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Title: Appendix Roadmaps Proposed by WGs and Points to be in Minds


1
Appendix Roadmaps Proposed by WGs and Points to
be in Minds
2
Manufacturing
1
3
Low-Carbon Manufacturing Sector Roadmap (1)
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2015
2030
2005
Objectives
?Becoming a "smart" low-carbon manufacturing
country
Energy consumption -30 to -40 from current
level
Continuous efforts to make each manufacturing
process a low-carbon one
Roadmap
Fostering and creating personnel and places for
low-carbon technology, infrastructure and
business development
Incentives for low-carbon manufacturing technology
Gathering wisdom for promotion of low-carbon RD
?Fostering personnel who contribute to low-carbon
technology development
Improving school education/on-the-job training to
foster technicians
Establishing educational institutes for
low-carbon technology researchers/technicians
Fostering researchers/technicians who support
low-carbon manufacturing and taking over existing
skills/technologies
Accepting low-carbon technology
researchers/technicians/foreign students (Carbon
Passport, etc.)
Giving long-term continuous support for
fundamental RD (focusing on materials and
equipment)
?Fostering personnel who contribute to low-carbon
RD
2
Promoting collaborative development w.
researchers and businesses nationally/internationa
lly
Field test investing in field tests
Special low-carbon districts Designating
prospective cities
Active national/international promotion
Regularly hosting international conferences and
exhibitions
Encouraging Japanese businesses to invest in Japan
Creating an environment that is attractive to
foreign businesses
Stimulating the consumption of low-carbon products
?Fostering low-carbon Japanese lifestyles and
values
Visualizing CO2 emissions in daily life, such as
CO2 emissions for each product Popularizing
"Environmental Concierges"
Accumulating wisdom and improving services, such
as the dispatch of analysts
Fostering low-carbon
Japanese lifestyles and values
Gaining understanding of low-carbon society by
improving education and awareness (Such as
"Challenge 25")
Promoting image-building strategies of
low-carbon, cool Japan (products, usage and
lifestyle)
The Carbon Tax
?Improving competitiveness of low-carbon products
Green procurement by the government
Technology selection Program design
Credits for carbon-offsets and purchase of
low-carbon products (a system to circulate money
within the country)
Developing initial demand and a popularization
strategy that takes advantage of market pull
Introducing bi-/ multi-lateral government approval
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening aforementioned measures/programs
Program to develop measures
Program to promote measures
4
Low-Carbon Manufacturing Sector Roadmap (2)
2050
2010
2020
1990
2012
2015
2030
2005
Objectives
?Becoming a "smart" low-carbon manufacturing
country
Energy consumption -30 to-40 from current level
Continuous efforts to make each manufacturing
process a low-carbon one
Popularizing low-carbon business management and
financing
Improving reliability and comparability of
environmental reports
?Promoting consideration of climate change in
financing/investing
Improving systems for calculating, reporting and
publishing greenhouse gas emissions (incl.
reports on emission/activity by supply chain)
Reviewing information provision items and
calculation methods
Integration of non-financial reports and
financial reports (accountability system that
measures the environmental management of a
company)
Proper accounting of carbon debt
Educational program for persons in charge of
environmental financing
Roadmap
Supporting investment in installations that
reduce environmental load (incl. through
corporate tax reductions, elastic depreciation,
and subsidies for interest/leasing fees)
? Support through the corporate taxation system
and political finance
Information provision on guidelines for
low-carbon financing of public funds, incl.
pensions
Fund management based on long-term assessment
Development of fund management evaluation
3
Continuing the top-runner system
Promoting early achievement of targets by
combination of min. criteria/recommended criteria
and "sunset system"
?Supporting the development and market
penetration of low-carbon products/business
Supporting systems for low-carbon venture
businesses and business matching
Recognizing excellent products and businesses
Establishing/awarding economic incentives for
excellent products/businesses
Thorough non-fluorocarbon promotion (promoting
the collection of fluorocarbon refrigerants,
implementing fluorocarbon mitigation measures,
accelerating market penetration of
non-fluorocarbon products)
Thorough green procurement by government
System design/technology selection
RD, production control, quality management,
inventory cycle management, ICT use-promotion for
equipment and social systems
? Sharing wisdom for reducing greenhouse gas
emissions
Supporting CO2 reduction by using emissions
reduction guidelines and introducing credits for
the purchase of low-carbon products
Designing system for diagnosis technicians
Fostering personnel for environmental management
diagnosis (advisors)
Operating a system for the dispatch of
environmental management diagnostic technicians
(advisors)
Domestic CO2 emissions trading by cap-and-trade
?Evaluating carbon reductions
System design/technology selection
Introducing credits for carbon-offset and
purchase of low-carbon products (a system to
circulate funds within the country)
International strategic development of low-carbon
technology
?Strategic involvement in establishing
international standards/rules
Establishing international negotiation
organizations/fostering full-time specialists
Continuous diplomatic efforts to introduce fair
international standards/rules
Mutual accreditation of environmental management
systems for small and mid-sized businesses
?Supporting international penetration of Japan's
technology
Supporting green ODA and the penetration of
low-carbon Japanese technology
Selecting prospective technology
Fostering specialists in management technology,
implementing measures to retain personnel w.
technological skills, talent and knowledge,
implementing measures to maintain technological
skills and provide financial support to
establish overseas business
Making the most of Japanese technology and
expertise for emissions reduction/international
contribution by widespread use of
non-fluorocarbon products
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening aforementioned measures/programs
Program to develop measures
Program to promote measures
5
Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap
for the Manufacturing Sector
Manufacturing WG
  • In implementing the roadmap proposed here, it is
    important to fully verify the effectiveness and
    feasibility of individual policies. In addition,
    it is vital to design a roadmap that
    sufficiently considers the conditions of each
    industry and the state of global competition.
  • To realize a smart low-carbon manufacturing
    nation, continuous efforts and corporation are
    required not only on the part of the central
    government but also on the part of private firms,
    consumers and local governments. This will be a
    great challenge.
