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Addressing the Limited Data Dilemma Non-Traditional Sources of Safety Data

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Title: Addressing the Limited Data Dilemma Non-Traditional Sources of Safety Data


1
Addressing the Limited Data Dilemma Non-Tradition
al Sources of Safety Data
Presented by Terecia Wilson
Director of Safety
2
Traditional Data Collection
  • Crash Data
  • Driver Records
  • Vehicle Records
  • Roadway Inventory Data
  • Citation Data / Adjudication Data
  • EMS Run Reports

3
Alternative Data Collection
  • Road Safety Audits
  • Opinion Surveys
  • Observational Surveys
  • Program Assessments
  • Interviews
  • SCP Forum (Data Guide)
  • CODES Data
  • Data Cube
  • Complaint Files
  • Program Evaluations
  • Professional Judgment

4
What is a Road Safety Audit?
A formal examination of an existing or future
road or traffic project, or any project which
interacts with road users, in which an
independent, qualified examiner reports on the
projects crash potential and safety performance.
5
Why Do RSAs?
  • Proactive approach to highway safety.
  • Widely used in other countries - highly
    effective.
  • Possible even with limited resources.
  • Supports Strategic Plan Goal of improving safety.

6
When Can an Audit Be Done?
  • Future Roads
  • Stage 1 Planning
  • Stage 2 Preliminary Design
  • Roads Under Construction
  • Stage 3 Final Design
  • Stage 4 Pre-opening
  • Existing Roadways
  • Stage 5 Operations Review

7
Types of Audit Data
  • Information collected for use in audit
  • Traffic counts
  • Public hearing information
  • Detailed designs
  • Crash Data

8
Types of Audit Data
  • Information collected from audit report
  • Prioritized findings and recommendations
  • Multi-disciplinary report
  • Comments from special road user groups

9
RSA Team Participants
  • Geographic Representation from across state.
  • Representation from various disciplines Traffic
    Engineering, Planning, Engineering, Construction,
    Pre Construction, Special Interest groups.
  • Special Interest groups (ie, local law
    enforcement, EMS, Disabilities and Special Needs,
    AARP, etc.)

10
RSA Follow Up
  • Conduct follow up study to determine impact on
    traffic safety 3 years after final audit report.
  • Examine traffic collision data 3 years before and
    3 years after audit.
  • Include RSA team to assist in evaluation as
    needed.

11
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12
Opinion Surveys
  • Telephone Surveys
  • Random Digit Dialing
  • Unbiased
  • Varied Demographics (Age, Race, Education,
    Income)
  • Representative sample of licensed drivers

13
Opinion Surveys
  • Examples of Telephone Surveys
  • Follow-up evaluation of public information
    campaigns
  • Determine public opinion on safety issues
  • Primary Safety Belt Law
  • .08 BAC
  • Motorcycle Helmet Legislation
  • Determine changes in public opinion on safety
    issues (Baseline/Ongoing)

14
Opinion Surveys
  • Focus Groups
  • Used for more qualitative information
  • Used in a wide range of applications in nearly
    every field of market research.
  • Encourages participants to express their feelings
    freely and without inhibitions
  • Probes more deeply into issues in a relaxed,
    uncontrolled atmosphere.

15
Opinion Surveys
  • Focus Groups
  • Discussion leaves participants feeling,
    justifiably, that their opinion is important
  • Gives clients a clearer perspective on how their
    customers feel and why they feel that way.
  • Information gained may lead to changes in program
    and product development and implementation.
  • Include demographic representation of target
    population. 

16
Opinion Surveys
  • Used as part of dispute resolution, or to solicit
    opinions before making significant changes.
  • Useful in developing consensus when community
    opinion is not immediately obvious in normal
    discussion.
  • Especially useful during legislative debate on
    controversial safety issues.
  • Also, useful in developing funding priorities.

17
Observational Surveys
  • Sometimes the best way to collect information
    about people's behavior is to watch them.
  • Observation allows the researcher to collect
    information without being a burden on the person
    providing the information.
  • Typically evaluators develop guides that
    structure the observation process.

18
Observational Surveys
  • Drawbacks
  • Measures only what you can see. Other types of
    data (e.g., opinions, reasons behind behavior)
    cannot be collected in this fashion.
  • Time-consuming as multiple observations are often
    required.
  • Presence of collectors may influence behavior.
  • Safety of observers.

19
Program Assessments
  • Help determine ways to improve effectiveness and
    efficiency of programs.
  • Provide tools and documentation by which
    additional steps can be taken to make programs
    better and/or safer.
  • Identify gaps in services.
  • Provide support for additional financial and
    human resources.

