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Bahan kajian MK. Agroekologi PENGELOAAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM UNTUK PRODUKSI PANGAN Prof Dr Ir Soemarno, pslp-ppsub-2009 * * KEHUTANAN Improved management, sustainable ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Bahan kajian MK. Agroekologi PENGELOAAN
Ir Soemarno, pslp-ppsub-2009
Perkembangan Produksi Pangan Saat ini di dunia
timbul kekawatiran mengenai keberlanjutan
produksi pangan sejalan dengan semakin beralihnya
lahan pertanian ke non pertanian untuk kebutuhan
perumahan, perkatoran, lokasi industri yang
diakibatkan semakin meningkatnya pertumbuhan
penduduk dan industri. Dalam rangka antsipasi
untuk menyediakan pangan di Indonesia mendatang,
maka berikut disajikan tentang perkembangan
produksi pangan. Laju pertumbuhan produksi
pangan ini relatif rendah, bahkan untuk produksi
padi cenderung konstan. Keadaan ini terjadi
karena luas areal produksi pangan yang cenderung
Sustainable Food Production Developing the
Principles There are several related principles
of sustainable food production, but probably the
most central, is not to use resources faster than
they renew. A common example Ive used is that
if you want to cut one 50-year-old tree a year,
you need to have 50 trees growing of that kind,
from seedling to 49 years old. As long as you
have all these trees growing, you can cut one
50-year-old tree a year indefinitely, and sustain
the forest in its present size. That might seem
more important for forestry than food production,
but when we look at the problems of maintaining
fertile soil in many areas of the world, trees
become a logical source of food, as they produce
fruit, nuts, and fodder for animals. The plant
nutrients of soil are a resource, than can easily
be used faster than they will renew under the
plow. Perennial plants like trees can help to
solve this problem, as well as reducing needed
energy use to pull cultivating tools. Which is
once more, following the principle of not using
resources faster than they renew, to avoid using
too much energy, whether from fossil fuel, or
anything else.
Sejumlah petani di Kab.Bandung mempercepat masa
penanaman padi musim kedua, dengan memanfaatkan
cadangan air yang masih mencukupi pada musim
kemarau ini. Mereka berharap dapat memanen pada
bulan Oktober, sehingga dalam setahun dapat
kembali melakukan penanaman sampai tiga
kali. Sejumlah petani padi di Kec.Soreang,
Selasa (30/6) tengah membajak lahan-lahan sawah
mereka. Cadangan air diperhitungkan akan
mencukupi sampai dua bulan ke depan, sehingga
diharapkan tanaman padi mereka selamat
dipanen. Hanya saja, banyak petani mengeluhkan
berkurangnya pasokan air, walau musim hujan tahun
ini lebih panjang. Pasalnya, banyak oknum
perusahaan pengembang dan calo tanah, menyabotase
irigasi sehingga banyak sawah menjadi kekurangan
air sehingga terkesan kurang produktif lagi.
Land and water management Two of the most
important agricultural resources, land and water,
are crucial for the well being of the
Asia-Pacific region, which is home to nearly
three-fourths of the worlds agricultural
population. However, Asia-Pacific tillers have to
depend on about 28 percent of the worlds
cropland with the land available per person for
cultivation being just one-sixth of the average
in the rest of the world.
Land and water management
A growing population is adding to pressure on
arable land. To meet its increasing food needs,
the region will have to produce more food largely
from the existing farmlands because there is very
little land available for physical expansion.
This can be done only by increasing crop yields
and stepping up cropping intensity.
technologies can bring about dramatic gains in
crop yields, much depends on the state of land
and water resources. A major problem is land
degradation, which is caused in the region
largely by water and wind erosion. A joint
study of land degradation in South Asia by FAO,
the UN Development Programme (UNDP) and the UN
Environment Programme (UNEP) found that water and
wind erosion respectively damage 25 and 18
percent of the subregions total land. Latest
estimates show that in China water erosion
affects 34 percent of the total cultivated land
and wind erosion a further 2 percent. In
Thailand, approximately 34 percent of the total
land area is affected by water erosion. Deforesta
tion, excessive use of chemical fertilizers, soil
erosion and excessive extraction of groundwater
are major causes of land degradation in the
region. With more than half of the worlds 30
largest cities located in the region, rapid
industrialization and urbanization are also
responsible for swallowing up and affecting
arable land.
Asia-Pacific region account for more than half of
the worlds agricultural water use with 60
percent of the worlds water being consumed by
the region in 2000. The region has some of the
wettest and driest spots on earth. Irrigation
systems are not only costly, but they are also
inefficient. It is estimated that up to 60
percent of the water diverted or pumped for
irrigation is not used for plant production. The
region must give priority attention to
modernizing water delivery and irrigation
region need conservation techniques to combat
land degradation. Integrated watershed management
is one of the best ways of developing rainfed
areas. This has conservation and development
aspects, arresting and reversing land and
ecological degradation while producing material
benefits to local communities in the form of
food, fodder and forest and livestock
products. Appropriate technologies should also
be adopted to reduce and prevent soil erosion,
which is a serious problem in hilly areas. These
include correct tillage practices, land formation
techniques and stabilization structures. The
Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS) to
increase soil fertility can also help in reducing
soil erosion.
been (1) improved management and sustainable use
of land and water resources for food security
and (2) enhanced livelihoods, with emphasis on
supporting improved irrigation systems,
sustainable land management and soil
conservation, biodiversity and fertility. In
collaboration with national institutions, a
workshop and project were carried out to promote
land evaluation and land-use planning systems and
tools, and to promote sustainable agricultural
systems to address land degradation and
desertification, biodiversity conservation,
carbon sequestration and reduced emissions.
office has launched a new Web site dedicated to
the modernization of irrigation systems - visit The Web site focuses on
design, performance, operation, management and
upgrading of medium- or large-scale irrigation
systems. Tools for use in the appraisal,
benchmarking and upgrading of irrigation systems
for modernization and their upgrading are
provided as well as training materials and
programmes on the operation and management,
modernization and benchmarking of irrigation
schemes. Training materials can be consulted
online and downloaded from the Web site. Two
projects were carried out to promote the
development of location-specific standards on
nutrient management, and the establishment and
implementation of bio-organic fertilizer
standards. Investment in land and water (RAP
2002/09) explains the urgent need for arresting
and reversing the decline in investment in land
and water development in Asia-Pacific countries.