  • In consideration of Japans financial situation,
    it should be noted that governmental subsidies
    and tax breaks will be limited. Sound business
    management is essential for the growth of the
    manufacturing sector, and it is important to
    build a system that encourages self-sustaining
    growth by undertaking systemic reforms.
  • Study for this sector has been conducted to find
    ways to achieve growth in a low-carbon society
    strictly from the viewpoint of manufacturing,
    and it should be noted that implementation of
    the proposed roadmap for the manufacturing sector
    alone cannot solve all of Japans economic issues
    (employment, economic growth, etc.). The
    countrys growth strategy needs to be studied
    comprehensively, together with that of the
    service industry, which accounts for 70 of
    employment.
  • In addition, the roadmap has been studied in view
    of the manufacturing sectors current conditions,
    and any changes in this sectors conditions are
    likely to also change the strategy to be taken.
    It is desirable to regularly assess and review
    progress while closely observing global trends.

4
6
Housing/Buildings
5
7
Daily Life (Housing/Buildings) - Roadmap
(Housing/Residential Sector)
6
8
Daily Life (Housing/Buildings) - Roadmap
(Building/Commercial Sector)
7
9
Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures
Housing/Buildings WG 1/3
1.Need for early action
a Houses and buildings are used for many years. Various measures and policies need to be enforced as soon as possible in order to achieve long-term targets. b For the realization of zero-emission houses and buildings, it is important to strongly promote houses and buildings that have high environmental performance and are regarded as complying with recommended standards.
2.Amount of measures introduced, and intensity of policy enforcement
a An image has been made of the extent and degree of measures and the intensity of policy enforcement, and this image has been used to specify the scale of tasks and the need for action towards achieving the targets. b Each point needs further review.
3.Arrangement of a system for the stable supply of energy-saving equipment and machinery
a To achieve mid-term targets, energy-saving equipment and machinery need to achieve rapid diffusion. It is important to pay attention to the establishment of various systems that will ensure a stable supply of energy-saving equipment and machinery.
4.Importance of altering lifestyles
a Measures for the housing and building sector need to be taken in cooperation with the public. b It is important to have the viewpoint that each individual should do what he or she can do in a comfortable manner thus, incentives need to be presented to encourage the public to shift to low-carbon lifestyles by starting their efforts on something easy.
5.Problems with systems, etc.
a There are systems that could be obstacles in promoting a low-carbon society. Some of these systems need to be reviewed to promote such a society while paying attention to the balance between safety, health and the like. b The housing and building sector is short of statistical data on its actual status. Systematic data compilation is required, as is effective use of existing information.
8
10
Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures (Issues
involved in formulating systems)
Housing/Buildings WG 2/3
System and Framework Outline
1.Housing Sector
(1) Electricity contracts for the use of solar power A Electricity selling price for housing complex set at the same level as individual housing (eliminating the situation where a housing complex is regarded as subject to an electricity contract for industrial use) B Terms for the sale of electricity by tenants of rental housing (for example, having the terms of contract made at the time of installation of solar power systems continue to be valid after the change of tenants)
(2) Inadequate information disclosure and statistical information use A Use of information from smart meters for public purposes (establishing benchmark values)
(3) Regulations on the drainage of household wastewater AUse of storm sewers for draining water from latent-heat-recovery water heaters B Review of standards based on decisions made by the managers of public sewerage systems
2.Building Sector
(1) Standards for the indoor environment of buildings A Easing of lighting standards whose minimum value is relatively high compared to Western countries B Examining indoor air standards such as humidity and CO2 levels (considering the balance between maintaining adequate indoor environment and energy saving)
(2) Inadequate information disclosure and statistical information use A Use of information from smart meters for public purposes B Use of data reported in accordance with Act on the Rational Use of Energy for public purposes (establishing benchmark values)
(3) Issues related to achieving a balance between energy savings and indoor environmental standards including those in the Act on Maintenance of Sanitation in Buildings A Responses such as making adjustments in accordance with actual usage in the case of rooms with few people present, since the ventilation turnover may be too high
(4) Shared incentives for energy cost reduction A Owner and tenants jointly bearing the cost of energy consumed beyond a certain level
3.Common Problem
(1) Limited availability of various new housing construction subsidies for the purpose of alleviating environmental burdens A Various subsidies are available for new construction, but in the case of subsidies that are not aimed at making houses or buildings eco-friendly, they may be difficult to use for new construction that includes eco-equipment. B Review of all subsidies to include eco-friendly design as one of the application purposes
9
11
Points to Keep in Mind in Taking Measures (Re
Non-energy Benefits)
  1. Not only can residents benefit from reductions in
    electricity and heating (EBs), but they can also
    enjoy NEBs.
  2. Stakeholders other than residents (i.e.,
    residential suppliers, governments) enjoy NEBs.

Housing/Buildings WG 3/3
Example of EB and NEB by insulation improvement.
EB/NEB Stakeholder Benefit by energy saving (EB energy benefit) Other benefits (NEB non-energy benefit)
EB/NEB Stakeholder ( benefit - loss or cost increase) ( benefit - loss or cost increase)
1. Residents Electricity/heating cost reduction Health Comfort Soundproofing Safety Maintenance cost reduction Intelligent production - Housing/renovation cost increase
2. Housing suppliers - Increase in energy needed for construction Value added to residence/building CSR (social contribution) - Construction cost increase
3. Government/ society Decreases in fossil fuel imports CO2 emissions reductions Contribution to environmental policy promotion Residents awareness of environmental policy Industrial revitalization Job increase Ripple effects (economic)
10
Source Shuzo Murakami, Recommendation of
Healthy, Energy-Saving Housing - Economic
Benefits from Thermal Environment Realized by
Improved Insulation, Association for Assembly
Persons for Promoting Healthy Energy-Saving
Housing
12
Automobile / Transportation
11
13
Automobile Sector - Roadmap
2015
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2030
Objectives
Improving fuel economy of cars by 65 (sales
of next-generation vehicles 250 mil. cars)
Making next-generation vehicles available in
any type (most new cars are next-generation
vehicles).