20
Program Assessments
  • Peer reviews of programs. NHTSA currently offers
    program assessments for the following
  • emergency medical services
  • impaired driving
  • traffic records
  • motorcycle safety
  • occupant protection

21
Program Assessments
  • Examples
  • Studies on the effectiveness of program
    activities
  • Identifies steps to be taken to enhance existing
    programs
  • Evaluates the implementation of new programs
  • Assists in justifying additional funding and
    program support
  • Considers current legislation and the direction
    for legislative action
  • Provides documentation to be used as National and
    State input for policy, training and program
    development.

22
How Do You Arrange for a Program Assessment?
  • The State Highway Safety Offices obtain program
    assessments by writing and requesting an
    assessment from one of the NHTSA Regional
    Offices.
  • If information or assistance is needed regarding
    the Highway Safety Program Assessments, please
    contact the NHTSA Regional office for your state.

23
Interviews
  • Interviews with local agencies personnel (Police,
    EMS Responders, Local Engineers, Coroners)
    provide invaluable data.
  • Insight on perceived needs (more enforcement,
    engineering improvements, etc.)
  • Opportunity to speak with someone that may have
    been first on the scene at a particular incident
    or fatality
  • The benefit in some cases of a play by play
    account of what happened at a particular crash

24
Interviews
  • Provide insight on local uses for roads (cut
    through, alternate route to avoid traffic,
    racing, truck route, etc.)
  • Offer insight as to how areas surrounding road
    may change with the various seasons
  • Is there anything planted that might impede sight
    distance at an intersection?
  • Are there any streams that deer gravitate toward
    which might increase the need for them to cross
    roads?
  • Become aware of planned projects that may impact
    the road

25
Interviews
  • When do you conduct interviews?
  • Site visits
  • Monitoring visits
  • Roundtable discussions
  • Development meetings
  • Public Hearings / Town Hall Meetings
  • Annual Professional Conferences
  • Individual Interviews

26
Interviews
  • Questions asked in interviews
  • What is the most common type of crashes?
  • What happens when it rains? Does the road flood
    in particular area?
  • Did something change in the landscape recently
    that might affect why crashes increased (i.e.,
    cutting down trees that block the sun)?

27
Safety Conscious Planning
...a proactive approach for the prevention of
motor vehicle crashes and unsafe transportation
conditions.
Improving Safety on Our Highways
28
Safety Conscious Planning
... a comprehensive, system wide, multi-modal,
proactive process that better integrates safety
into surface transportation decision making.
29
Safety Conscious Planning
  • Considers all aspects of highway safety
    engineering, education, awareness, enforcement
    emergency response
  • Uses a system-wide approach including sites,
    corridors entire state, regional local
    transportation systems

30
Safety Conscious Planning
  • Multi-modal including transit, pedestrian
    bicycle safety needs
  • Proactive - addresses current safety problems
    looks for opportunities to prevent them in the
    future

31
Forum Participants
  • Broad cross section of planning and safety
    communities
  • Statewide representation
  • Multidisciplinary group (including MPOs, COGs)
  • Federal partners (FHWA, NHTSA, FMCSA)

32
Plans Provided to Participants
  • AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan
  • Emergency Medical Services State Plan
  • Federal Railroad Administration Action Plan
  • 402 Highway Safety Plan
  • Injury Control Plan
  • SCDOT Strategic Plan
  • SC Long Range Transportation Plan
  • Others

33
Data Guide
  • SCDOT (Road Inventory, Traffic Counts, Mileage
    Reports)
  • SCDPS (Collision File)
  • SCDMV (Driver Vehicle Files)
  • EMS (Run Reports, Trauma Registry)
  • DAODAS (School Age Adult Surveys)
  • Office of Research Statistics (CODES, Census,
    Hospital Discharge)

34
Forum Accomplishments
  • Brought over 200 partners together, many 1st time
  • Adopted several goals strategies to improve
    safety all willing to support in their plan
  • Improved communications among partners (E-mail
    group)
  • Enlightened participants on available data sources

35
CODES Project
  • Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System
  • Multi-agency effort which includes
  • SC Department of Public Safety
  • SC Department of Transportation
  • SC Department of Health and Environmental Control
  • SC Emergency Medical Services
  • SC Budget and Control Board Office of Research
    and Statistics

36
CODES Goal
  • Provide a comprehensive view of motor vehicle
    crashes and their resultant impact on morbidity,
    mortality, health care services and associated
    costs.