Irrigation needs about one-third of the US30.7
billion additional annual investment required in
agriculture in developing countries to ensure
food security.
management and policy affect the performance of
irrigation projects (RAP 2002/20) is a
contribution to an emerging understanding that
physical and institutional reforms of the
irrigation sector should be combined, and that
irrigation management transfer is not only about
transferring operation functions but also
governance to the irrigation users and a
combination of the two at different levels.
an agreement was signed in Bangkok, Thailand
between the Ministry of Agriculture and
Cooperatives (MoAC) and FAO for the introduction
and demonstration of new techniques for the
sustainable use of soils for crop production. The
project will introduce appropriate techniques for
the rehabilitation and management of problem
soils, particularly in rainfed agriculture. Essen
tial and validated information on land use and
land cover will contribute to improved analysis,
planning and decision-making with regard to food
security and poverty alleviation.
introducing drought- and salt-tolerant crops and
assisting farmers in sharing the available
irrigation water in an equitable and efficient
manner. Farmers and related government officials
are being trained on drainage management and
on-farm irrigation, irrigation technology, field
levelling, water accounting and modification of
local farm machinery for conservation agriculture
for small independent farmers in KK.
Conservation Network for the Humid Tropics
(ASOCON) was formed with UNDP/FAO support in 1989
and became a quasi-legal entity in June 1993.
The ultimate objective is to help small-scale
farmers use their land sustainably and
International Vetiver Conference was held in
Guanzhou, Guangdong Province, in southern China
in October 2003. The theme of the conference was
"Vetiver Systems (VS) application to improve
water quality and distribution in the
environment". Topics included application of VS
for runoff control, groundwater recharge,
erosion control and slope stabilization,
pollution control and water quality protection,
purification of landfill and mining lactates,
earthworks, stabilization, plant production,
extension strategies, and other grasses for water
and soil conservation. The network is concerned
mainly with the rational use, management and
conservation of problem soils within the
Asia-Pacific region in a sustainable and
environmentally sound manner.
di lahan kering sangat dipengaruhi oleh keadaan
curah hujan. Untuk menghindari resiko kegagalan
panen, pemilihan waktu tanam dan varietas harus
tepat. Apabila waktu tanam pada suatu lokasi
pengembangan telah diketahui, maka langkah
selanjutya adalah menyusun pola tanam. Dalam
penyusunan pola tanam, selain aspek biofisik,
pola tanam yang telah berkembang pada masyarakat
setempat juga harus diperhatikan, sehingga pola
tanam yang dikembangkan bukan merupakan sesuatu
yang baru sama sekali tetapi merupakan
pengembangan dari pola tanam yang telah ada.
Pola tanam di lahan tegal di wilayah
Banjarnegara pada MH I adalah ubi kayu
monokultur, tumpangsari antara ubikayu-jagung
atau ubikayu-padi gogo atau ubikayu-kacang tanah
dengan populasi masing-masing 100. Dengan
mengubah tata letak tanaman ubikayu menjadi baris
ganda, maka memungkinkan kacang tanah ditanam
kembali pada MH II di antara tanaman ubikayu baik
setelah jagung, padi gogo atau kacang tanah
pertama. Hal ini berarti akan terjadi penambahan
luas pertanaman kacang tanah. Dengan menambah
intensitas tanam berarti akan meningkatkan
produksi dan sekaligus menambah pendapatan
favourable weather conditions make the
Asia-Pacific region a major producer of cereals
(rice, wheat and maize), legumes, vegetables,
fruits and industrial crops like rubber, coconut,
pepper and oil-palm. The region produces 90
percent of the worlds rice, which is Asias most
important food crop and the staple diet for
three-fifths of the global population. Rice
provides more than half the daily dietary energy
of over three billion people in the region. A
number of Asian countries are now self-sufficient
in rice production the current annual harvest of
524 million tonnes is expected to grow to 700
million tonnes by 2025. However, the region is
adding 51 million rice consumers to its
population annually while the land and water
resources that are available for rice farms are
declining steadily increasing numbers of
marginal farmers in the Asia-Pacific region are
depending on degraded farmlands. The key to
future food security in Asia lies in boosting
farm yields without damaging the natural resource
base, reducing the rate of population increase
and diversifying the food basket. FAO is helping
to increase rice outputs in Asian countries where
paddy yields are lower compared to the regions
efficient rice-farming nations.
encouraging Asian rice farmers to combine their
harvests with new crop types, including hitherto
neglected species, vegetables, fruits, herbs and
spices, medicinal plants and cash crops. Crop
and farming system diversification that includes,
inter alia, livestock husbandry, will not only
increase food variety, but also help to reduce
the environmental, economic and nutritional risks
associated with planting only one type of
crop. Expanding rice production has, moreover,
reduced profits from paddy farming. FAO advocates
farming diversification by rearing livestock,
planting higher value horticultural and cash
crops and marketing value-added products of all
commodities as the best protection against
falling farm produce prices. In Asia and the
Pacific, higher value crops produce 10 to 15
times the net returns per hectare of rice. The
region produces over 50 percent of the worlds
industrial crops mainly via smallholders.
Industrial crops cover about 20 percent of
available land in the region.
quarantine measures keep farm pests and diseases
from spreading. Developing countries in the
region have to conform to new international plant
quarantine standards being developed under the
new world trade rules. While protecting farm
harvests from pests and crop diseases, it is
important to ensure that the methods used do not
cause irreparable damage to the agrarian ecology
and human health. FAO is promoting IPM
techniques to eliminate the use of expensive
chemical pest killers that are known to be
harmful for farms and consumers. In addition, FAO
is encouraging organic farming such as organic
coffee, pepper, vegetables and fruits.