Measures for each vehicle (dissemination of
next-generation vehicles, fuel economy
improvements to conventional vehicles)
Roadmap
?Common programs
?Operation of auto-related taxation scheme
A fine-tuned system that provides tax incentives
according to the car's environmental load
2015 Early achievement of fuel economy standards
?Fuel economy standards
2020 Establishment of fuel economy standards
2020 Early achievement of fuel economy standards
Development of a general-purpose kinetic energy
recovery system for energy regeneration and
exhaust heat energy use
?Supporting cross-sectoral technology development
Supporting development of high-performance
cells/next-generation cells
?Low-carbon automobiles
Supporting purchases
Accelerated market diffusion
?Market penetration of hybrid vehicles, electric
vehicles
Establishment of related business models for
widespread secondary use of batteries, battery
replacement-type EV taxis, etc.
Improving the power supply network
Market introduction of FCV
Technological development, education, field
testing, field infrastructure testing
Supporting leasing and purchasing
Accelerated market diffusion
?Development and market penetration of fuel cell
vehicles
Developing hydrogen stations
CO2 budget and economic evaluation
?Low-carbon mid-size/large automobiles
12
Popularization of large hybrid trucks
?Market penetration of green diesel vehicles
Subsidy for introducing a business vehicle
? NGV/HV/FCV development and popularization for
mid-size/large vehicles
Developing mid-distance vehicles
Supporting purchases of urban vehicles
?Developing low-carbon special vehicles
Accelerated market diffusion
Supporting purchases
?Market penetration of hybrid off-road vehicles
Low-interest loans
Low-carbon fuels
Developing production technology
?Increasing the share of biofuel use
?Promoting the use of natural gas
Increasing NGV fuel stations
Low-carbon use of vehicles (eco-driving, car
sharing)
?Changing use awareness
Organizing educational activities on low-carbon
driving (fostering eco-driving habits and an
awareness of avoiding unnecessary vehicle use)
Making devices w. eco-driving mode and for
idling reduction as standard features
Supporting the introduction of eco-driving
support devices
?Promoting eco-driving
Introducing eco-driving benchmarking
Providing incentives for eco-driving
Establishing business models that motivate
eco-driving
Supporting pervasion of EV car sharing
?Promoting car sharing
Furthering corporation w. public facilities and
public transportation systems
Traffic flow measures
(Examined by the Local Development WG)
FY 2011 Using funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Program to prepare measures
Program to promote measures
14
Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for
the Automobile Sector
Automobile WG 1/3
  • International competition over next-generation
    vehicles is intensifying, and since Japan leads
    the world in hybrid cars, electric cars and other
    next-generation vehicles, it is important to
    provide various support policies in order to
    maintain the countrys competitiveness in the
    development and distribution of such vehicles.
  • International markets are diversifying thus,
    policies need to be promoted not only for
    next-generation vehicles but also for fuel
    efficiency improvement of conventional cars from
    the viewpoint of securing competitiveness.
  • Policies for both the supply side (support for
    RD, fuel efficiency regulations, etc.) and the
    demand side (subsidies, tax systems,
    dissemination and public awareness raising, etc.)
    are to be enforced comprehensively, aiming at a
    low-carbon automobile sector.
  • To achieve introduction targets under the
    scenarios proposed in this report (15-25
    reduction), there are issues to be solved,
    including how to boost consumer willingness to
    buy automobiles with excellent environmental
    performance, such as next-generation vehicles,
    how to ease or eliminate the risk involved in
    hefty investment in the development and
    production of next-generation vehicles, etc., and
    how to facilitate the practical use of
    technologies undergoing development. It should be
    noted that the resolution of the above issues is
    the prerequisite for achieving the targets.

13
15
Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap for
the Automobile Sector
Housing/Buildings WG 2/3
  • For buses and trucks, exhaust gas regulations
    with a challenging NOx reduction target are
    scheduled to be applied by the end of 2016 thus,
    the task of improving fuel efficiency while
    meeting the regulations needs to be fulfilled.
  • The diffusion of next-generation vehicles and the
    fuel efficiency improvement of conventional
    vehicles are an important combination of measures
    for each car. It is important that both measures
    be combined in accordance with each
    manufacturers fuel efficiency improvement
    strategy.
  • In addition to the improvement of each cars fuel
    efficiency, it is important to comprehensively
    promote measures to alter driving behavior, such
    as those that promote eco-driving and those
    related to traffic flow, while actively using
    advanced ITS technology to facilitate the fuel
    efficiency improvement of actual driving.
  • In urban areas, measures such as car sharing that
    reduce car use are also effective. For these to
    be effective, they should be promoted along with
    urban planning policies. On the other hand, in
    rural areas, based on the assumption that cars
    are frequently used, it is important to
    facilitate low-carbon car use by taking measures
    that motivate drivers to engage in eco-driving.
  • For the diffusion of next-generation vehicles
    such as electric cars that require expensive,
    high-performance batteries, it is important to
    develop cars that put less load on the battery
    and to facilitate the promotion of battery
    performance improvement and cost reduction by
    establishing and developing business models
    related to battery utilization, such as secondary
    use and leasing of batteries or taxis with
    replaceable batteries.
  • Equally important measures for CO2 reduction in
    the automobile sector are those related to
    traffic flow and logistics, such as the
    improvement of freight transportation efficiency,
    which are subject to study in the Local
    Development WG, and it is vital for the whole
    automobile sector to vigorously take action by
    combining these measures with others mentioned
    before.

14
16
Railway, Ship, Air Transportation Sector - Roadmap
2015
2020
2050
2012
2030
2010
1990
Launching zero-emission ships
Objectives
Developing energy-saving rail carriages and
high-fuel-efficiency ships/airplanes, and
replacing conventional rail carriages, ships and
airplanes.
