • Behavioral problems
  • Source Weissberg et. al. (2009) The Impact of
    Enhancing Students' Social and Emotional
    Learning A Meta-analysis of School-based
    Universal Interventions. Available at CASEL.org

10
We know that
  • Healthy students make better learners
  • You cannot teach a child who is not able to focus
    on his/her schoolwork
  • A child who succeeds in school is more likely to
    enjoy lifelong health and mental health

11
Mental Health Issues and Schools
  • Mental Health directly impacts school functioning
    for individual students, classrooms and school
    climate
  • Educators have a direct role in mental health
    delivery-recognizing, referring, making
    accommodations
  • Need new models, partnerships and training to
    facilitate access to services and to overcome
    multiple barriers

12
Mental health and academic outcomes
ADAPTED FROM Geierstanger, S. P., Amaral, G.
(2004). School-Based Health Centers and Academic
Performance What is the Intersection? April 2004
Meeting Proceedings. White Paper. Washington,
D.C. National Assembly on School-Based Health
Care.
13
State of Illinois Services for Youth to promote
Mental Health
  • 2003 White Paper
  • Highlights significant concerns lack of
    coordination
  • Lack of resources in multiple areas of the state

14
Fragmented Policy
Fragmented Practices
After School Programs
Special Education
Clinic
Violence Crime Prevention
Pupil Services
Health Services
SCHOOLS
Juvenile Court Services
Community Based Organizations
Drug Prevention
Social Services
Child Protection Services
Mental Health Services
Drug Services
Courtesy of Lisa Betz, Mental Health and Schools
Coordinator, Illinois Department of Human
Services. Adapted from Health is Academic A
guide to Coordinated School Health Programs
(1998). Edited by E. Marx S.F. Wooley with D.
Northrop. New York Teachers College Press.Lisa B
15
Illinois Childrens Mental Health Partnership
Development of a Public Health Approach to School
Based Mental Health
16
Childrens Mental Health Act of 2003
  • Establishes the Illinois Childrens Mental Health
    Partnership (appointments by the Governor)
  • Develop a Childrens Mental Health Plan.
  • Requires ISBE to develop social/emotional
    learning standards
  • Requires local school districts to develop
    policies on social/emotional development.

17
ICMHP Plan
  • Prevention
  • Work with ISBE to ensure that school districts
    develop policies on social/emotional development.
  • Promote increased collaboration among schools,
    community mental health agencies, health care,
    juvenile justice, substance abuse, developmental
    disability and other agencies to promote optimal
    social/emotional development of children/youth
  • Fund prevention initiatives (consultation)
  • Public Awareness

18
ICMHP Plan
  • Treatment
  • Build and strengthen a quality system of care in
    Illinois to ensure that children have access to
    services that are developmentally, culturally,
    linguistically and clinically appropriate

19
The Three-Tiered Framework
20
Illinois Interconnected Systems Model for School
Based Mental Health
21
An Integrated Framework
Intensive Interventions Individuals or small
groups (2-3) Customized interventions High
intensity
Intensive Interventions Individuals or small
groups (2-3) Customized interventions High
Intensity and longer duration
Strategic Supports Some students (at-risk)
Strategic Supports (small groups) Some students
(at-risk)
Universal School Climate, Student Skills, Adult
Skills, Classroom Management All settings, all
students Preventive, proactive
Universal Instruction All students Preventive,
proactive
22
Three-Tier Model for Behavioral Health
  • Tier I strategies necessary for effective
    learning climate and school culture impacts all
    students and/or adults in building
  • Tier II strategies necessary for the 10-15
    students whose social, emotional or behavioral
    problems are a barrier to their learning or the
    learning of their peers short term interventions
    designed to build skills necessary to effectively
    participate in learning environment
  • Tier III strategies necessary for the 1-5 of
    students with intensive, ongoing needs who may be
    involved in multiple service systems may be
    ongoing interventions to build skills necessary
    to effectively participate in learning environment

23
Overview Initiatives Contributing to the
Framework
  • Illinois Childrens Mental Health Partnership
    (ICMHP)
  • Social and Emotional Learning (SEL)
  • Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports
    (PBIS)
  • RtI (Response to Intervention)
  • Chicago Public Schools-Positive Behavioral
    Supports (PBSS-2011)