Potensi ladang jagung di Indonesia sengatlah
besar, karena tanaman jagung merupakan tanaman
yang tergolong kuat dan dapat ditanam di berbagai
jenis tanah. Selain sebagai bahan baku pakan
ternak, jagung juga sebagai cadangan pangan
pengganti beras disebagian wilayah di
Indonesia. Setelah olah lahan, berikan pupuk
kandang sebanyak 10 ton/ha diberikan sepanjang
larikan tanaman sebelum tanam. Kemudian berikan
larutan Golden Harvest (1 liter Golden Harvest
air max 200 liter) pada setiap titik tanam. Tahap
ini diperlukan 2 liter Golden Harvest per
hektar. Dengan budidaya yang baik dan
menggunakan teknologi Golden Harvest, potensi
yang sedemikian besar tersebut akan dapat
diraih. Tanaman mengikuti alur bajak, jagung
ditanam sistem baris ganda dengan jarak tanam 40
x 25 cm, 1 tan/rumpun sebanyak 2 baris, dan jarak
antar baris ganda berikutnya 3 m.
horticultural crops, the focus has been on
cropping systems that promote high value crops
more effective management of resources in
smallholders cropping systems higher
productivity and sustainable crop production in
tropical environments sustainable
intensification of urban and peri-urban
agricultural production systems integrated crop
management IPM and support to the International
Rice Commission. For industrial crops, activities
targeted the development of underutilized
species improved cropping systems and crop
diversification IPM and support to regional
institutions. A technically sound,
environmentally friendly and farmer-focused IPM
strategy with corresponding participatory
training activities will be developed and
storage project was formulated for Timor-Leste
with the support of UNDP/EU. Support was also
provided in reviewing the prospects for
industrial crops, the formulation of a coconut
oil project and a feasibility study for palm oil
production. An upgraded soil analysis facility
for rice and maize production in the Democratic
Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK) has resulted in
cost-effective fertilizer use recommendations. A
bio-organic fertilizer standard has been
established in Lao PDR, contributing to better
quality fertilizer for farmers.
Rural Asia-Pacific Inter-disciplinary strategies
to combat hunger and poverty. The rice-based
livelihood-support systems (RAP 2002/12)
identifies sustainable strategies to yield more
food, incomes and livelihoods in line with the
vision of eradicating hunger and rural poverty in
the Asia-Pacific rice lands over the next three
decades. The publication examines the potential
of the wide range of rice-based farming systems
in the region to meet the food and livelihood
security demands that will be made on them in the
coming decades. It outlines a menu of
interdisciplinary strategies and interventions to
enable the rice-based systems to live up to the
challenge and the role that FAO can play. From
farmer field school to community IPM Ten years
of IPM training in Asia (RAP 2002/15) is a
comprehensive account of IPM as a farmer-centred
and local needs-responsive approach, which was
developed on the rice farms of Southeast Asia to
tackle the risks arising from excessive pesticide
use promoted by the green revolution. The
publication includes step-by-step instructions on
organizing and running farmers field schools
along with detailed case studies of farmers
field schools in Southeast Asia as well as
several personal experiences of farmers who
gained from the programme. A separate section
outlines the IPM programme activities in
Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Nepal,
Sri Lanka and Viet Nam.
Asia and the Pacific (RAP 2002/16) provides a
comprehensive account of the origin,
distribution, production and trade of different
species of this commercially important fruit crop
that is cultivated mainly in Bangladesh, China,
India, Nepal, Thailand and Viet Nam. These
countries produce more than 1.8 million tonnes of
the about two million tonnes of lychee crop
cultivated annually in Asia, which accounts for
over 95 percent of the world lychee harvest. The
Technical Consultation on Biological Risk
Management in Food and Agriculture met in
Bangkok, Thailand in January 2003. The aim was to
consult governments on the possibilities to
harmonize, where appropriate, methods of risk
analysis to enhance capacity building, where
needed, particularly in developing countries and
countries with economies in transition and to
establish an official information exchange system
on biological risk management in food and
agriculture ("biosecurity"). FAO has established
a Priority Area for Interdisciplinary Action on
Biosecurity to coordinate this process within the
organization. The first regional consultation of
the FAO project Capacity building in biosafety of
genetically modified crops in Asia, which was
convened in Bangkok in July 2003, identified
country-specific strengths and weaknesses
relating to national capacities, including
legislation, regulations and policies for the
biosafety of GM crops. It also addressed the
prioritization of the support needed in enhancing
the biosafety capacities of the participating
Meeting plant protection needs in the 21st
century (2003-2005) The objective of the project
is to develop and promote an effective e-mail
network ("PestNet") among Pacific Island
countries (PICs) by effectively addressing
farmers plant protection needs and enhancing
delivery of pest diagnoses, quarantine
information and advice to farmers. PestNet will
facilitate the identification of pests and
diseases by means of digital photos, which are to
be linked to existing databases such as EcoPort.
Relevant training on pest identification and
database management will be provided and a
participatory rural appraisal (PRA) survey will
assess farmers perceptions and needs in the
participating countries. FAOs assistance will
contribute to improving plant protection
decision-making at the farm level through better
access by farmers to demand-driven services for
the identification and control of crop pests and
international IFOAM organic trade conference and
the seminar on production and export of organic
fruit and vegetables in Asia (jointly convened by
FAO, IFOAM International Federation of Organic
Agriculture Movements and Green Net from
Thailand) were conducted from 1 to 10 November
2003 in Bangkok. The plenary sessions,
workshops and seminars addressed a broad spectrum
of important themes necessary for the further
development of organic markets. In addition to
numerous presentations and discussions
surrounding the Organic Guarantee System and the
movements efforts to harmonize standards and
certification, the conference also emphasized the
importance and benefits of interlinking fair
trade and organic agriculture.