Share of airplane biofuel use 100
Low-carbon railway sector
Roadmap
?Measures taken by power suppliers
(Examined by the Energy Supply WG)
(Examined by the Local Development WG)
Low-carbon ship transport sector
Establishing fuel economy standards
15
Supporting energy-saving operation
practices of ships (incl. crew education,
introduction of operation management systems,
coordination w. shippers and port businesses)
?Improving the efficiency of operation systems
Continuous support of RD for alternative energy
use technology
?Promoting modal shift
(Examined by the Local Development WG)
Low-carbon air transport sector
? Establishing fuel economy standards
Standardization of jet fuel (Mixing rate of
biofuel 100)
Supporting practices of energy saving operation
by optimizing flying routes
?Improving the efficiency of operation systems
?Development and dissemination of ground power
units
Accelerating the introduction to major airports
FY 2011 Using funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Program to prepare measures
Program to promote measures
17
Points to Keep in Mind in Designing a Roadmap
for the Railway, Seaway and Airway Sectors
Automobile WG 3/3
  • The assessment and review in this report were
    conducted to identify improvement technologies
    that are expected to produce promising outcomes
    in each sector, and the improvement rates of
    energy consumption per unit that are established
    are those that are considered attainable by
    combining the above technologies. The
    introduction rates of energy-saving trains, ships
    and aircraft are estimated based on certain
    assumptions.
  • To achieve each sectors introduction targets for
    energy-saving trains, ships and aircraft under
    the scenarios proposed in this report (15-25
    reduction), the government needs to provide
    policy support to businesses that are working
    toward introducing energy-saving trains, ships
    and aircraft. Especially in the seaway sector,
    since shipbuilding has been at a standstill,
    resulting in the rapid aging of existing ships,
    the enforcement of additional policies is
    required to promote the construction of
    energy-saving ships as alternatives to old
    ships.
  • As for the railway sector, since the
    electrification of trains is making great
    headway, the realization of low-carbon energy
    (electricity) supply on the supply side will be
    effective as well.

16
18
Local Development ltAll Regionsgt
17
19
Realizing Compact Cities based on Local
Development and Public Transportation Systems -
Roadmap
1990
2010
2020
2050
2012
2015
2030
0
30 to 40 reduction
10 reduction
Passenger vehicle mileage (person km/year vs.
2005)
Objectives
Roadmap
Strengthening the ability to implement plans
through administrative decentralization
Securing funds by income from the Carbon Tax, etc.
Improving local global warming action plans
(every municipality develops its own plan)
?Supporting program planning by municipalities,
and providing incentives
By regional characteristic Setting benchmarks
Calculating and announcing emissions by
municipality (already done in some municipalities)
Reviewing and strengthening of local global
warming action plans
?National propagation of best practices
developed under the "special zones" system
Reviewing the system by residents'
participation visualization for smaller unit
than "district
Modifying the system, reforming regulations
Implementing the regional model project
National propagation of best practices
Promoting cooperation between the municipality's
environmental and urban planning sections, and
fostering personnel
?Strengthening cooperation with community
development
Strengthening ties with urban planning, assisting
in forming consensus, incorporating low-carbon
policy into objectives of every local development
plan
National propagation of best practices
Supporting local liaison councils
?Making the most of local talent
Fostering low-carbon plan practitioners rooted in
the local community
Establishing "residents' participation" type
plans that link administration and businesses
(incl. financial support)
Community development to create a community that
is accessible to pedestrians and cyclists
Relocating public facilities to civic cores
? Situating public and private facilities where
many people gather within a walkable distance
Establishing a public facility utilization plan
18
Enforcing restrictions on establishing businesses
on arterial roads in suburbs, and providing
incentives for locating in civic cores.
Networking of pedestrian walkways and cycling
roads, and drafting a facility plan
Cycling lanes 50 thou. km
? Improving the pedestrian/cycling environment
Developing pedestrian/cycling spaces

Promoting relocation of residents in a station
influenced sphere
Setting population density targets
Reviewing zoning of urbanization promotion areas
Population density in station influenced
sphere 80 people/ha
? Increasing population density in urban areas
DID pop. density 40 to 60 people/ha
Supporting and promoting businesses and
residential relocation
(especially for local core cities)
? Utilizing low-density areas and shrinking
urbanization promotion areas
DID pop. density 60 to 80 people/ha
Visualization of the advantages of being a
compact city
Introducing sunlight and solar heat utilization
by combining open lots and relocation
Modal share of public transportation double
that of today
Active use of LRT, BRT, etc.
(Trip share base in a local city sphere)
Extension of LRT/BRT 1,500 km
Early construction on extensions of existing
routes/planned routes, introduction of BRT
Establishing an extension plan
?Development of LRT, BRT
Examination of development/operation systems
Financing the construction of new routes
?Promoting the use and efficiency improvement of
existing public transport systems
Public cost bearing of operation expenses for
increasing services, reducing fares
(incl. cities that already have systems)
Replacing high-efficiency rail carriages,
supporting financing for construction of new
stations
?Improving transit and access at suburban stations
Increasing ridership by improving the transit
system at suburban stations, improving PR/CR
facilities, introducing a transit discount system
Establishing transit/access in and around stations
Promoting the use of public transportation
systems by residents' participation
Mobility management to encourage the
use of public transportation
Establishing a mobility management system
? Construction of public transportation systems
from the users' perspective
Supporting activities of community develop- ment
association of transportation service Providers
(public/private) and residents
Introducing ridership promotion measures incl.
public transport eco-points, road toll systems
incorporating model shift effect, residence
funding
Comprehensive pricing in view of environment,
incl. EV, priority lanes, LRT and greening
Establishing a road space sharing plan
Restricting vehicle access to city centers
Development of fringe parking
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Program to prepare measures
Program to promote measures
20
Local Development/ Development of Low-Carbon
District by Utilizing Local Resources - Roadmap
2050
2010
2020
1990
2012
2015
2030
Rate of municipalities that have drafted a
natural capital/local resource map (all
municipalities) Area where measures are taken
based on the low-carbon district plan
100
50
Target
200 thou. ha
40 thou. ha
20 thou. ha
Roadmap
Strengthening the ability to implement plans
through administrative decentralization
?Supporting program planning by municipalities,
and providing incentives
Securing funds by income from the Carbon Tax, etc.