24
Social and Emotional Learning Universal
Foundation for School Success
25
Mental Health Through Social and Emotional
Learning (SEL)
  • Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) is the
    process of acquiring skills to recognize and
    manage emotions, develop caring and concern for
    others, establish positive relationships, make
    responsible decisions, and handle challenging
    decisions effectively.
  • - CASEL (2005), Safe and Sound, IL Edition

26
Benefits of Social and Emotional Learning
  • Good Science Links SEL to the Following Student
    Gains
  • increase in social-emotional skills
  • Improved attitudes about self, others, and school
  • increase in positive classroom behavior
  • 11 percentile-point gain on standardized
    achievement tests
  • And Reduced Risks for Failure
  • reduction in conduct problems
  • reduction in aggressive behavior
  • reduction in Emotional distress

Source Durlak, J.A., Weissberg, R.P., Dymnicki,
A.B., Taylor, R.D., Schellinger, K. (in press).
The Impact of Enhancing Students Social and
Emotional Learning A Meta-Analysis of
School-Based Universal Interventions. Child
Development.
27
What are the Core SEL Competencies?
Recognizing ones emotions and values as well as
ones strengths and limitations
Managing emotions and behaviors to achieve ones
goals
Making ethical, constructive choices
about personal and social behavior
Forming positive relationships, working in teams,
and dealing effectively with conflict
Showing understanding and empathy for others
Source Collaborative for Academic, Social, and
Emotional Learning
28
How Do Students Acquire SEL Skills?
  • Explicit interactive instruction
  • Practice and feedback
  • Observation of modeling by adults and peers
  • Reflection on ones experiences
  • Application and generalization within the school

29
How Can The Learning Environment Support SEL?
  • Schools and classrooms that are
  • Safe
  • Caring
  • Highly participatory
  • Well managed
  • Engaging
  • High in behavioral and academic expectations

30
Illinois Social and Emotional Learning Goals
Self- Awareness Social Awareness Responsible Decision-making
Self-Management Relationship Skills Responsible Decision-making
Goal 31 Develop self-awareness and self-management skills to achieve school and life success. Goal 32 Use social awareness and interpersonal skills to establish and maintain positive relationships. Goal 33 Demonstrate decision-making skills and responsible behaviors in personal, school and community contexts.
Graphic University of Illinois Extension
31
Response to Interventions Illinois Response to
a Federal Mandate
32
Core Features of a Response to Intervention (RtI)
Approach
  • Investment in prevention
  • Universal Screening
  • Early intervention for students not at
    benchmark
  • Multi-tiered, prevention-based intervention
    approach
  • Progress monitoring
  • Use of problem-solving process at all 3-tiers
  • Active use of data for decision-making at all
    3-tiers
  • Research-based practices expected at all 3-tiers
  • Individualized interventions commensurate with
    assessed level of need

33
The Illinois School Model
Illinois PBIS Network, Revised May 2008. Adapted
from "What is school-wide PBS?", OSEP Technical
Assistance on Positive Behavioral Interventions
Supports. 
34
RtI
OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions
and Supports
35
CHICAGO
36
Social-Emotional Policy, Chicago Public Schools,
2004
  • Every school must provide...
  • School-wide policies
  • Classroom instruction
  • Teacher training
  • Parent education
  • Community partnerships
  • Screening, early intervention
  • Clinical referral

37
(No Transcript)
38
Trauma and Exposure to Violence Research Findings
  • Decreased IQ and reading ability
  • (Delaney-Black et al., 2003)
  • Lower grade-point average (Hurt et al., 2001)
  • More days of school absence (Hurt et al., 2001)
  • Decreased rates of high school graduation
  • (Grogger, 1997)
  • Increased expulsions and suspensions (LAUSD
    Survey)

39
Impact of Neighborhood Violence on Academic
Performance
  • Results demonstrated a statistically significant
    decrease in students scores during the week
    following a homicide that occurred on their block
    (regardless of connection to the victim)
  • Sharkey,P. May 2010 www.pnas.org Project on
    Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
    (PHDCN) http//www.icpsr.umich.edu/PHDCN

40
Chicago Public Schools
  • Multiple efforts to improve school and student
    success addressing range of issues that impact
    our students
  • Office of Special Education and Supports
  • Safety and Security Culture of Calm
  • District Initiatives Community Schools
  • Office of School Improvement Turn-Around and
    Transformation Schools
  • Pathways to College Success