37
CODES Project
  • Collaborative approach to obtain medical and
    financial outcome information related to motor
    vehicle crashes for highway safety and injury
    control decision making.
  • Evolved as the result of the Intermodal Surface
    Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991
  • Report to Congress about the benefits of safety
    belts and motorcycle helmets for persons involved
    in motor vehicle crashes.

38
CODES Project
  • Measure benefits in terms of reducing death,
    disability, and medical costs
  • Includes statewide data for all persons involved
    in police-reported crashes
  • Includes those who were injured or who died as
    well as those who were not injured.
  • Allows comparisons between those using and not
    using safety belts or motorcycle helmets
  • Identifies and contrasts characteristics of
    injured and uninjured persons within each of the
    restraint use groups.

39
CODES Linked Data Sets
  • Crash (DPS)
  • Emergency Medical Services (DHEC EMS)
  • Hospital (ORS)
  • Prior to 2001 only

40
Data Collected Crash
  • Demographic Data
  • Driver / Pedestrian / Pedalcyclist
  • Passengers
  • Restraint Usage
  • Crash Location / Type of Crash
  • Contributing Factors
  • Injuries / Fatalities / Transported
  • Alcohol or Drug Involvement

41
Health Care Utilization Databases
  • Hospital Inpatient Discharges
  • Ambulatory Surgery Episodes
  • Emergency Room Visits

42
Data Collected Health Care Utilization Databases
  • ABOUT THE PATIENT age, race, gender, geographic
    location codes
  • ABOUT THE EPISODE Hospital Physician
    Characteristics
  • primary diagnosis and nine related diagnoses
  • primary and nine secondary procedures with dates,
    admission and discharge dates, length of episode
  • destination at discharge (home, home health
    referral, death, etc.)

43
Data Collected Health Care Utilization Databases
  • COST OF CARE
  • Detailed charges by revenue center (e.g.,
    pharmacy, lab, respiratory therapy, etc.)
  • Primary and secondary payer class (e.g.,
    Medicare, Medicaid, Private Insurance,
    Self-pay/Indigent)
  • Hospital charges used as proxy

44
CODES Project
  • Links databases containing information about
    individual persons collected from police crash
    reports, emergency medical transports, emergency
    room visits and inpatient hospitalization
    records.
  • Uses probabilistic linkage methods
  • SC has been a CODES state for 7 years.

45
CODES Project
  • System helps in analyzing crash patterns.
  • Includes a mapping system to locate crashes based
    on such characteristics as crash severity, volume
    of crashes, age of driver and involvement of
    alcohol and/or drugs.
  • Developed CODES Internet site to facilitate the
    dissemination of information from the project.

46
CODES Project
  • Statewide data collected on all persons
  • Involved in police-reported crashes
  • Transported by emergency medical services due to
    crashes
  • Visits to emergency room due to injuries
  • Hospitalized due to injuries.
  • Analyses of data used to measure impact of
    crashes by communities in terms of reducing
    injuries, deaths, and medical costs.
  • Comparisons can be made between the
    characteristics of those using and not using
    safety belts, helmets, and other restraints.
  • PDO crashes were not included in the linkage or
    analysis.

47
Uses of CODES Data
  • Provides economic argument for safety legislation
  • Primary Belt Law
  • .08
  • .10 Per Se
  • Automated Enforcement at Red Lights
  • Develops profiles for Safe Communities Programs
  • Provides demographic data to develop educational
    / enforcement programs.

48
Impact of ED Data on CODES
  • Policy decisions can be made based on better
    estimates of medical cost data
  • Population of crash victims injured and treated
    in a hospital setting more accurate
  • Surrogate SC Trauma Registry
  • Complete look at crash and injury patterns for
    Community Needs Assessments (high volume vs. high
    injury)

49
Data Request / Fact Sheet
  • Restraint use by pay source and treatment type
    (ED and inpatient)
  • Number and rate of injuries
  • Total and average charges
  • Length of stay (inpatient only)
  • Also included the total numbers of injured,
    number and percent linked from crash to hospital
    data.