Improving local global warming action plans
(every municipality develops its own plan)
?Nationally propagating the best practices
developed under the "special zones" system
Promoting cooperation between the municipality's
environmental and urban planning sections, and
fostering personnel
?Strengthening cooperation with local
development
Strengthening ties with urban planning, assisting
in forming consensus, incorporating low-carbon
policy into objectives of every local development
plan
?Making the most of local talent
Promoting energy resources in the district
(Cooperation w. agricultural and mountain
villages incl. carbon offset, green electricity )
Promoting the establishment of
subordinate plans suited to the features of the
region, i.e., urban area, district/area,
agricultural and mountain village
?Developing a low-carbon district that makes the
most of local resources
Creating a natural capital/local resource demand
map
Regular review of maps/plans in response to the
social situation and technology development
Drafting a low-carbon district plan
(incl. a space reorganization plan in a shrinking
district)
Understating the effect of a model project for a
low-carbon district development plan
19
Mandatory introduction
Strengthening incentives
Max. introduction of renewable energy to a
district (incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground
heat, micro-hydroelectric power generation,
biomass)
Visualization of the advantages of of being a
compact city
Introducing sunlight and solar thermal
utilization by combining open lots and
consolidation
Expanding the area where energy is flexibly
given/taken among buildings
Max. utilization of urban waste heat
Reduction rate of waste heat Reduction 1 mil.
t-CO2
Reduction rate of waste heat Reduction 7 mil.
t-CO2
Municipal support for drafting a supply plan by
municipality
?Effective use of urban waste heat
Supporting investment in incineration plants
Financing installation of new heat supply main
pipes
Promoting technology to utilize urban waste heat
(incl. ground heat, sewer heat)
Mandatory introduction of use of urban waste heat
?Organizing systems to make the most of urban
waste heat
Setting reduction target by district
Examination through a model project
Introducing the heat supply system of best
effort type
Introducing incentives to promote development in
the promotion district
Designation of a promotion district for urban
waste heat use
?Relocating incineration plants to utilize urban
waste heat
Relocation of incineration plants to
utilize urban waste heat
Utilization and regeneration of urban/regional
natural capital
Supporting financing of municipalities for
regeneration project of natural capital
Municipal utilization/regeneration plan
? Utilizing/regenerating natural capital
Promoting greening by reallocating urban spaces
resulting from decrease in parking
? City planning based on climate change
Clarifying future images in city planning and
controlling construction
Developing a method to asses urban
climate change
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Program to prepare measures
Program to promote measures
21
Low-Carbon Local Development, and Physical
Distribution and Regional Passenger Transport -
Roadmap
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2015
2030
Modal splits of vehicles for passenger and
freight transport
about 60
40-50
50-60
Target
Low-carbon physical distribution
Roadmap
Establishing a basic policy for low carbon in
regional planning
Strengthening support for modal shift under the
Act for Comprehensive Efficiency Improvement of
Physical Distribution
?Establishing principal policies and strategies

Visualizing CO2 emissions for each mode of
transportation
Setting transportation fees that reflect CO2
emissions
? Visualizing CO2 emissions and providing
incentives
Developing a system whereby a shipper can chose a
shipping method with lower CO2 emissions
Awarding system for shipping/transportation
businesses
Supporting SCM business development in which
small/mid-sized businesses may participate
Establishing SCM information standards
?Improving efficiency of physical distribution
by SCM1
Dissemination of SCM to integrate distribution
networks and consolidate freight
?Improving efficiency of physical distribution
within a city
Reducing transport distance by reviewing
locations of physical distribution facilities and
shrinking urbanized areas
Supporting the promotion of urban traffic
measures incl. those for loading/unloading
facilities
Studying methods for long-term improvement of the
main distribution network
?Strengthening transportation of the main
distribution network
Reducing fixed property tax for rail carriages
and ships providing subsidies for replacement
of rail carriages/ships
Development of inter-modal facilities/modal
network as public facilities
20
Reorganization of main physical distribution
network, incl. development of new routes
?Improving efficiency of transportation systems
(air, ship, rail, road)
Continuous implementation and scope-expansion of
"top-runner" system
Low-carbon inter-regional passenger transportation
Supporting development of carbon offset
tourism/overnight business trips
?Visualizing CO2 emission and providing
incentives
Introducing a public transportation eco-points
system
Mandatory calculation and announcement of CO2
emissions of business travel
Visualizing CO2 emissions of each mode of
transportation
Improving convenience of railroads (high-speed
rail, increased transport capacity, punctuality,
seamless transit w. other modes, redevelopment of
station vicinities, wireless Internet access in
every passenger carriage)
?Improving convenience of railroads
?Improving efficiency of transportation systems
(air, ship, rail, road)
Continuous implementation and scope-expansion of
"top-runner" system
Energy saving, low-carbon lifestyle and work style
Changing consumer behavior through use of carbon
footprint
Visualizing CO2 emissions for each mode of
transportation
?Visualizing CO2 emissions and promoting changes
in user traffic behavior
Increasing incentives for selecting low-carbon
transportation modes through introduction of the
carbon tax
Amending the Energy-Saving Act to increase
obligations and to expand its scope
Introducing the qualification of professional
advisor, providing continuous environmental
education in regions/at businesses
1SCM (supply chain management) a strategic
business management method to achieve
optimization of entire business processes by
sharing/managing information on product supply
among related businesses/sections of a company
Strengthening aforementioned measures/programs by
making the most of income from the Carbon Tax
(enforcement FY 2011), and domestic CO2
emissions trading by cap and-trade)
Program to prepare measures
Program to promote measures
22
Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities
(Realizing Compact Cities Based on Public
Transportation Systems (1)
21
23
Local Development ltLocal Core Citiesgt
22
24
Example of a Roadmap (Realizing Compact Cities
Based on Public Transportation Systems (2)
23
25
Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities
(Developing Low-Carbon Districts using Local
Resources (1)
24
26
Example of a Roadmap of Local Core Cities
(Developing a Low-Carbon District using Local
Resources (2)
2010
2020
2050
2012
2015
2030
1990
Share of municipalities that have drafted a
natural asset/local resource map (all
municipalities) Area where measures are taken
based on the low-carbon district plan
Target
Promoting use of the district's energy resources
(especially in residential areas, at
station-influenced spheres of new stations)
Roadmap
Drafting a low-carbon Area/district plan using
sewer heat
Constructing sewer heat utiliz -ation facilities
and developing a low-carbon area/district
?Developing a low-carbon area/district that
makes the most of local resources (residential
area)
Additional financial support for model projects
Setting CO2 reduction targets and greening
targets by area/district
Introducing renewable energy to a region/district
(incl. sunlight, solar heat, ground heat,
micro-hydroelectric power generation, biomass)
and developing infrastructure for EVs and car
sharing
Promoting greening by region/district
Promoting energy saving by region/district
?Developing a low-carbon area/district that
makes the most of local resources (a station
influenced sphere of new stations)
Developing a low-carbon area/district
Drafting a low-carbon area/ district plan using
sewer heat (station-influenced spheres of new
stations)
25
Establishing low-carbon concept at and around
new stations
Setting reduction targets by area/district
Introduction of renewable energy to a
region/district (incl. sunlight, solar heat,
ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power
generation, biomass)
Promoting use of the district's energy resources
(especially in suburban agriculture/forestry-relat
ed areas and service withdrawal areas)
?Developing a low-carbon area/district that
makes the most of local resources (suburban
agriculture/forestry-related areas)
Drafting a low-carbon area/ district plan using
sewer heat (suburban agriculture/forestry- related
areas)
Developing a low-carbon area/district (Minus
carbon)
Additional financial support for model projects
Introduction of renewable energy to a
region/district (incl. sunlight, solar heat,
ground heat, micro-hydroelectric power
generation, biomass)
Reviewing zoning of urbanization promotion area
Providing incentives for large-scale
consolidation of vacant lots
?Making service withdrawal areas into low-carbon
ones
Visualizing the advantages of being a compact
city
Implementing low-carbon projects incl.
installation of Photovoltaic power generation
system in large vacant lots
Utilization and regeneration of urban/regional
natural capital
Supporting financing of municipalities for
regeneration projects of natural capital
? Utilization/regeneration of natural
capital
Promoting greening by reallocating urban spaces
resulting from decrease in parking
Strengthening green conservation area system
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Program to develop measures
Policy of the national government
Program to promote measures
27
Points to Keep in Mind in Implementing Measures
and Policies toward the Envisioned Future
  • To enforce measures and policies toward the
    envisioned future, a system to support local
    efforts should be established by taking the
    following points into account.

Local Development WG
1. Regional characteristics and innovations ?A
package of measures based on the classification
of each region is an example of a combination of
measures, and in view of regional
characteristics, it is important to identify the
measures that are expected to be the most
effective. ?It is necessary to present ambitious
targets and to establish incentives and systems
that multiply the effects of emissions
reductions. 2. Establishment of systems and
areas of cooperation from the viewpoint of
multiple benefits, utilizing the characteristics
of private businesses, citizens, etc. ?In forming
a framework for an urban city or a regional
community, the mere use of a present system with
a government taking responsibility would limit
areas where measures and policies can be
enforced. Thus, it is necessary to properly
establish systems and areas of cooperation from
the viewpoint of multiple benefits to promote
efforts on the part of private businesses and
citizens. 3. Studying policies for promoting
regional measures, combinations of measures for
each item, or both of the above ?It is necessary
to study policies promoting regional measures
(establishment of car priority lanes designed for
the environment, etc.) that enhance the effects
of measures for each item, combinations of
measures for each item (measures taken for houses
and buildings using local resources, etc.) that
multiply the effects of regional measures, or
both of the above. 4. Need for policies focusing
on the potential of farming, fishing and mountain
villages, regions with low-population density,
etc. when measures are introduced ?It is
necessary to study the policies best suited for
the realization of the envisioned future for the
local development sector after taking into
account the characteristics of various systems
for renewable energy supply and the trade of
environmental value such as that of greening
efforts, etc.
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28
Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sector
Outline of Roadmap (1)
1990
2010
2015
2020
2030
2012
2050
Benchmarks Benchmarks
Roadmap Changes in social system Changes in social system Changes in social system Changes in social system Changes in social system Changes in social system Changes in social system
Roadmap Establishing, implementing and evaluating local zero-carbon plans that meet local features
Roadmap Expanding dissemination of carbon offsets and low-carbon-footprint products
Roadmap Promoting use of domestic materials for construction
Roadmap Promoting consumption of local and seasonal products
Roadmap Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly Reducing CO2 emissions thoroughly
Roadmap Promoting energy savings in agriculture and forestry
Roadmap Promoting energy savings in agriculture and forestry Promoting mitigation measures
  • Establishing and announcing regional zero-carbon
    plans for every region
  • Reducing fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions by 20
    30 or avg.
  • Every region achieves its regional zero-carbon
    plan
  • Announcing multi-criteria regional evaluation
    results for each region
  • Reducing fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions by 50
    60 on avg.

