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Towards Zero Death: A National Strategy on Highway Safety White Papers

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Title: Towards Zero Death: A National Strategy on Highway Safety White Papers


1
Towards Zero Death A National Strategy on
Highway SafetyWhite Papers
  • Hugh McGee, VHB Inc
  • Stakeholder Workshop
  • August 25-26, 2010

2
White Papers
  • Future View of Transportation Implications for
    Safety
  • Safety Culture
  • Safer Drivers
  • Safer Vehicles
  • Safer Vulnerable Users
  • Safer Infrastructure
  • Emergency Medical Systems
  • Data Systems Analysis Tools
  • Lessons Learned from Safety Programs In Other
    Countries
  • Included in this
    presentation.

3
White Paper Objectives
  • Identify strategies for reducing fatalities
    through
  • Safer Drivers
  • Safer Vehicles
  • Safer Infrastructure
  • Safer Vulnerable Users
  • Improved EMS
  • Improved Data Systems and Analysis Tools
  • Provide
  • Estimates of fatality reduction
  • Costs how much and who pays
  • Challenges for implementation
  • Opportunities

4
White Paper Objectives
  • WPs not meant to be comprehensiveFOCUS ON KEY
    STRATEGIES
  • Challenged to be thought-provoking think
    outside the box
  • How can known strategies be implemented more
    widely.
  • These WPs along with 3 others provide input to
    discussions that will lead to a National
    Strategic Safety Plan
  • THESE WPS ARE EXPERT OPINIONS!

5
General Summary For Each White Paper
  • Magnitude of Problem
  • Major Topics Areas
  • Key Strategies and Programs
  • Challenges and Obstacles
  • Areas for Opportunity

6
Safer Drivers Neil LernerJeremiah SingerJames
JennessWestat
7
Safer Drivers Driver Behavior Problem
  • Crash causation Driver behavior contributes to
    gt90 of crashes
  • Crash outcome about 50 of occupant fatalities
    are unrestrained
  • Driver behavior may not be sole cause of crash,
    and countermeasure does not necessarily have to
    be behavioral
  • But problems of behavior are key component for
    major reduction in fatalities

8
Safer Drivers Major Topic Areas
  • Historically the big three
  • Speeding,
  • Restraint system use,
  • Impairment (alcohol, illegal drugs, medication,
    and fatigue)
  • Additional relevant topics
  • Driver groups with high fatality rates
  • Older drivers (dealt with in Vulnerable Users
    white paper)
  • Teen drivers
  • Driver distraction
  • Including technology use and multi-tasking

9
Safer Drivers Noteworthy Trends
  • Technology in the vehicle and on the road
  • Shift in how people view the driving task
  • Powerful new study methods to understand and
    correct driver behavior

10
Safer Drivers Areas of Opportunity
  • Traditional strategies still important, but there
    is opportunity in some new approaches in
  • Increase restraint use
  • Speeding
  • Driver distraction
  • Teen drivers

11
Increase Restraint Use Initiatives
  • Effective nighttime enforcement
  • Enhanced seat belt reminder systems other
    vehicle interventions
  • Detect and alert for unbelted rear seat
    passengers
  • Devise teen-oriented vehicle systems
  • Improve system design for child safety seats

12
Reduce Speeding Initiatives
  • Expand use of in-vehicle speed monitoring
    technologies
  • Use automated speed enforcement technologies to
    achieve broad area enforcement

13
Reduce Driver Distraction
  • Promote effective enforcement of distracted
    driving laws
  • Foster change in driver attitudes about
    multitasking risks responsibilities
  • Support technology developers
  • Target teen drivers
  • Develop adaptive driver interface systems
  • Develop criteria for design of digital outdoor
    commercial signage.

14
Increase Safety of Young Drivers
  • Implement strengthen GDL laws enact primary
    seatbelt laws.
  • Promote enforcement of GDL restrictions and
    community support of GDL
  • Encourage high level parental supervision during
    intermediate stage of GDL
  • Promote safer vehicles for teen drivers

15
Safer VehiclesRichard Retting Sam Schwartz
EngineeringRon Knipling safetyforthelonghaul.com
16
Safer Vehicles
  • Decades of improvements in motor vehicle safety
    technology
  • Improving safety requires moving beyond past
    accomplishments
  • Specific vehicle design features and technologies
    offer substantial promise/evidence for reducing
    traffic fatalities

17
Safer Vehicles - Strategies
  • For most major crash types there are potential
    vehicle countermeasures

Source Adapted from Sayer and Flanigan (2010)
statistics from NHTSA.
18
Safer Vehicles Strategies
  • Strategies can be categorized as applicable to
  • Passenger vehicles
  • Large trucks
  • Cross-cutting and highly applicable to both