Animal production and health
households in Asia-Pacific countries depend on
domesticated animals for food, draught power and
income. The region has 30 percent of the worlds
livestock species. Though livestock food products
are still not a significant part of the diet in
developing Asia-Pacific countries, consumption is
growing rapidly. Developing Asian countries now
have the worlds highest growth rates of
production and consumption of food derived from
livestock. Meat production in the region grew
from about nine million tonnes in 1961 to more
than 90 million tonnes by the end of the
twentieth century. Small farmers account for the
bulk of the livestock production, combining this
with cropping and other agricultural
activities. Traditionally, income from the sale
of milk, meat, manure and other basic livestock
products has protected small farmers from the
shock of crop failure and provided a steady
livelihood for marginal farmers who do not have
other agricultural resources. Ownership of
livestock also helps to alleviate hunger among
the poor. Possession of livestock, which feed on
open grazing lands, allows the rural poor to take
advantage of common property resources to earn
income. Livestock also provide a substantial
amount of draught power on Asia-Pacific farms.
According to one estimate in 1985, the 30 million
draught animals then in use on Asias small farms
did work equivalent to the same number of
growth in the regions poultry and pig meat
industries - the latter accounted for 55 percent
of all meat production in 2000 - is promoting a
shift from pasture-based production systems to
feed cropping. Some countries have to depend on
feed imports to meet the needs of the livestock
industry. Prevention, control and eradication of
communicable livestock diseases are central to
FAOs livestock development priorities. Some
animal diseases can also be transmitted to humans
such as the Nipah virus, which devastated
Malaysias pig industry and claimed more than 100
human lives in 1998 and 1999. A number of
emerging diseases with the potential to infect
humans have been identified in the past ten
years. Over the past 25 years, developing Asian
countries have introduced several exotic
livestock species in a bid to increase
productivity. However, most of these
introductions - usually through crossbreeding -
have not been successful. Reasons range from
increased feed consumption, lower reproductive
rates and greater disease susceptibility of the
new breeds, to the debts of local farmers who are
unable to repay loans taken to procure the exotic
Peternakan Bebek Peternakan bebek yang ada di
desa ini ada 2 jenis, yaitu bebek musiman dan
bebek yang selalu ada setiap saat. Bebek musiman
yang dimaksud di sini adalah jika ada orang yang
menitipkan bebeknya di peternakan tersebut.
Bebek yang ada di desa ini adalah jenis bebek
development is also threatened by the
disappearance of indigenous breeds. Every week,
the world loses two breeds of domestic animals,
according to a joint study by FAO and UNEP. The
Asia-Pacific region is home to 99.6 percent of
the worlds buffalo breeds other common
livestock comprise pigs (56.3 percent), goats
(62.7 percent), chickens (46.4 percent) and ducks
(85.3 percent). Some livestock species risk
extinction, in particular the Hmong cattle of
Viet Nam, which numbered only 14 000 head in
2001. The coming years are a critical period for
livestock production in Asia and the Pacific.
Poorly planned animal-breeding strategies and the
loss of indigenous breeds threaten the regions
ability to meet future food and livelihood
demands. At the same time, the growing demand for
livestock products now offers the opportunity to
launch a new food revolution to reduce poverty
and hunger among small farming households that
constitute 80 percent of all farming families in
Asia and the Pacific.
Manual on the diagnosis of nipah virus infection
in animals, contains information on the emergence
of the virus and provides general principles and
detailed instructions for dealing safely with it.
It includes information on risk assessment in
field investigations, safety procedures during
field and laboratory investigations, all aspects
of control and eradication along with guidelines
for action by the pig industry and governments to
keep the virus out. A series of appendices list
hands-on safety instructions and essential safety
equipment. FAO supports the Animal Production and
Health Commission for Asia and the Pacific
(APHCA) - visit http// - and the
South Asia Rinderpest Campaign. The 27th session
of APHCA was convened in Lahore, Pakistan in
August 2003. Recent APHCA publications issued by
the FAO-RAP are Some issues associated with the
livestock industries of the Asia-Pacific region.
(RAP 2002/06) A basic laboratory manual for the
small-scale production and testing of 1-2
Newcastle disease vaccine (RAP 2002/22) The
livestock industries of Thailand (RAP 2002/23)
Report of the 26th Session of the Animal
Production and Health Commission for Asia and the
Pacific (APHCA) (RAP 2002/24).
Peternakan kambing Peternakan kambing ini
biasanya terletak di rumah-rumah penduduk.
Kambing yang ada di rumah-rumah penduduk ini
umumnya merupakan kambing lokal. Di desa ini,
hanya melakukan penggemukan kambing, sedangkan
untuk pemasarannya dilakukan di luar desa
Peniwen. Kambing yang ada di desa ini tidak makan
rumput, melainkan makan konsentrat.
encompassed economic and environmental
sustainability food safety risk analysis of
marginalizing smallholder farmers from market
opportunities threats related to the spread of
transboundary and zoonotic diseases (and
concomitantly the development of newly emerging
diseases generated by high animal density and
international trade in live animals and livestock
products) and the alarming loss of domestic
animal diversity. The threat of endemic
diseases, pests and newly emerging diseases -
resulting in food shortages, destabilization of
markets and periodically triggering trade
barriers - was addressed jointly by FAO and the
World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE),
particularly in the context of FAOs Emergency
Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and
Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) through the
preparation of the Asia component of the Global
Framework for the Progressive Control of Foot and
Mouth Disease and other transboundary diseases.
Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS)
assists in the conservation and promotion of
animal genetic diversity. In the State of the
Worlds Animal Genetic Resources process, country
report preparation and convening of regional
meetings are essential. Regional meetings
identify regional needs for animal genetic
resources and aim at reaching agreement on
priorities for action at the regional level, in
accordance with major production system
characteristics. The regional office also
publishes the quarterly Asian livestock on the
Internet. A regional training workshop was
convened in Fiji to assist the PICs in the
preparation of their country reports as inputs
for the State of the Worlds Animal Genetic
Resources. The potential loss of animal diversity
was addressed under the umbrella of FAOs Global
Strategy for the Management of Farm Animal
Genetic Resources. Member countries have agreed
to prepare country reports as input to the first
report on the State of the Worlds Animal Genetic
consultation, jointly organized by FAO and the
International Feed Industry Federation in Bangkok
in April 2002, discussed changes in livestock
systems enhanced requirements for protein in the
tropics and the potential of ruminants on limited
protein intake to utilize available forage food
safety issues related to animal feed derived from
biotechnology crops, including GMOs current
issues relating to the use of animal by-products
in feed adaptation of European laws and
regulations on animal feed use, to conditions in
developing countries and countries in transition.