Studying and establishing methods for evaluating
GHG emission/recapture for entire regions
Studying /establishing methods for multi-criteria
regional evaluation
Establishment, implementation and evaluation of
regional- planning (intensive investment in a
model district)
Drafting guidelines for regional planning
Reviewing systems based on the experience of
model district
National propagation of establishment,
implementation and evaluation of regional
planning
Expanding dissemination of conventional forest
carbon offsets
Expanding offset credits to farmland and HWP
Studying/establishing methods for assessing
carbon footprints of agriculture, forestry and
fisheries products
Implementing a system for evaluation/support of
low-carbon footprint products (consumption of
local/seasonal products)
Implementing multi-criteria evaluation/support
systems
Studying /establishing multi-criteria evaluation
methods
27
Establishing/standardizing lifecycle carbon
emission reduction for lumber (incl. indirect
emission reduction effects)
Establishing policy for using lumber and
standardization
Leading the use of woods for public buildings
(realize low cost)
Promoting use of domestic lumber for houses and
mid-size buildings
Fostering distribution coordinators
Building distribution system
Providing opportunities for matching (information
sharing) between producers and consumers
Further promoting use at public facilities (for
school lunches, etc.)
Regional wide promotion
Improving fuel efficiency of forestry machinery
and energy saving of woodmills (incl. boilers)
Mountain forestry village
Rural farming village / rural stock breeding
village
Promoting introduction of heat pump and
multi-layered covers to heated greenhouses
Fuel-efficient agricultural machinery and
promoting shared use of agricultural machinery
Converting fishing lights to LED and promoting
energy-saving ship operation methods
Rural farming village / rural stock breeding
village
Promoting reduction of nitrogen, conversion to
forced fermentation and extending mid-summer
drainage of rice paddies
29
Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sector
Outline of Roadmap (2)
1990
2010
2015
2020
2030
2012
2050
Roadmap Active use of biomass resources
Roadmap Composting and making feed from waste biomass, and converting waste biomass into renewable energy Promoting use of renewable energy
Roadmap Effective use of land as a heat source and of businesses
Roadmap Utilization of seaweed as a new energy source or material
Roadmap Promoting active use of CO2 sinks
Roadmap Utilization of forests, wood products and farmland
Mountain forestry village/rural farming village
Promoting introduction of biomass boilers to
lumber drying plants and heated greenhouses
Studying best collection/reuse system for the
region
Common features
Developing and installing composting/feed
production/energy conversion facilities at
proper sites
Rural stock breeding village
Developing regional shared composting system
using compost production center
Rural farming village
Fostering business entities for hydropower
generation
Installing micro-hydroelectric power generators
at canals
Common features
Promoting use of waste biomass
Gathering data to assess potential value of land
Studying business models for use of renewable
energy that make the most of regional features
(incl. installing solar panels on unused land)
Implementing model project (incl. utilizing model
regions)
28
Fostering business entities for local energy
production
Reviewing systems based on the experience of
model project
National propagation of regional energy
businesses
RD and developing/establishing assessment
methods (incl. study on feasible CO2 sinks)
Using biomass energy sources/materials
Conducting proper forest management
Rural farming village / rural stock breeding
village
Promoting plowing of compost in farmland/using
soil conditioners incl. charcoal
Mountain forestry village
Promoting domestic lumber/use of cascade
Common features
Policy to promote programs for reducing GHG
emissions
Preparatory policies for introducing the policies
in the left-most column
Agriculture and mountain villages Biomass
resource rich municipalities are categorized into
agricultural regions on flat land, agricultural
regions in mountains, and agricultural regions
that have both of flat land and mountain under
agricultural statistics. Categorization Regions
with high potential of wood biomass, agricultural
biomass or livestock biomass are named "mountain
forestry villages", "rural agriculture villages"
and "rural farming villages," respectively. When
a municipality has substantial amounts of
different types of biomass resources, then
programs of different types of biomass resources,
such as cooperation between farming and livestock
breeding, should be coordinated.
30
Points to Keep in Mind in Implementing Measures
and Policies toward the Envisioned Future
Farming, Fishing and Mountain Village Sub-WG
  • In general, farming, fishing and mountain
    villages have the clean image of being located
    amidst natural verdure. However, certain data
    suggest that their emissions per capita exceed
    those of urban areas, and it is believed that
    there may be room for additional emissions
    reductions. Thus, while actively promoting
    emissions reduction measures such as energy
    saving, it is also necessary to study measures
    contributing to regional revitalization.
  • A zoning strategy that assigns to each plot of
    land and area a role (production of agricultural
    products, carbon absorption, supply of renewable
    energy, etc.) needs to be studied in terms of and
    feasibility.
  • While promoting the preparation of basic data,
    continuous study needs to be conducted on the
    emission mechanism and the identification of
    emissions reduction potential, etc. in farming,
    fishing and mountain villages.
  • As a regional development measure, the
    establishment of a system (legal system) for the
    smooth, effective use of land is required,
    including such a system for the utilization of
    renewable energy in farming, fishing and mountain
    villages. Since unused land also includes
    locations with relatively low utility value, the
    optimal utilization of renewable energy, etc.
    needs to be studied in view of the environmental
    conditions of the land.
  • In using carbon offset credits, etc., study needs
    to be conducted on the development of a system
    for maximizing incentives for credit purchasers,
    the development and diffusion of methods for
    controlling initial investment amounts and the
    establishment of a system for human resource
    development matching.
  • In setting a purchase price for biomass power,
    etc., the cost for biomass collection and
    transportation needs to be considered.
  • The uniform promotion of measures in urban areas
    and farming, fishing and mountain villages is not
    necessarily appropriate. Regional characteristics
    should be fully taken into account in
    implementing measures.