50
What is a Data Cube?
  • While ORS answers requests now using information
    from the Data Warehouse, our dream was to create
    a
  • WEB-Accessible User-Driven Query Based System
    that agencies can access and explore their own
    questions
  • Cubes would be for statistical / aggregate
    analyses

51
SC Data Warehouse
  • Build off of existing systems (legacy systems
    from state agencies and private sector)
  • Create a Unique ID (not related to any other
    number)
  • Identifiers are pulled off of the statistical
    data. Use only the statistical data
  • Data is always owned by the originating agency.
    Must have permissions to use and/or link any data

52
LEGEND
Elder Services Assessments
Disabilities Special Needs
Vocational Rehabilitation
Law Enforcement
Juvenile Justice
Legal/Safety Services
Public Safety
Disease Registries
Social Services
Claims Systems
Education
Probation Parole Pardon
Health Department
All Payer Health Care Databases
Integrated Data System
Corrections
Environmental Conditions
Behavioral Health
Child Care
Alcohol Drug Services
Health Department
Social Services
Mental Health
Education
Medicare
Hospitalizations
Medicaid Services
Other State Support Agencies
Free Clinic Visits
Disease Registries
State Employee Health Services
Outpatient Surgeries
Emergency Room Visits
Home Health Care
Community Health Centers
Still in contract negotiations.
53
SC Data Warehouse
  • Data Warehouse Allows Agencies Other Entities
    to
  • Evaluate their programs
  • Look at Outcomes
  • Understand better how their programs interact
    with other agency other entity programs
  • Study Health, Human Service, Education, and Law
    Enforcement Issues
  • Analyze Statistical Aggregate Information
  • Access Analytic Data Cubes
  • Partner in the Development of Customized Software
    Applications

54
LEGEND
Elder Services Assessments
Disabilities Special Needs
Vocational Rehabilitation
Law Enforcement
Juvenile Justice
Legal/Safety Services
Public Safety
Disease Registries
Social Services
Claims Systems
Education
Probation Parole Pardon
Health Department
All Payer Health Care Databases
Injury and Violence Cube
Corrections
Environmental Conditions
Behavioral Health
Child Care
Alcohol Drug Services
Health Department
Social Services
Mental Health
Education
Medicare
Hospitalizations
Medicaid Services
Other State Support Agencies
Free Clinic Visits
Disease Registries
State Employee Health Services
Outpatient Surgeries
Emergency Room Visits
Home Health Care
Community Health Centers
Still in contract negotiations.
55
Linking Data Sets
  • Records are linked for the same individual using
    a unique tracking number
  • Tracking number is random so cannot be
    unencrypted to identify the individual
  • An individual is assigned the same number over
    time

56
What Is an Analytic Cube?
  • A way to slice and dice through large amounts
    of data
  • Define slicers, characteristics that are
    important to analyzing the subject population
  • Pre-aggregate the linked data by all possible
    combinations of slicers

57
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61
Cubes Under Development
  • Injury Cube (funded through a CDC grant)
  • Mental Health/Alcohol Cube funded through DMH
    funds
  • Medicaid Cube (all ages)
  • Elderly Cube (just received funding to
    development this cube!)

62
Complaint File
  • Track all complaints
  • News stories, editorials, news articles
  • Be Responsive to public concerns
  • Is it a real problem or just perceived?
  • Coordinate site visit
  • Prepare response
  • Include in future planning
  • Compile crash data for complaint site

Do not ignore the public!
63
Program Evaluation Reports
  • Assess how well the program has been implemented.
  • Assess the extent to which the activities have
    achieved the projects goals.
  • Identify gaps in services.
  • Identify spin-off efforts.

64
Establish an Evaluation Plan
  • How will you know youre achieving goals?
  • What will you measure?
  • How will you evaluate?
  • Who measures? When?
  • What documentation will you maintain?
  • When and what evaluation report?

65
Process Evaluation
  • Why a program succeeds or fails.
  • Compares program design with implementation.
  • Describes and documents life of program.

66
Outcome Evaluation
  • Deals with short-term, direct effects of program.
  • Identifies the results of a program's/initiative's
    effort.
  • It seeks to answer the question, "What difference
    did the program make?
  • It provides information about effects of a
    program after a specified period of operation.

67
Impact Evaluation
  • Deals with long-term, ultimate effects of
    program.
  • Assess program effectiveness in terms of end
    results, including intended and unintended
    results.
  • Also assess the net effect of a program by
    comparing impacts with an estimate of what would
    have happened in the absence of the program

68
Professional Judgment
  • Allows for a multi-disciplinary approach.
  • Assimilates data from variety of sources to
    determine strategies.
  • Provides benefits from years of knowledge and
    experience.
  • Essential to any planning process.

69
  • For More Information Contact
  • Terecia Wilson
  • Director of Safety
  • 803-737-1161
  • WilsonTW_at_scdot.org
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