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Culture

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Title: Culture


1
Postmodernism
and
Culture
2
CULTURE
  • refers to patterns of human activity and the
    symbolic structures that give such activity
    significance.

3
POSTMODERNISM
  • term used to designate a multitude of trendsin
    the arts, philosophy, religion, technology, and
    many other areasthat come after and deviate from
    the many 20th-cent. movements

4
Lyotards view
  • An era in which people have rejected the grand,
    supposedly universal stories and paradigms such
    as religion and gender that have defined culture
    and behavior in the past, and have instead begun
    to organize their cultural life around a variety
    of more local and subcultural ideologies and
    myths.

Incredulity towards metanarratives
5
Various Definitions
  • A worldview that emphasizes the existence of
    different worldviews.
  • There is no single way to define postmodernism,
    and that is the single most postmodern thing
    about it.

6
The development of postmodernism
  • Features of postmodern culture begin to arise in
    the 1920s with the emergence of the Dada
    movement, which featured collage and a focus on
    the framing of objects and discourse as being
    important, than the work itself
  • Another strand which would have tremendous impact
    on post-modernism would be the existentialists,
    who placed the centrality of the individual
    narrative as being the source of morals and
    understanding.

7
  • Postmodernism has manifestations in many modern
    academic and non-academic disciplines
  • philosophy, theology, art, architecture, film,
    television, music, theatre, sociology, fashion,
    technology, literature, and communications are
    all heavily influenced by postmodern trends and
    ideas, and are thoroughly scrutinised from
    postmodern perspectives
  • Exactly when modernism began to give way to
    postmodernism depends on the observer and the
    theoretical framework

8
GLOBALIZATION
  • It refers to the worldwide exchanges brought
    about by modern communication and infrastructure.
  • It describes how human beings are becoming more
    intertwined.

9
CONTRIBUTION TO POSTMODERNISM
  • Journalists, politicians others use the word to
    signify that something profound is happening.
  • It is eroding local cultures and traditions
    through a global culture.

10
Consumerism
  • The features of culture that have contributed to
    postmodernism include consumerism, the
    fragmentation of authority, and the
    commodification of knowledge
  • Consumerism is a term used to describe the
    effects of equating personal happiness with
    purchasing material possessions and consumption.
  • In an abstract sense, consumerism refers to the
    belief that the free choice of consumers should
    dictate the economic structure of a society

11
  • Since consumerism began, various individuals and
    groups have consciously sought an alternative
    lifestyle through simple living.
  • While consumerism is not a new phenomenon, it has
    only become widespread in the 20th century and
    particularly in recent decades, under the
    influence of capitalism and globalization
  • A culture that is permeated by consumerism can be
    referred to as a consumer culture

12
  • "Overcoming Consumerism" is a growing philosophy.
    It is a term that embodies the active resistance
    to consumerism.
  • anti-consumerists tend to believe that
    consumerism is an artificial creation sustained
    by artificial social pressures, while
    libertarians tend to believe that consumerism is
    natural and the only way to eliminate it is
    through artificial social pressures.

13
Post-modernism
  • or have we moved beyond modernism?

14
Epistemological Relativism
  • There is no such thing as objective knowledge.
  • Everything is viewed through the lens of our
    values and our culture.
  • Question- How can we make judgements about the
    world around us if all knowledge and truths are
    relative.
  • This is a central critique of the epistemological
    relativism generated in much of Postmodern
    thought.

15
Postmodernism in language
  • It refers to the use of postmodern ideas in the
    field of linguistics.
  • An important concept in postmodernism's view of
    language is the idea of "play" text.
  • Play is the means by which the reader constructs
    or interprets the text, and the means by which
    the author gains a presence in the reader's mind.
  • In the context of postmodernism, play means
    changing the framework which connects ideas, and
    thus allows the troping, or turning, of a
    metaphor or word from one context to another, or
    from one frame of reference to another.

16
  • Roland Barthes argued this concept, and coined it
    'Death of the Author' this allows for 'freedom
    of the reader'. It is the reader's freedom which
    gives meaning to a text, not the author's
    intention. Barthes is well known for having
    stated, "It is language that speaks, not the
    author".
  • In post modernistic view ,author shall choose
    words which transmit the idea as transparently as
    possible to the reader. Thus postmodernism in
    language has often been identified with poor
    writing and communication skills.