29
31
Energy Supply
30
32
Energy Supply Roadmap (Renewable Energy) 1/2
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2015
2030
2005
Objectives
Renewable energy capacity/share
Renewable energy as a share of the primary energy
supply 5 Use of renewable energy 29.00 mil. kL
Renewable energy as a share of the primary energy
supply gt 10
Increasing amount of renewable energy to between
140 and 160 mil. kL
Supporting establishment of infrastructure to
disseminate renewable energy use
?Economic measures incl. feed-in tariff system
Roadmap
Mandatory introduction of renewable energy
Developing thermal quantification method and
constructing a system in which consumers can
chose optimal integration of backup heat source
Design and test operation of availability
insurance system
?Reducing financial risk/burden of renewable
energy business
Transition to commercial insurance system
31
Debt guarantee by public institute interest
support
Study for appropriate development sites,
assistance to FS, etc.
?Developing database of related information
Compiling information on potential and
suitable/non-suitable (zoning) sites
Compiling statistics on renewable energy
Establishing an action plan for dissemination of
renewable energy and reviewing the plan according
to its progress
Information provision by developing a
"one-stop-service"
Developing technology that meets the natural
environment and local social/natural environment
?Developing renewable energy technology
Technology for inclined geothermal wells,
eco-conscious facility design, bird-strike
prevention technology for wind turbines, second-ge
neration biofuel technology and designs for these
that are accepted by local community
Developing innovative technology/waste energy,
conducting field experiments, accelerating
practical application
Power generation by off-shore wind, wave,
geothermal, hot spring heat, etc.
Easy installation to existing houses/buildings thr
ough standardization and unification of
attachments
Establishing design methods for houses/buildings
and fostering installation technicians
Establishing a stable biofuel supply system
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Policy to promote programs to reduce GHG emissions
Preparatory policies for introducing the policies
in the left-most column
33
Energy Supply Roadmap (Renewable Energy) 2/2
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2015
2030
Roadmap
Policy to change the social system to meet the
level of dissemination of renewable energy
Improving nation's awareness by educational
activities
?Improving social acceptance and awareness
Promoting voluntary introduction and
understanding of renewable energy use
Information disclosure system on impact on local
environment
Program design
Method to promote understanding of renewable
energy use
Disclosing monitoring data of geothermal use,
zoning information
Constructing a social system where renewable
energy is pervasive
Introducing accreditation/registration system for
skilled installers, and maintenance obligations
Method to promote voluntary introduction
Supporting expanding the supply channels of
renewable energy equipment for houses/buildings
Providing advice during house/building
construction
Fostering renewable energy advisers and
developing tools
Providing information on optimal combinations of
devices for renewable energy and energy-saving

?Introducing renewable energy that meets the
local features
Test introduction of new business model
32
Hybrid model of co-financing by large business,
local business and residents, etc.
Establishing an association for introducing
renewable energy that makes the most of local
talent, resources and residents' fund toward
regional revitalization
Fostering coaches
Fostering local professionals of renewable energy
introduction
Promoting installation to public facilities by
public invitation of installation/operation of
photovoltaic power generation systems
Leading introduction of renewable energy,
implementing original support systems and
organizing systems in local community
Utilizing renewable energy for community
development and regional revitalization
?Reviewing relevant acts and regulations
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
34
Energy Supply Roadmap (Energy Supply
Infrastructure)
2010
2020
2050
1990
2012
2015
2030
Objectives
Energy Supply Infrastructure
Realizing zero-carbon power sources
Rate of introduction of smart meters, etc.gt80
Diffusion rate of Japanese version of smart grid
100
Roadmap
Promoting infrastructure development for
next-generation energy supply
? Measures for existing power grids

Utilization of all system power supply
Reviewing operation of existing infrastructure
(incl. pump-up storage power generation and
inter-regional supply
(connectors)
System power supply
Implementing local measures (incl. installations
of distribution transformers and voltage
controllers)
Energy carrier and conversion systems for
surplus electricity
Analysis of empty capacity of transmission/distri
bution lines
Expanding transmission systems
Planned development of access transmission lines
Facility/demand-supply planning to reflect demand
control effect
Making the most of existing infrastructure toward
introduction of large capacity for renewable
energy
Establishing and developing Smart Grids
?Studying the next- generation grid network
Weather information/capacity of
renewable-energy-derived electricity
Establishing multi-location measurement of output
Full-scale operation of power generation
output/demand-supply control Starting management
Accumulating weather data, trial estimation of
power output
?Installation and development of Smart Grids
Development of functions for automatic operation
stop/preventing stand-alone operation
Dissemination of renewable energy power
generation system w. output control
Photovoltaic power generation that meet power
demand Output control of wind power generation
Advancement of output control of photovoltaic
power generation and wind power generation
33
Introduction of smart meters and energy
management devices
Demand control
Automatic control by energy management system
Dissemination of demand-side technology for
energy storage and activation
Making most of buttery charge control of
plug-in hybrid EV
Buttery system, V2G(Vehicle to Grid) utilization
of power supply/demand between vehicle and grid
system
Introducing buttery system
Overseas development of Japanese Smart Grids
?Developing systems for large-scale renewable
energy use
System design that meets diversification of
stable power supplier
Demand control dynamic pricing
Establishing fee system to control demand
Developing a system for priority access to
renewable-energy-derived electricity
Raisinghigh voltagedistribution
Advancement of business model of power
company (Decoupling of sales/profit of power
company and electricity sales)
Providing incentives to power companies for
their support of users' energy saving
Other than power system
?Infrastructure for biofuel supply
Financially supporting production of biofuel
Providing financial assistance to make existing
fuel distribution infrastructure compatible with
high-concentration biofuel
?Infrastructure for gas supply
Developing natural gas pipelines, biogas supply
via. city gas infrastructure, support utilization
of smart energy networks in which heat and
electricity are effectively used, obligation of
studying introduction, mandatory introduction
?Infrastructure for hydrogen supply
Studying hydrogen supply concept that takes into
account technology development level
?Providing incentives for next-generation
infrastructure development
Common
Next-generation infrastructure development w.
funds from the Carbon Tax
Developing next-generation energy supply
infrastructure by introducing the domestic
emissions trading system that adopts the
cap-and-trade method.
FY 2011 Using the funds from the Carbon Tax,
strengthening the aforementioned measures/programs
Preparator
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