Presentations were made by animal production
and health experts on developments and issues
relating to livestock production, protein
supplies and the feed industries of selected
countries including Australia, Botswana, China,
India, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan,
Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, Turkey, Viet Nam
and countries of the EU. Under the Livestock,
Environment and Development Initiative (LEAD),
three pilot studies in China, Thailand and Viet
Nam were conducted to assess the impact of
industrial livestock production on the
environment and the area-wide integration of
specialized crop and livestock activities they
have led to the formulation of a World Bank/
Global Environment Facility (GEF) project.
Peternakan Ayam Peternakan ayam di desa Peniwen
ini juga hampir ada di setiap rumah-rumah
penduduk. Ayam tersebut biasanya diambil daging
dan telurnya. Selain itu ada juga telur ayam
Arab yang bisa digunakan sebagai obat (jamu).
investigating the impact of changes in the formal
market on poor and small-scale producers. In the
Pro-Poor Livestock Policy Initiative (PPLPI), the
social consequences of the transformation of the
livestock sector were addressed. The potentials
and constraints of small-scale dairy production
for poverty reduction were studied in Bangladesh,
India and Pakistan. PPLPI contributed to the
reform of livestock services in the Indian states
of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. In December 2003,
FAO published the preliminary results of the
first livestock census ever conducted in
Afghanistan. Data covered around three million
families. The project was carried out by FAO and
funded by the Government of Italy. The results
show that there are 3.7 million cattle, 8.8
million sheep, 7.3 million goats, 1.6 million
donkeys, 180 000 camels, 140 000 horses and 12.2
million poultry. Comparisons with earlier
livestock surveys showed that the number of farm
animals per family had plummeted. The number of
families without livestock has increased from
11.4 to 14.4 families per community due to the
drought. The number of cattle per family has
fallen from 3.7 in 1995 to 1.22 in 2003, while
the number of sheep decreased sharply from 21.9
to 2.9 over the same period. The final results of
the Afghan livestock census are expected early in
2004. They will contain detailed results from
household and gender surveys.
Animal production and health The Yak, second
edition (RAP 2003/ 06) traces briefly the
development of this animal and then describes in
some detail its characteristics and performance
and its products. There is also a discussion of
the more recent research and development projects
that may provide a basis for improvements in yak
performance and in the utilization of rangelands.
The research and development may also lead to a
wider distribution for the yak and to the better
utilization of yak products. Eighty-two piglets
were airlifted from the United Kingdom to Bhutan
in September 2003, during a significant logistic
operation carried out by FAO. The nucleus for a
pig-breeding programme in land-locked Bhutan, all
the piglets survived the journey and arrived in
good health. The importation of live piglets was
needed as pigs in Bhutan are largely in-bred and
their numbers are too small to act as a resource
for an expanded breeding programme. The
importation of animals of both sexes of three
different breeds will allow the development of
adequate breeding schemes and enhancement of the
pig genetic resources of the country. Funded by
FAO within the context of a technical cooperation
programme for improving food security and rural
income, the project aims to improve food
production and access to animal proteins in
Animal production and health In Bangladesh a
training programme for the small-scale dairy
sector has been underway since August 2003. The
objective is to develop short-term, tailor-made
training courses at the Savar Dairy Farm of the
Ministry of Feed and Livestock (MoFL) for persons
and organizations involved in milk production,
collection, processing and marketing in the
small-scale sector to improve efficiency and
quality throughout the farm to consumer milk
chain. Low-cost technologies for collecting
milk from remote rural areas and for efficient
small-scale processing of milk and traditional
dairy products are being promoted. An action
plan will be elaborated to sustain and
commercialize future training activities and for
the expansion of the approach to other regions.
Small-scale milk producers, collectors and
processors will be able to improve milk
production representing a promising way to raise
family income and improve food security.
Peternakan Babi Di desa ini, terdapat dua buah
peternakan babi yang terletak di Dusun Kalongan.
Peternakan ini memiliki kira-kira 20.000 ekor
babi. Babi dititipkan dan dibesarkan di tempat
ini, namun pembibitan dan pemasarannya dilakukan
di Surabaya.
Animal production and health Protection against
rinderpest and other major diseases of farm
livestock through emergency preparedness planning
and new vaccine technology is a project being
conducted in Nepal. The objective is to build
up the technical capacities of the veterinary
field services to increase their emergency
preparedness by means of improved contingency
planning and disease detection, surveillance,
reporting and data storage/ management. The
dialogue between Nepal, India and China with
respect to transboundary animal disease early
warning and early reaction will be strengthened.
Strengthening national veterinary services will
contribute to improved animal disease control and
thus improved livelihoods of poor livestock
PERIKANAN Fish and rice constitute the
traditional diet of most Asian and Pacific
people. Per caput fish consumption ranges from
the worlds highest level in the Maldives to
among the lowest in Pakistan and parts of
northern India. In the Pacific, subsistence
fisheries make an important contribution to often
high levels of per caput supplies. Fish provide
nutritious food, employment and income for
millions of people. In 1998, capture fishery
production from this region accounted for half of
the worlds production, and the production from
aquaculture reached 88 percent of the global
aquaculture production of fish and
shellfish. The fishery sector thus plays a
valuable role for food security in most countries
in the region. However, in general, marine
fishery resources are exploited fully (for
example in the Gulf of Thailand, the Bay of
Tonkin and the Bay of Bengal) and many heavily
fished stocks will need to be rehabilitated. It
is unlikely that future demands from an increased
population in the region will be met from the
seas. Aquaculture, and to a lesser extent
inland fisheries, may provide considerable
opportunities for further development to increase
fish production, but the region will probably
need to rely more on imports of fishery products
for its future supplies.
PERIKANAN For many countries in the region, the
central issue remains that of management and
sustainability of the marine resources.