19
Safer Vehicles Strategies
  • Passenger Vehicles
  • Alcohol Detection Interlock
  • Emergency Brake Assist
  • Crashworthiness Enhancements

20
Safer Vehicles - Strategies
  • Large Trucks
  • Improved Brakes/Shorter Stopping Distances
  • Roll Stability
  • Onboard Safety Monitoring
  • Electronic Onboard Recorders
  • Side Object Detection Systems
  • Vehicle Condition Monitoring
  • Automated Transmissions
  • Truck-Specific Navigation Aids
  • Enhanced Trailer Conspicuity
  • Enhanced Trailer Rear Lighting/Warnings
  • Video Side Mirrors
  • Collision Aggressivity Reductions

21
Safer Vehicles Strategies
  • Cross-Cutting Applicable to Cars and Trucks
  • Electronic Stability Control
  • Forward Collision Warning Systems
  • Lane Departure Warning Systems
  • Backing Collision Warnings
  • Driver Alertness Warnings
  • Automatic Speed Control
  • Electronic Drivers License
  • Intelligent Lighting Systems
  • Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems
  • Road Condition Warning Systems
  • Electronic Data Recorders

22
Safer Vehicles - Strategies
  • High Priority Vehicle Strategies
  • Driver Attention Monitoring
  • Ejection Mitigation
  • Improved Side Impact Protection
  • Side Object Detection Systems
  • Daytime Running Lights
  • Alcohol Detection Interlock
  • Automatic Speed Control
  • Electronic Stability Control
  • Emergency Brake Assist
  • Lane Departure Warning Systems

23
Safer Vehicles -Barriers to Implementation
  • Need to achieve extremely high levels of accuracy
    for crash-avoidance technologies
  • Many important RD issues remain
  • Lack of consumer demand/willingness to pay
  • Need for initial/ongoing driver training
  • For vehicle-to-infrastructure technologies ,
    sheer size of roadway system (4 million miles of
    public roads)
  • Concerns about legal liability
  • Privacy, public opinion (e.g. automatic speed
    control)

24
Safer Vulnerable Road Users Pedestrians,
Bicyclists, Motorcyclists, and Older
UsersCharlie Zegeer and William
HunterUniversity of North Carolina Highway
Safety Research CenterLoren StaplinTransAnalyti
cs, LLC Fran Bents and Richard
HueyWestatJanet BarlowAccessible Design for
the Blind
25
Safer Vulnerable Users Magnitude of Problem
  • Pedestrians
  • 4,654 fatalities - 11 percent of all traffic
    fatalities (2007)
  • Pedestrian crash trends continue to show greater
    problems for children and older adult pedestrians
  • Bicyclists
  • 716 fatalities - 2 percent of all traffic
    fatalities (2008)
  • An additional 52,000 pedalcyclists were injured

26
Safer Vulnerable Users Magnitude of Problem
  • Motorcycles
  • Approximately 5,200 fatalities per year
  • Fatalities have more than doubled in the past
    decade.
  • Infrastructure may present unique hazards to
    motorcyclist.
  • Older Users
  • 25 of drivers will be age 65 or older by 2030.
  • Drivers 85 and older are themselves 8X higher
    risk of death per mile traveled than safest group
    (ages 30-60).
  • Approximately 5,000 drivers aged 70 and above are
    killed each year

27
Safer Vulnerable Users Strategies for
Pedestrians
  • Complete and market a revised AASHTO pedestrian
    guide to local and State officials
  • Further refine the MUTCD to address pedestrian
    safety problems
  • Expend funding and implementation of a National
    Safe Routes to School Program with National
    Safety Education Program
  • Promote and advance the use of photo enforcement

28
Safer Vulnerable Users Strategies for
Pedestrians
  • Develop and implement specific national
    guidelines for safer bus stop design and
    placement
  • Expand pedestrian safety training to engineers,
    planners, and other professionals nationwide
    (supported by pedestrian safety research)
  • Improve the reflectorization/conspicuity of
    pedestrians
  • Develop and implement pedestrian-friendly ITS
    vehicle and roadway features

29
Safer Vulnerable Users Strategies for
Bicyclists
  • Reduce motor vehicle speed in urban and suburban
    areas
  • Reduce distracted driving by motorists and
    distracted riding by bicyclists
  • Educate motorists about how to share the road
    with bicyclists
  • Educate bicyclists about how to ride in traffic
    and the use of proper equipment
  • Reduce intersection conflicts

30
Safer Vulnerable Users Strategies for
Motorcyclists
  • Advisory Councils for the Federal and State
    Governments
  • AASHTO Highway Design Handbook for Motorcyclists
  • National motorcycle helmet law
  • Rider to driver communication
  • Standard motorcycle lighting displays
  • More rider training and certification

31
Safer Vulnerable Users Strategies for Older
Users
  • Incorporate national standards into State-level
    design manuals.
  • Mandatory refresher driving course to retain
    unrestricted license.
  • Required screening for visual, mental, and
    physical capability regardless of age for license
    renewal
  • Immunity for health professionals for voluntary
    reporting older patients to DMV they are
    concerned might have driving impairments.
  • A national system for labeling prescription and
    over-the-counter medications better indicating
    the risk for impairment of driving.