17
Postmodern Literature
18
Postmodern literature ?
  • arose as a series of styles and ideas in the
    post-World WarII period .
  • explores subjectivism, turning from external
    reality to examine inner states of consciousness.
  • explores fragmentariness in narrative- and
    character-construction.

19
Some Attributes of Post-Modernist Literature
  • the writing of reflexive or meta-fiction
  • the use of paradox
  • a crossing or dissolving of borders -- between
    fiction and non-fiction, between literary genres,
    between high and low culture

20
Gender
  • The postmodern novel was also part of a larger
    social project integration and ending
    discrimination against women.
  • Perspective of postmodern writers on the life of
    women

21
Other sub-genres?
  • Excrement Literature
  • Electronic literature
  • Hypertext fiction

22
Some of the authors of Postmodern Literature
  • J.R.R. Tolkien
  • Salman Rushdie
  • C.S. Lewis
  • Dan Brown

23
J.R.R Tolkien
  • the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord
    of The Rings another fiction The Silmarillion.
  • The covers of the Lord of the Rings series

24
Tolkiens RNG
25
Salman Rushdie
  • an Indian-born British essayist and author of
    fiction.
  • His novel, Midnights Children, however,
    catapulted him to literary fame and is often
    considered his best work to date.
  • He is best known for the violent criticism his
    book The Satanic Verses (1988) inspired in
    radical Muslims.

26
Clive Staples Lewis
  • an Irish author and scholar, of mixed Irish,
    English, and Welsh ancestry.
  • work on medieval literature
  • Christian apologetics
  • fiction, especially the childrens series
    entitled The Chronicles of Narnia and his science
    fiction Space Trilogy.

27
C.S.Lewiss The Chronicles of Narnia The
Lion, The Witch and The Wardrobe
28
Dan Brown
  • Dan Brown is an American author of thriller
    fiction, best known for writing the controversial
    2003 bestseller, The Da Vinci Code

29
POSTMODERN ART
Enosh Nikhil
30
  • Postmodern art (sometimes called po-mo) is a term
    used to describe art which is thought to be after
    or in contradiction to some aspect of modernism.
  • Postmodern art uses a vocabulary of media, genres
    or styles as parts of an extended visual language
    that goes beyond the boundaries of the modernist
    vocabulary

31
  • Postmodern art (and thought) favors reflexivity
    and self-consciousness, fragmentation and
    discontinuity (especially in narrative
    structures), ambiguity, simultaneity, and an
    emphasis on the destructured, decentered,
    dehumanized subject.

32
  • In his theoretical writings, Jean Baudrillard
    concludes that what motivates art's historical
    change is not any 'authentic' or 'original'
    impulse, but simply fashion, pivoting on the
    desire for novelty, which he sees as an organic
    and integrated process.
  • The basic premise behind postmodern art is that
    all forms of novelty and rebellion have already
    been explored,

33
  • Even if everything being done wasn't true the
    particular emphasis on rejection of that which is
    old or already done is only handicapping to an
    artists self-expression.
  • Artist Allison Hetter, when asked what
    post-modernism was, replied with the simple
    phrase "Everything's been done already." Many
    observers feel that we are in the stage of the
    po-po-mo where "Everything's been re-done
    already".

34
  • Some of the famous modern art pieces of
    sculpture, photography, architecture and painting

Judy Chicagos Dinner Party
35

Richard Serra's "Tilted Arc", 1981
(now destroyed)
36

Vietnam War Memorial (1982)
37

Pacita Abads How Mali Lost
Her Accent, 1991
Hung Lui Three Fujins, 1995
38
Jesse Trevino Senora Dolores Trevino, 1982
Faith Ringgolds
Dancing at the Louvre, 1991
39

Photo above from Larry Powell's book "Hunger of
the Heart Communion at the Wall"
Sandy Scoglands Revenge of
the Goldfish, 1981
40

Sculpture of Walking Man by George Segal

A Ceramic Sculpture by Joan Miro
41
MUSIC
  • POST MODERN MUSIC
  • MUSICAL STYLE - Tends to be self
    referential and ironic. Favours eclecticism in
    musical form and genre
  • MUSICAL CONDITION - Simply state of music in
    post modernism .It doesnt have any particular
    style or characteristic

