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MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY

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medieval philosophy time period: 8th-14th centuries 3 stages: (1) 8-12th cent: preparatory period; (2) 13th cent: the great syntheses: bonaventure, thomas aquinas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY


1
MEDIEVAL PHILOSOPHY
  • TIME PERIOD 8TH-14TH CENTURIES
  • 3 STAGES (1) 8-12TH CENT PREPARATORY PERIOD
    (2) 13TH CENT THE GREAT SYNTHESES BONAVENTURE,
    THOMAS AQUINAS, DUNS SCOTUS (3) 14TH CENT
    DECLINE/DESTRUCTIVE CRITICISM
  • GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS (1) SYNTHESIS OF FAITH
    REASON (2) PHILOSOPHY THE HANDMAIDEN OF
    THEOLOGY(3) USE OF GREEK ROMAN PHILOSOPHICAL
    CONCEPTS FOR THEOLOGICAL PURPOSE

2
AUGUSTINE 354 430INFLUENCIAL FIGURE FOR
WESTERN MEDIEVAL THOUGHT
  • INFLUENCED BY PLATO PLOTINUS
  • NO CLEAR DISTINCTION BETWEEN PHILOSOPHY
    THEOLOGY
  • FUNCTION OF REASON IN THE SEARCH FOR WISDOM A
    HELP TO PREPARE A MAN FOR FAITH NO PURELY
    NATURAL MAN MANS FINAL END SUPERNATURAL END
  • PROTO MEDIEVAL EXISTENTIALIST

3
AUGUSTINES EPISTEMOLOGY
  • FOCUS KNOWLEDGE OF THE TRUTH THAT BRINGS TRUE
    HAPPINESS/ BEATITUDE
  • BASIC QUESTION HOW DOES THE FINITE, CHANGING
    HUMAN MIND ATTAIN CERTAIN KNOWLEDGE OF ETERNAL
    TRUTHS WHICH RULE GOVERN THE MIND, AND SO
    TRANSCEND IT?
  • KNOWLEDGE OF ETERNAL TRUTH BRINGS THE SOUL TO
    KNOWLEDGE OF GOD AND HIS ACTIVITY

4
AUGUSTINES EPISTEMOLOGY
  • CONTRA ACADEMICOS WISDOM PERTAINS TO HAPPINESS,
    KNOWLEDGE OF TRUTH PERTAINS TO WISDOM EVEN THE
    SCEPTICS ARE CERTAIN OF SOME TRUTHS ONE WHO
    DOUBTS KNOWS THAT HE IS DOUBTING ? CERTAIN OF
    THIS TRUTH THE FACT THAT HE DOUBTS
  • A MAN IS AT LEAST CERTAIN OF HIS EXISTENCE SI
    FALLOR, SUM IF I CAN BE DECEIVED THEN I EXIST
    ANTICIPATES DESCARTES

5
AUGUSTINES EPISTEMOLOGY
  • DE LIBERO ARBITRIO MAN CERTAIN OF 3 THINGS THAT
    HE EXISTS, THAT HE LIVES, AND THAT HE UNDERSTANDS
  • CERTAINTY FOR WHAT WE KNOW BY INNER EXPERIENCE,
    BY SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS RETURN WITHIN OURSELVES
    WHERE TRUTH ABIDES, USE THE SOUL, THE IMAGE OF
    GOD, AS A STEPPING-STONE TO HIM
  • AUGUSTINES PLATONISM WITH REGARD TO KNOWLEDGE OF
    SENSE-OBJECTS

6
AUGUSTINES EPISTEMOLOGY
  • AUGUSTINES THEORY OF ILLUMINISM PLOTINIAN
    INFLUENCE AS THE SUNLIGHT MAKES CORPOREAL THINGS
    VISIBLE TO THE EYE, SO THE DIVINE ILLUMINATION
    MAKES THE ETERNAL TRUTHS VISIBLE TO THE MIND

7
AUGUSTINES CONCEPT OF GOD
  • AUGUSTINES CENTRAL FAVORITE PROOF OF GODS
    EXISTENCE A PROOF FROM THOUGHT/WITHIN, THE
    MINDS APPREHENSION OF NECESSARY CHANGLESS
    TRUTHS. GOD IS THE TRUTH THE GROUND of all
    truths.
  • NOT SO MUCH CONCERNED TO PROVE TO THE ATHEIST
    THAT GOD EXISTS AS TO SHOW HOW ALL CREATION
    PROCLAIMS THE GOD WHOM THE SOUL CAN EXPERIENCE IN
    ITSELF, THE LIVING GOD

8
AUGUSTINES CONCEPT OF GOD
  • INTERESTED MORE IN THE DYNAMIC ATTITUDE OF THE
    SOUL TOWARDS GOD, NOT THE CONSTRUCTION OF
    DIALECTICAL ARGUMENTS WITH A PURELY THEORETICAL
    CONCLUSION
  • LINKING UP THE PROOF FOR THE EXISTENCE OF GOD
    WITH THE SOULS SEARCH FOR GOD AS THE SOURCE OF
    HAPPINESS
  • HUMAN BEING AS THE IMAGE OF GOD THE WORLD OF ALL
    CREATURES REFLECTS MANIFESTS GOD