Generally, coastal resources are overfished
severely by an overcrowded small-scale fishery
sector. In these domains, catch rates, fish size
and quality and, in some cases, fisherfolk
incomes, are declining. Conflicts between
small-scale fisheries and trawlers in the coastal
zones are frequent and fishery management is
complicated. Increasingly, partnerships between
local communities and the central government are
evolving to develop community-based fishery
management systems for local resources. The
prime concern is the need to increase the supply
of fish and the economic benefits from fishing by
the introduction and enforcement of better
PERIKANAN Aquaculture is an increasingly
important supplier of food and sustainer of food
security in many Asian countries. Considerable
benefits may be gained by the better integration
of aquaculture into overall rural and
agricultural development programmes. Also, the
supply of fish from aquaculture could be
increased by the wider application of
technological advances and better management of
fish health. Diversification and genetic
improvement of cultured species needs to be
promoted, together with a wider application of
semi-intensive production systems. Governments
and FAO are addressing these issues by promoting
appropriate policies and programmes. The
implementation of the Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries remains the primary goal
for FAO in Asia and the Pacific. The Code raises
awareness from top officials to local fisherfolk,
creating a responsible fishery system that stands
on the principles of protection for living
aquatic resources, environmental and coastal
areas. Central to a responsible fishery system is
the development of fishery and aquaculture
techniques, as well as conservation measures, in
complementation with enhanced food security and
food quality, by all people engaged in the
Indonesia adalah negara yang memiliki produksi
perikanan tangkap terbesar ke-4 dunia setelah
China, Peru, Amerika Serikat, dan Chile.
PERIKANAN The thrust has been on the sound
management and sustainable use of resources in
fisheries and aquaculture responsible
aquaculture development and the conservation of
marine and inland fisheries resources within the
framework of the FAO Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries via the strengthening of
regional institutions and international
collaboration. On 20 February 2003 FAO announced
that aquaculture is growing more rapidly than all
other animal food-producing sectors its
contribution to global supplies of fish,
crustaceans and molluscs had increased from 3.9
percent of total production by weight in 1970 to
27.3 percent in 2000, according to FAOs State of
World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2002 report
(SOFIA). The contribution from aquaculture
increased further to 29 percent in 2001. SOFIA,
presented at the 25th session of FAOs Committee
on Fisheries (COFI), stated that global fish
production remains pushed by aquaculture. COFI is
the only global technical forum for debating
international fisheries issues.
PERIKANAN Commissioned by FAO-RAP, a review of
inland capture fisheries in eight Southeast Asian
countries showed that statistics about the sector
are underestimated severely and fail to give an
adequate idea of its real importance. The
actual production from inland capture fisheries
in these countries is likely to be at least three
times as much as that reported for freshwater
aquaculture production. RAP 2002/11 provides a
regional overview of statistics collection and
reporting methods used, the sources of error in
the official statistics, other constraints to
data collection and recommends strategies for
improvement. A second section reviews the current
state of inland capture fisheries statistics in
the eight countries that were reviewed. RAP
2002/13 Pacific Island fisheries regional and
country information reviews small-scale
commercial and subsistence fisheries, which are
crucial for the national economies, food security
and rural livelihoods in the Pacific. A regional
overview provides detailed information about
fisheries in the subregion as issues of coastal
fisheries management. There are detailed
country profiles with national fisheries data,
an overview of marine and inland fisheries and
aquaculture and utilization of the catch.
Development prospects, the institutional
arrangements and international issues relevant to
the sector are also reviewed.
PERIKANAN Inland capture fisheries make a
valuable contribution to food security in many
parts of the world and especially in the Mekong
Basin. However, the contribution that inland
fishery resources make to rural livelihoods is
often unknown or underestimated due to a lack of
basic production and consumption information.
Accurate information on the contribution of
inland fisheries is essential for responsible
development. Key uses of accurate information
identified by the meeting were (1) to determine
the status and trends of the fishery and the
environment (2) to assess correctly the value of
inland fisheries (3) to allocate appropriate
resources to the inland fisheries sector and
(4) to fulfill international obligations. New
approaches for the improvement of inland capture
fishery statistics in the Mekong Basin. Ad-hoc
expert consultation (RAP 2003/01) details these
Kabupaten Sumenep memiliki
PERIKANAN Experts from eight countries met in
Bangkok in February 2002 to share experiences and
discuss ways of making aquaculture an effective
tool for poverty alleviation in the region. The
consultation - jointly organized with the Network
of Aquaculture Centers in Asia-Pacific (NACA) -
responded to the growing awareness within the
aquatic resource sector of the need to address
poverty more directly. The session noted that
user-friendly aquaculture technologies for the
poor are largely in place and aquaculture
development for poverty alleviation should focus
on the effective extension of low-cost
technologies, appropriate management practices
and securing access and control to the
poor. Myanmar aquaculture and inland fisheries
(RAP 2003/8) reports the outcome of two missions,
one to coastal areas and one to inland areas,
fielded by FAO-RAP, NACA and the Australian
Centre for International Agricultural Research
(ACIAR). The purpose of the missions was to
review the status of aquaculture and small-scale
inland fisheries to identify areas for technical
assistance related to the sustainable development
of coastal and inland aquaculture and management
of aquatic resources and to identify immediate
assistance opportunities. The report includes
the findings of the missions as well as
conclusions and recommendations in support of the
long-term sustainability of fishery resources in
PERIKANAN Collaborative activities with regional
partners (NACA, Southeast Asian Fisheries
Development Center SEAFDEC, Mekong River
Commission MRC and Worldfish Centre) included a
regional donor consultation on the Role of
Aquaculture and Living Aquatic Resources (the
Philippines), the Second International Symposium
on the Management of Large Rivers for Fisheries
(Cambodia), a regional seminar on Accessing and
Meeting Requirements of Markets for Aquaculture
Products (the Philippines) and a regional
workshop on Use of International Mechanisms for
the Control and Responsible Use of Alien Species
in Aquatic Ecosystems (China). FAO provided
technical and financial assistance in organizing
the collaborative FAO-ASEAN Strategic Planning
Workshop on Harmonization of Standards for Shrimp
Import-Export in Thailand from 4 to 6 November
2003 in Bangkok.