42
  • JONATHAN KRAMERS VIEW -gt
  • is on some level and some way ironic
  • challenges barriers between high and low styles
  • questions the mutual exclusivity of elitist and
    populist values
  • embraces contradictions
  • distrusts binary oppositions
  • includes fragmentations and discontinuities
  • presents multiple meanings and multiple
    temporalities

43
  • THEORIES
  • it is a degenerate modernity, the critic Theodor
    Adonor being an example of idea that trends of
    music after serialism represent banalization of
    and regression from modernity.
  • It is a sign of late capitalism and decline of
    identity creating metanarratives such as nation
    states.
  • As with modernity and postmodernism in general,
    modernity may be considered to not yet have
    ended, and thus there is no post modern
    condition.
  • DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MODERN AND POSTMODERN MUSIC
  • modern music was characterized by focus on
    musical fundamentals and expressions.
  • however in post modern music, the commodity
    being sold by record companies and pop stars are
    not the fundamentals of the music, but the
    cultural image surrounding music, which
    reverbates through films, televisions, and other
    media.

44
FEATURES OF POSTMODERN-MUSIC
ROCK MUSIC (PINK FLOYD)
POP MUSIC (BEATLES)
45
DJING
RAP
46
POSTMODERNISM IN DESIGN
Postmodernism in urban design
Postmodernism in graphic design
47
Postmodernism in urban design
  • Postmodernism in contemporary cities in terms of
    globalization.
  • Growing proportion of all economic activity
  • Progressively organized at the international
    scale
  • This international scope induces economic
    patterns induces multicultural ambience.

48
Postmodernism in Graphic design
  • Graphic design may be considered as the root of
    postmodernism.
  • Postmodernism in graphic design has been mainly a
    visual decorative movement.
  • Graphic design saw a massive popular raising at
    the end of the seventies in form of Graffiti and
    Hip Hop culture's rise .

49
Postmodernism in architecture
  • As with many cultural movements, one of
    postmodernism's most pronounced and visible ideas
    can be seen in architecture.
  • The functional and formalized shapes and spaces
    of the modernist movement are replaced by
    diverse aesthetics.

50
  • Post-modernism is a rejection of strict rules set
    by the early modernists and seeks exuberance in
    the use of building techniques, angles, and
    stylistic references
  • Architects generally considered postmodern
    include Peter Eisenmen, Philip Johnson, John
    Burgee, Robert Venturi, Ricardo Bofill, and Frank
    Gehry.
  • A prime example of postmodern architecture lies
    along the Las Vegas strip which was glamorized by
    Robert Venturi in the book Learning from Las
    Vegas.

51
Postmodern Philosophy
  • Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive
    movement characterized by the postmodern
    criticism and analysis of Western philosophy.
    Beginning as a critique of Continental
    philosophy, it was heavily influenced by
    phenomenology, structuralism and existentialism,
    and by the philosophers Friedrich Nietzsche and
    Martin Heidegger. It was also influenced to some
    degree by Ludwig Wittgenstein's later criticisms
    of analytic philosophy and Søren Kierkegaard's
    attack on any type of systematic philosophy.
  • Within postmodern philosophy, there are numerous
    interrelated fields, including deconstruction and
    several fields beginning with the prefix "post-",
    such as post-structuralism, post-Marxism, and
    post-feminism. In particular postmodern
    philosophy has spawned a huge literature of
    critical theory.

52
Postmodern Philosophy
  • Postmodern philosophy is generally characterized
    by a skepticism toward the simple binary
    oppositions predominant in Western metaphysics
    and humanism, such as the expectation that the
    philosopher may cleanly isolate knowledge from
    ignorance, social progress from reversion,
    dominance from submission, or presence from
    absence. This is anti-foundationalism. To some
    critics, this skepticism appears similar to
    relativism or even nihilism.
  • Defenders of post-modernism would argue that
    there is a distinct difference, however while
    relativism and nihilism are generally viewed as
    an abandonment of meaning and authority,
    postmodern philosophy is generally viewed as an
    openness to meaning and authority from unexpected
    places, and that the ultimate source of authority
    is the "play" of the discourse itself. In
    addition, many view postmodern philosophy not as
    a purely abstract or logical argument, but as a
    historical occurrence.

53
POSTMODERNISM - EFFECTS
  • Art Literary views
  • Social view
  • Philosophical view

54
THANK YOU
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