9
AUGUSTINE - THE WORLD
  • FREE CREATION OUT OF NOTHING
  • EMPHASIZING THE ESSENTIAL DEPENDENCE OF ALL
    CREATURES ON GOD THE PERISHABLE NATURE OF ALL
    CORPOREAL CREATURES
  • RATIONES SEMINALES THE GERMS OF THOSE THINGS
    WHICH WERE TO DEVELOP IN THE COURSE OF TIME,
    POTENTIALITES CREATED BY GOD

10
AUGUSTINE - THE WORLD
  • MAN BODY IMMORTAL SOUL THE PEAK OF MATERIAL
    CREATION RATIONAL SOUL USING A MORTAL EARTHLY
    BODY
  • THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL IS EVIDENT FROM ITS
    CAPACITY TO APPREHEND THE ETERNAL AND CHANGELESS
    TRUTHS

11
AUGUSTINES ETHICS
  • EUDAIMONISTIC ETHICS TRUE HAPPINESS CAN BE FOUND
    ONLY IN GOD, THE ATTAINMENT POSSESSION OF THE
    ETERNAL IMMUTABLE GOOD
  • AN ETHICS OF LOVE IT IS THE THE WILL/LOVE THAT
    MAN REACHES OUT TOWARD GOD AND FINALLY TAKES
    POSSESSION OF ENJOYS HIM
  • THE ATTAINMENT OF BEATITUDE IS NOT POSSIBLE
    WITHOUT GODS GRACE

12
AUGUSTINES ETHICS
  • FREEDOM NECESSARY BASIS OF OBLIGATION THE WILL
    IS FREE TO TURN AWAY FROM THE IMMUTABLE GOOD AND
    TO ATTACH ITSELF TO MUTABLE GOOD
  • BY TURNING AWAY FROM GOD THE WILL RUNS COUNTER TO
    THE DIVINE LAW WHICH IS EXPRESSED IN HUMAN NATURE
  • THE ETERNAL LAWS OF MORALITY ARE IMPRESSED IN THE
    HEART OF MAN BY GOD

13
AUGUSTINES ETHICS
  • JUST AS THE HUMAN MIND PERCEIVES ETERNAL
    THEORETICAL TRUTHS IN THE LIGHT OF GOD, SO IT
    PERCEIVES, IN THE SAME LIGHT, PRACTICAL TRUTHS OR
    PRINCIPLES WHICH SHOULD DIRECT THE FREE WILL
  • THE WILL IS FREE, BUT AT THE SAME TIME SUBJECT TO
    MORAL OBLIGATION, TO LOVE GOD IS A DUTY
  • GRACE IN NEEDED EVEN TO BEGIN TO WILL TO LOVE GOD

14
AUGUSTINES ETHICS
  • EVIL TURNING THE WILL AWAY FROM GOD MORAL
    PERFECTION CONSISTS IN LOVING GOD, DIRECTING THE
    WILL TO GOD AND BRINGING ALL OTHER POWERS INTO
    HARMONY WITH THIS DIRECTION
  • THE CAUSE OF EVIL NOT THE CREATOR BUT THE
    CREATED WILL
  • MORAL EVIL A PRIVATION OF RIGHT ORDER IN THE
    CREATED WILL

15
AUGUSTINES ETHICS
  • IF MORALITY IS LOVE OF GOD AND THE ESSENCE OF
    EVIL IS A FALLING-AWAY FROM GOD ?2 GREAT CAMPS
    THOSE WHO LOVE GOD PREFER GOD TO SELF AND THOSE
    WHO PREFER SELF TO GOD
  • AUGUSTINE LOOKED ON HISTORY FROM THE CHRISTIAN
    STANDPOINT AND THAT HIS OUTLOOK WAS PRIMARILY
    SPIRITUAL AND MORAL.

16
AUGUSTINE AND THE STATE
  • HE SAW IN HISTORY AS HE SAW IN THE INDIVIDUAL,
    THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN 2 PRINCIPLES OF CONDUCT, 2
    LOVES LOVE OF GOD SUBMISSION TO HIS LAW AND
    LOVE OF SELF, OF PLEASURE AND OF THE WOLRD
  • THE HEAVENLY CITY (CIVITAS DEI) VS THE PAGAN
    STATE (CIVITAS TERRENA) THEYARE MORAL AND
    SPIRITUAL IDEAS, NOT EXACTLY COTERMINUS WITH ANY
    ACTUAL ORGANISATION

17
SIGNIFICANCE OF AUGUSTINE
  • HE LAID THE FOUNDATION FOR MEDIEVAL THINKING,
    ADAPTED PLATONISM TO CHRISTIAN FAITH, GAVE
    SYSTEMATIC FORMULATION OF CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY
  • HIS SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT
    OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION

18
SIGNIFICANCE OF AUGUSTINE
  • HIS PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY EXERTED AN IFLUENCE NOT
    ONLY ON RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS BUT ON SECULAR
    PHILOSOPHERS
  • SINCE THE TIME OF AUGUSTINE, THE SELF IN ITS
    RELATIONSHIP TO GOD BECOMES THE SUPREME PROBLEM
    OF PHILOSOPHY
  • WE APPRECIATE HIM NOT ONLY BECAUSE OF THE ANSWERS
    HE GAVE BUT BECAUSE OF THE DEEP QUESTIONS HE
    RAISED
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