32
Safer Infrastructure
  • Paul Jovanis
  • Eric Donnell
  • The Thomas D. Larson Pennsylvania Transportation
    Institute

33
Safer Infrastructure Speeding
34
Safer Infrastructure Roadway Departure
35
Safer Infrastructure Intersections
36
Safer Infrastructure- Strategies
  • Automated speed enforcement
  • Safety center of excellence
  • Performance-based design

37
Automated Speed Enforcement
Oct 1971 Compulsory Seat belts
Dec 1962 Random Breath Testing
Early 1990s Automated Enforcement
38
Opportunities and Challenges
  • Opportunities
  • Challenges
  • Possible 25 reduction in fatalities and injuries
  • Benefits 16 million/year in Scottsdale, AZ
  • Reliable accurate equipment
  • Speed exceedance limits
  • Covert/overt decision
  • Rational speed limits

39
Regional Safety Centers of Excellence
  • Implement state-of-art safety management
    processes
  • Education and training needs
  • Technical assistance to local and state programs
  • Safety coordination

40
Opportunities and Challenges
  • Opportunities
  • Challenges
  • Effective allocation of resources
  • Consistent national implementation of Strategic
    Highway Safety Plans
  • Supported by state-of-art methods and tools
  • Certification of safety professionals
  • Demand for education programs
  • Regional collaboration among stakeholders

41
Performance-based Design Paradigm
42
Opportunities and Challenges
  • Opportunities
  • Challenges
  • Explicitly consider safety in planning and design
    (may include construction and maintenance)
  • Mandate use of existing tools to support safety
    decision-making
  • Systematic road safety management
  • Research needed to develop revised design
    policies
  • Cultural change required

43
Emergency Medical Services (EMS)
  • The National Association of State
  • Emergency Medical Services Officials

44
EMS Some Background
  • Trauma to motor vehicle occupants is 4th leading
    cause of non-fatal injuries treated in Emergency
    Departments
  • Less than half of all fatal crash victims die at
    the scene those who die later are potentially
    preventable.
  • EMS providers are at greater risk of death on the
    job compared to police firefighters- 74 of
    EMS fatalities are transportation related.
  • Crash rates of ambulances are 7 to 10 times
    greater than heavy trucks.
  • FARS gtgt 2 out of 3 fatalities associated with
    ambulance collisions were either occupants of
    other vehicles or pedestrians.
  • CDC claims that severely injured victim who
    received care at a Level 1 trauma center within
    1hr had 25 reduction in risk of death

45
EMS Some Issues
  • EMS is a complex system and organized
    differently across jurisdictions--both private
    and public about 15K local EMS agencies.
  • Leadership of comprehensive EMS system nationwide
    under NHTSA Office of EMS but no direct
    authority over the provision of EMS.
  • State and territorial EMS offices do not have
    roadmap for how best to move towards unified
    and effective practices for safety of EMS
    personnel and to critical difference that can be
    made in patient outcomes when EMS functions in
    optimal manner.
  • National plan affords opportunity to partner
    within and between states and nationally across
    disciplines in unprecedented way.

46
EMS - Strategies
  • The six phases of EMS represented by NHTSAs
    Star of Life provides framework for organizing
    strategies to reduce fatalities.

47
Detection Systems
  • Need standard dictionary and .xml schema for
    Telematics Data Definitions and Transmisson
    Standards (OnStar)
  • Develop national Advanced Automatic Collision
    Notification algorithms, protocols training.
  • AACN predictors for need for vehicle extrication.

48
9-1-1 Access Capabilities
  • Enhanced 9-1-1and Phase II Compliance to
    identify caller address/location
  • Next Generation 9-1-1data transmission across
    wireless and internet-based systems

49
EMS Response Capacity
  • Widespread adoption of National EMS Scope of
    Practice Model National EMS Education
    Standards.
  • Vehicle extrication education and competency
    standards
  • Integrated ambulance-based safety
    systemsregulate ambulances like large trucks?
  • IntelliDriveSM for EMS vehicles V2V and V2I
  • Evidence-based E Vehicle Operations Standards

50
On-Scene Medical Care
  • Adopt National Trauma Triage Protocol
  • National unified goal for traffic incident
    management embracing law enforcement, fire, EMS,
    rescue, roadway maintenance, towing and traffic
    control.