41
Why School-Community Partnerships?
42
Schools, Mental Health and Families
  • Shared values and beliefs
  • Improved academic outcomes
  • Improved behavioral outcomes
  • Development of life skills
  • Enhanced social and emotional functioning
  • All partners bring strengths
  • All face difficult challenges

42
43
Education and Mental Health A Shared Agenda
  • All children have equal opportunity to develop to
    their fullest cognitive, social and emotional
    capacities
  • The needs of those with psychosocial problems are
    effectively and efficiently addressed
  • Common conceptual framework
  • Universal (positive development, prevention)
  • Targeted-early identification
  • Intensive interventions

43
44
Desired Outcomes
  • Families
  • Greater voice in schools and mental health
    services and programs
  • Increased family support from peers
  • Increased access and satisfaction with services
    increased choice
  • Increased access to information

45
Desired Outcomes
  • Systems
  • Safe effective schools
  • Better trained workforce
  • Enhanced retention and job satisfaction
  • Efficient use of resources
  • Communities
  • Improved quality of life
  • Increased citizen contribution
  • Enhanced sense of efficacy
  • Decrease stigma
  • Decrease violence

46
Why Partnerships?
  • Commonly shared values and goals
  • Easier to identify available community resources
    and gaps in services
  • Easier to plan and create the best
    continuum/array of community services
  • Decrease duplication of services, leaving dollars
    for other identified needs
  • Increase the ability to access funding

47
Defining Partnership
  • A collaboration between school and community
    mental health organization(s) that mutually agree
    to address the mental health needs of students
    through provision of a range of services and
    supports that lead to enhanced academic and
    social/emotional outcomes

48
Key Idea
  • Through collaboration, goals can be attained that
    cannot be reached through individual efforts
    alone
  • Student academic and social/emotional outcomes
  • Families involved
  • Systems changed
  • Communities strengthened

49
Mental Health and Schools Challenges
  • Separate cultures, language, mandates
  • Legal issues
  • Funding streams re-enforce silos
  • Anxiety
  • Failed history
  • Control and power issues

50
GUIDELINES FOR SCHOOL-COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS
51
PURPOSE
  • Integrate services offered in the community and
    school to better meet the social and emotional
    needs of children and families.

52
Building A School-Community Partnership
  • The Five Step Process
  • Create Readiness
  • Establish Leadership
  • Develop Collaborative Stakeholder Group
  • Implement and Oversee
  • Nurture Collaboration

53
STEP ONE CREATE READINESS
  • Document need/rationale for the partnership
  • Develop a clear vision to encourage commitment
  • Establish buy-in from principal and
    superintendent
  • Identify potential community partners
  • Clearly outline and promote benefits using common
    language
  • Initiate the idea of partnership through
    networking
  • Involve all stakeholders in decision-making
    process from first conversations

54
STEP TWO DEVELOP STAKEHOLDER GROUP
  • Build and expand on current groups when possible
  • Composition should be diverse and reflect the
    community that is being served
  • Youth and families should be included
  • Determine the scope of the collaborative group
  • Individuals should be chosen based on their
    desire to contribute to a shared vision and
    commitment to collaboration

55
STEP THREE ESTABLISH LEADERSHIP
  • Decision-maker or gatekeeper
  • Convener
  • Facilitator
  • Site administrative leader
  • Key opinion leader

56
STEP FOUR IMPLEMENT AND OVERSEE
  • Develop clear mission
  • Make decisions about priorities and resource
    allocation
  • Develop policies and procedures regarding student
    and family confidentiality
  • Coordinate and steer process
  • Explore financial resources consider all
    potential sources of funding

57
STEP FIVE NURTURE COLLABORATION
  • Provide continuous, personalized guidance and
    support to key staff
  • Revisit strategic plan and revise as necessary
  • Provide ongoing staff development, continuing
    education, and cross-training for stakeholders
  • Connect partnership to current initiatives
  • Remain active in community and political process
  • Address personnel turnover quickly
  • Engage in advocacy and public relations efforts

58
WHY YOU NEED A WORKING AGREEMENT
  • Helps when leadership changes
  • Orients new members
  • Makes expectations clear
  • Keeps the group focused on goals
  • Facilitates evaluation
  • Aids in securing financing