PERIKANAN Tambak udang Sebuah tambak udang
adalah sebuah bisnis "aquaculture" dirancang
untuk meningkatkan dan memproduksi udang laut
atau prawn untuk konsumsi manusia. Pertambakan
udang komersial dimulai pada 1970-an, dan
produksi tumbuh dengan cepat, terutama untuk
memenuhi pertumbuhan permintaan Amerika Serikat,
Jepang, dan Eropa barat. Produksi global total
dari udang tambak mencapai lebih dari 1,6 juta
ton pada 2003, mewakili hampir 9 milyar dolar AS.
Sekitar 75 udang tambak diproduksi di Asia,
terutama di China dan Thailand. 25 sisanya
diproduksi di Amerika Latin, di mana Brazil
merupakan produsen terbesarnya. Negara pengekspor
terbesar adalah Thailand.
Pertambakan udang telah berubah dari bisnis
tradisional, skala-kecil di Asia Tenggara menjadi
sebuah bisnis global. Kemajuan teknologi telah
mendorong pertumbuhan udang dengan kepadatan yang
lebih tinggi, dan broodstock dikapalkan ke
seluruh dunia. Hampir seluruh udang yang
dikembangkan adalah penaeid (yaitu, udang dari
famili Penaeidae) dan hanya dua spesies udang --
Pacific White Shrimp dan Giant Tiger Prawn
hampir mencakup 80 dari seluruh udang yang
dikembangkan. Industri monokultur ini sangat
mudah terserang penyakit, yang menyebabkan
beberapa pemusnahan dari populasi pertambakan
udang. Peningkatan masalah ekologi, terjadinya
penyebaran penyakit berkali-kali, dan tekanan dan
kritikan dari NGO dan negara konsumen mengubah
industri ini pada akhir 1990-an dan biasanya
pengaturan yang lebih ketat dari pemerintah. Pada
1999, sebuah program yang ditujukan pada
pengembangan dan promosi praktek pertambakan yang
lebih terjamin dilaksanakan, termasuk badan
pemerintah, wakil industri, dan organsiasi
PERIKANAN The project Poverty alleviation
through improved aquatic resources management in
Asia (2003-2005) has been established to identify
aquatic resource management issues impacting on
the livelihoods of the poor monitor and evaluate
different management approaches extend
information network within and between sectors
and countries and help with learning and
communications to support agencies and
institutions to (a) utilize existing and emerging
information more effectively (b) better
understand poor peoples livelihoods and (c)
enable poor people to exert greater influence
over policies and processes that impact on their
lives. The project will contribute to enhancing
the livelihoods of rural people through the
improved management of aquatic resources.
PERIKANAN Covering one-quarter of the worlds
land area, the Asia-Pacific region is home to
about 15 percent of the worlds 3.8 billion
hectares of forest. The green cover has to meet
the diverse environmental, economic, cultural and
social needs of more than half the worlds
population who live in these countries. Asias
forests provide food, fodder, fuelwood, timber
and livelihoods to hundreds of millions of
people. The forests also sustain one of the
worlds richest storehouses of biodiversity. The
forestry sector provides formal and informal
employment for millions of people and continues
to act as a food reserve in times of hardship.
Forests play an important role in supporting
agriculture in the mainly rural Asian nations by
protecting watersheds and water quality.
Furthermore forestry is a significant contributor
to export earnings in many countries. In recent
decades, many countries in Asia and the Pacific
have realized the importance of forests and there
is growing awareness of and commitment to
sustainable forest management and public
involvement in forest management decisions. This
has resulted in a significant impact on forest
conservation, and the problem of destructive
logging practices is being addressed in several
PERIKANAN The use of plantation forests to
substitute for wood from natural forests is
increasing with Asia-Pacific countries leading
the world in forest plantation development.
However, deforestation continues because of weak
regulations and law enforcement, and continuing
incentives for competing land uses juxtaposed
with forest degradation, wasteful use and sharp
inequalities in the distribution of forest
benefits, these are serious problems that require
novel solutions and joint action by all those
with an interest in forests. Forest crime and
corruption are also serious threats to the
regions forests. Many countries in the region
are now decentralizing forest management into the
hands of local communities that are directly in
touch with the forests. This fundamental shift
from large-scale government forestry to
small-scale, community-based forestry management
- often called devolution - is proving
increasingly to be an effective way of using
forests sustainably and conserving
biodiversity. A key concern is the sustainable
use of wood and non-wood forest products. FAO
gives high priority to the production, trade and
marketing of these products to support
livelihoods in the rural areas of Asia and the
KEHUTANAN Many other factors come into play as
we consider trees. Many other things will kill
trees, animals like deer, goats, beavers, and
diseases and insects and fire and weather events.
The animals represent valuable resources
themselves, and even if they are not directly
valuable to us, they often are indirectly
valuable in that they are vital parts of the
ecosystem in which they live. For the ecosystem
to sustain itself, we cant use them faster than
they replace themselves. Fortunately, trees
will usually produce very large numbers of seeds,
and if a seedling gets established and grows
beyond the reach of browsing animals, it is not
so vulnerable to being killed by them. Mature
trees are also usually less vulnerable to wind
and fire. Too many animals will prevent any
seedlings from growing up, and the forest will
soon have an uneven generational pattern too
many older trees, no seedlings or saplings. Yet
if too few mature trees are killed, the forest
floor may not get enough light to grow vegetation
to support many browsing animals at all.
KEHUTANAN Very often, we can find a tree that
is dying or dead from these other factors, and
still get good use from it. This looks good, we
might think to just be scavengers, but we want to
remember, though, that other animals are also
scavengers of dying and dead wood, and that they
can be valuable to the overall health of the
forest. Woodpeckers dig holes in dead trees,
looking for insects burrowing in the wood, these
holes can be nesting sites for birds that keep
insects in check. Whatever we do needs to be
considered, all activities need to be kept in
balance. The tops of dead trees provide nesting
sites, as well as perches for birds of
prey. Trees tend to follow secessions, where one
sort of tree grows best in a certain set of
circumstances, and when it dies or is killed, the
circumstances are changed and a different variety
will do better.