51
Patient Transportation Paradigms
  • Engineering and design standards for ambulances
    none exist for patient care compartment
  • Helicopter EMS utilization criteria
  • Ground ambulance access to ITS infrastructure
    sources road hazards, weather

52
Hospital Specialty Care Infrastructure
  • Comprehensive and state regulated trauma systems
  • Pre-hospital interfacility telemedicine
    applications

53
Crosscutting Strategies
  • National EMS information system based on
    National EMS Information System (NEMSIS)
  • Trauma registries as source for severe injury
    data allows for data-driven decision making for
    trauma system performance
  • Records linkage to crash data cross over to Data
    Systems WP.

54
Data Systems and Analysis Tools
  • Barbara Hilger DeLucia
  • Data Nexus, Inc.
  • Geni Bahar
  • NAVIGATS Inc.

55
Imagine the day .
56
Data Systems and AnalysisOverview
  • National, State and Local data used for different
    levels of analysis
  • Problem Identification
  • Countermeasure Selection
  • Program and Project Evaluation
  • Fourteen data resources (national and state)
    described

57
Data Systems and AnalysisState-of-the-Art and
Practice
  • 10 resources and 12 analytical tools presented.
  • Classified as
  • On-going - data or information are entered
    periodically.
  • Single timeframe - data entered for a single time
    period.
  • Web link address.
  • Short description and capabilities.
  • Brief suggestions for future modifications/expansi
    ons to meet current or likely future needs.

58
Data Systems and AnalysisRecommended Enhancements
  • Inclusion of all injury crashes in national
    databases
  • Use of technology to automate and minimize
    redundancy and errors
  • Development of a data warehouse and provide
    online access
  • Development of state, regional and local Safety
    Perform Functions

59
Data Systems and Analysis - Recommended
Enhancements Continued
  • Increase accessibility online
  • Create an on-going mechanism to keep the
    knowledge base updated with new research and
    evaluation of treatments and online access
  • Expand analytical tools to other road types and
    facilities and road users

60
Data Systems and Analysis Strategies
  • Strategy 1
  • Implement state-of-the-art tools (1-5 years)
  • Strategy 2
  • Expand on methods and application tools (1-10
    years)
  • Strategy 3
  • Develop and implement new methods and tools
    (1-15 years)

61
 If decision-makers are provided safety
analysis tools that output better safety
decisions or make the decision-making process
easier, these tools will be used. If these tools
require improved safety data, then these same
decision-makers will find ways to generate these
improved data. Source Traffic Safety
Information Systems International Scan Strategy
Implementation White Paper, Publication No.
FHWA-HRT-06-099, September 2006
62
TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FATALITIES (McGees
Opinion)
  • 10. Comprehensive integrated safety data system
  • 9. Highway design standards that consider
    vulnerable usersaging, bicycle, motorcycle
  • 8. Implement low-cost proven highway safety
    improvements
  • 7. Increase safety of young drivers
  • 6. Curtail distracted driving

63
TOP 10 STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FATALITIES (McGees
Opinion)
  • 5. Develop affordable safety devices/technology
    for all vehicles
  • 4. Reduce number of impaired drivers
  • 3. Increase restraint use
  • 2. Reduce speeding
  • 1. Adopt culture of safety
  • Thats my opinion. What do you think?

64
LASTLY --THANK YOU AUTHORS
White Paper Expert/Author
Future View Implications for Safety Alan Pisarski
Future View Implications for Safety Forrest Council
Safety Culture Nicholas Ward
Safety Culture Jeff Linkenbach
Safety Culture Sarah Keller
Safety Culture Jay Otto
Safer Drivers Neil Lerner
Safer Drivers Jeremiah Singer
Safer Drivers James Jenness
Safer Vehicles Richard Retting
Safer Vehicles Ron Knipling
65
White Paper Author
Safer Vulnerable Users Charlie Zeeger
Safer Vulnerable Users William Hunter
Safer Vulnerable Users Loren Staplin
Safer Vulnerable Users Fran Bents
Safer Vulnerable Users Richard Huey
Safer Vulnerable Users Janet Barlow
Safer Infrastructure Paul Jovanis
Safer Infrastructure Eric Donnell
Emergency Medical Systems Nadine Levick
Data Systems Analysis Tools Barbara DeLucia
Data Systems Analysis Tools Geni Bahar
Lessons Learned from European Experiences Ezra Hauer
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