59
Factors leading to success
  • Positive history of collaboration
  • Partners are viewed positively by community
  • Mutual respect and trust
  • Partnership benefits all members
  • Clear, jointly owned processes and outcomes
  • Open communication
  • Sufficient resources
  • Addresses cultural differences successfully
  • Sustainability plan

60
DESIRED OUTCOMES/BENEFITS
  • Child
  • Family
  • School
  • Providers
  • Community

61
Documenting Success
  • Move towards shared governance
  • Change teams/change process established
  • New policies developed
  • Shared mechanisms to manage resources
  • Ready to increase capacity
  • Shared accountability
  • Students mental health needs are addressed
  • All partners responsible for student mental
    health
  • All partners responsible for student educational
    outcomes

62
Mapping School and Community Resources
63
Resource Mapping
  • Definition A representative group of informed
    stakeholder is asked to undertake the process of
    identifying
  • what currently is available to achieve goals and
    address problems
  • what else is needed to achieve goals and address
    problems
  • Mapping is a first step toward enhancing
    understanding
  • Helps clarify gaps and recommend priorities

64
What should you map?
  • Stakeholders
  • Programs and Services
  • Activities/Initiatives
  • Space
  • Equipment
  • Funding sources
  • Social capital

65
Community Resources
  • Juvenile Justice
  • Child welfare
  • Mental Health
  • Substance Abuse
  • Family Advocacy and Support
  • Domestic Violence
  • Health Centers (school-based and community)
  • Immigrant and Refugee Services
  • Homeless Shelters
  • Teen Parenting
  • Tutoring
  • Mentoring

66
Key School Staff
  • School Administrator Principal, Assistant
    Principal
  • School Psychologist
  • School Social Worker
  • School Nurse
  • Case Manager
  • School Counselor
  • Who else?

67
Mapping School Initiatives/Models
  • Examples
  • District-Specific (e.g., Culture of Calm)
  • Community Schools
  • Restorative Justice
  • Safe Schools, Healthy Students
  • PBIS
  • SEL
  • Well managed classroom

68
Resources for School-Community Collaboration
69
School-Community Partnership Resources
  • Illinois Childrens Mental Health Partnership
    (ICMHP) School-Community Collaboration Guidelines
  • http//www.icmhp.org

70
Community Resource Mapping Resources
  • UCLA School Mental Health Project Resource
    Mapping and Management to Address Barriers to
    Learning An Intervention for Systemic Change
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/resourcemappin
    g/resourcemappingandmanagement.pdf
  • Institute for Educational Leadership Building
    Sustainability in Demonstration Projects for
    Children, Youth, and Families
  • http//www.ojjdp.gov/resources/files/toolkit2fina
    l.pdf

71
Working with School Staff Trauma Tools
  • The National Child Traumatic Stress Network
    (NCTSN) handouts- www.nctsnet.org
  • CBITS - www.cbitsprogram.org
  • Trauma-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    (TF-CBT) Training - www.musc.edu/cvc
  • Journal Article Sharkey, P The acute effect of
    local homicides on childrens cognitive
    performance. Proceedings of the National Academy
    of Sciences of the United States of America,
    10711733-11738, 2010. Available electronically
    at www.pnas.org

72
Working with School Staff SEL, Aggression and
Violence Prevention
  • Collaborative for Academic Social and Emotional
    Learning (CASEL) www.casel.org
  • Talking to Children About Violence Tips for
    Parents and Teachers
  • http//www.nasponline.org/resources/handouts/talk
    ingviolence.pdf
  • Dealing with the Angry Child
  • Illinois Center for Violence Prevention
    www.icvp.org

73
Working with School Staff General Tools and
Resources
  • Center for School Mental Health
  • http//www.schoolmentalhealth.org/Resources/Educ/
    ResEdu.html
  • National Association for School Psychologists
  • http//www.nasponline.org/educators/index.aspx
  • UCLA School Mental Health Project
  • http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/enhancingschoo
    lstaff.pdf

74
Building School-Community Partnerships Can Feel
Like This
75
Common State for Services for Children and Youth
in Communities
75
76
GOAL COORDINATED SERVICES TO SUPPORT SUCCESS
76
77
But Your Hard Work Will Pay Off!
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