KEHUTANAN How can we possibly keep track of all
these factors? It isnt impossible. We have
needs, too, and we belong. Ideally, we can take
our share of what grows, and we can watch for
things that are getting out of balance and work
to restore that balance. It is possible, in many
woodland situations, that we might cut a whole
section of trees in long paths each year. Each
year, we cut away more trees on one edge of this
long narrow clearing, and leave the other side
alone. Grass will grow in this clearing, followed
naturally by low growing bushes and trees, of
which we encourage the fruit bearers. As we go
farther in distance and time from each years
cut, finally the forest trees are growing among
the fruit trees, and get taller and more numerous
as we get further away, and bearing nuts of
various kinds, eventually shading out the shorter
varieties. Our cutting goes like a long wave
through the forest, on a 50 or 100 year or longer
cycle. The cutting is easier for us than to cut
selectively in a standing forest, this practice
is very difficult, trees get hung up, it can be a
very dangerous situation for us, and can do a lot
of damage to surrounding trees that we dont want
to hurt. The long path gives us a way to move the
wood, the grassland supports the grazing animals
that can pull the wood. We have a rotation of
many kinds of plants, bushes and trees, and
support a large variety of animals.
KEHUTANAN Nature often does this, but usually
in more haphazard fashion. A storm or fire takes
out a section of trees, and you have a natural
clearing for a few years. In countries that have
elephants, these will kill big trees, and they
create many openings in forest. Where elephants
are in balance with the environment, there are
often many islands of trees and bushes in a
shifting mosaic with grass. People can take the
place of elephants in more northern climates, and
help to manage elephants, where they live. By
cutting in lines like this, we should control
fires more easily, each cut is a potential fire
stop. While fire is a natural and needed force in
many places, letting it rage out of control
seldom seems like a good idea. Left alone, fire
is its own control, burning frequently enough
that fuel seldom builds up to high levels. We can
let this happen, or we might also use fallen dead
wood as fuel for our own needs. Where fire is
needed to open seeds, we have to be aware of the
need, and either let fires burn, or open seeds
artificially and plant them.
KEHUTANAN Where steep hills are involved, the
way we cut has to take into account possible
erosion of soil, we dont want paths running up
and down, even if the location of the path is
shifting every year, we need to be careful about
this. Even in flat land, there may be good
reasons to make our cuts in curves, and sometimes
we might not want to cut a section of trees, want
to give them more time to grow, and end the cut
and start it again further on. A long straight
cut can give the wind a place to get going fast,
this might be an asset to work with, if done
carefully. Simple windmills could cut wood, and
sails might help move it, but it is also
something to be wary of, since the wind can also
be destructive, knocking down young growth,
breaking off branches.
KEHUTANAN Dalam UU No.41/1999, hutan rakyat
dimaksudkan sebagai hutan yang tumbuh di atas
tanah yang dibebani hak milik. Hutan rakyat telah
lama dikenal dan memberikan manfaat ganda kepada
masyarakat luas, yaitu berupa manfaat jasa
lingkungan, seperti pencegahan erosi dan banjir,
meningkatkan kesuburan tanah, dan disamping itu
juga dapat memberikan manfaat sosial ekonomi
seperti dalam menciptakan kesempatan kerja dan
meningkatkan pendapatan masyarakat melalui
perdagangan kayu. Wilayah Kalimantan Selatan
memiliki luas hutan rakyat sebesar 108.436.50 Ha
dengan perkiraan potensi 2.021.661.00 m³.
Sistem pengelolaan hutan rakyat yang coba
dikembangkan di Kalimantan Selatan adalah dengan
menanam salah satu jenis tanaman prospektif
diantaranya Mahoni (Swietenia macrophylla King),
Mahoni ditanam pada Desember tahun 2003, dengan
jarak tanam 5 x 4 meter . Sistem penanaman
dilakukan dengan tumpang sari dengan setiap tahun
dibua pergiliran tanaman palawija.
KEHUTANAN With the land resources that we can
use sustainably, we will get water resources, and
the combination of land and water food resources
gives us the population that can be sustained.
Looking at this from more long term
perspectives, we understand that the world
changes dramatically at times, and we shouldnt
run our own population at the limits of food
production, but maintain a factor of safety. This
gives a cushion of resources, in case of climate
change either warmer or colder, drier or wetter,
and all that might go with this. So we have
three principles here so far. 1) Use resources
no faster than they renew. 2) Treat ecosystems as
ecosystems, and dont break them up. And, 3)
maintain a factor of safety in population, below
that of the maximum theoretical. What that factor
of safety is, is something to talk about in the
future. Right now, just getting people to talk
about these things is challenge enough. One last
principle of sustainable food production, though,
is that if we dont figure right, and maintain
the best level of population, nature will figure
it for us, and carry it out for us. Those who
refuse to think logically about the matter,
arent likely to make the best choices for
sustaining their lives.
KEHUTANAN Improved management, sustainable
development and productive use of forests and
forest resources for food security and improved
rural livelihoods have received considerable
attention. In line with the FAO Strategic Plan
for Forestry and guidance provided by the
Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission (APFC), priority
was attached to better forest management and
harvesting balancing wood supply and demand
reforming forestry institutions strengthening
national forest policies and institutions and
improving forestry statistics.
Sustainable Forest Management Paradigm
SFM can be viewed as a system which aims to
satisfy the needs of society for various forest
goods and services through the application of
forestry, environmental management, ecological,
social, economic and business principles and
methods in the wise utilization, renewal and
development of forest resources without
significant degradation of the inherent capacity
of the forests to provide goods and services on
an uninterrupted basis. As a paradigm or
framework, sustainable forestry is closely link
to or intertwined with environmental conservation
and socioeconomic development . This
relationship implies that sustainable forestry,
environmental conservation, and socioeconomic
development are mutually reinforcing elements of