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Title: PowerPoint-Pr


1
ECML a Council of Europe centre promoting
excellence in language education
2
Languages at the Council of Europe www.coe.int/lan
g Languages are the basis of communication,
intercultural dialogue, social cohesion,
democratic citizenship
  • Promotion of
  • Plurilingualism of citizens
  • Linguistic diversity in member states

3
Language Policy Divisionwww.coe.int/lang
  • Examples of publications and ongoing work
  • Common European Framework of Reference for
    Languages
  • European Language Portfolio
  • Guide for the development of language education
    policies in Europe
  • Current project Languages of schooling
  • Language as a subject
  • Language across the curriculum

4
European Charter for Regional or Minority
Languageswww.coe.int/minlang
Aim To enable speakers to use their language in
public life
  • The only international treaty
  • specifically devoted to
  • the protection and promotion of
  • regional or minority languages

5
European Centre for Modern Languages www.ecml.at
  • Founded in Graz, Austria, 1994
  • Enlarged Partial Agreement
  • 34 member states
  • Supported by Austrian authorities
  • Governing Board
  • Secretariat

6
European Centre for Modern Languages www.ecml.at
  • Mission
  • Support of language education policies
  • Promote innovation and facilitate reform in
    language teaching and learning
  • Development of networks of experts
  • Dissemination of good practice

7
European Centre for Modern Languages www.ecml.at
  • How the ECML works
  • 4-year medium term programmes of projects
    coordinated by international expert teams
  • 2-year short term projects
  • National contact points
  • National nominating authorities
  • Nominated participants from each member state
    who form national and international networksand
    function as multipliers

8
European Centre for Modern Languages www.ecml.at
  • Activities
  • Expert meetings, workshops, conferences,
    regional events involving key multipliers
    in language education
    from member states
  • Interactive online platform for expert
    communication
  • Project results published as books, CD-ROMs,
    Internet materials etc.

9
ECML programme 20082011www.ecml.at/empowerment
  • 20 projects, 4 thematic areas
  • Evaluation
  • Continuity in language learning
  • Content and language education
  • Plurilingual education

10
Programme objectives www.ecml.at/empowerment
  1. Enhancing the professional competence of
    language teachers
  2. Strengthening professional networks and the
    wider community of language educators
  3. Enabling language professionals to have greater
    impact on reform processes
  4. Contributing to better quality of language
    education in Europe

11
Projects in the ECML programme in the thematic
area CONTENT AND LANGUAGE EDUCATION
Content-based modern language teaching for young learners http//eplc.ecml.at
Curriculum development for Content and Language Integrated Learning http//clil-cd.ecml.at
Content and Language Integrated Learning through languages other than English - Getting started http//clil-lote-start.ecml.at
Good practice in Content and Language Integrated Learning for languages other than English http//clil-lote-go.ecml.at
Content based teaching plurilingual/cultural awareness  http//conbat.ecml.at
12
Projects in the ECML programme in the thematic
area PLURILINGUAL EDUCATION
A framework of reference for pluralistic approaches http//carap.ecml.at
Minority languages, collateral languages and bi-/plurilingual education http//ebp-ici.ecml.at
Majority language instruction as basis for plurilingual education http//marille.ecml.at
Language associations and collaborative support http//lacs.ecml.at
13
Why plurilingual education?
  • A political commitment to protecting linguistic
    diversity
  • A response to the increasing diversity of
    schools populations
  • A belief that language learning and use always
    involves at least two languages

14
A political commitment to protecting linguistic
diversity
  • Policy responses to multilingualism lie between
    two ends of a continuum of attitudes and
    approaches on the one hand policy for the
    reduction of diversity, and on the other the
    promotion and maintenance of diversity. Both can
    be pursued in the name of improved potential for
    international mobility, of intercomprehension and
    of economic development.

15
A political commitment to protecting linguistic
diversity
  • The Council of Europe and its member States have
    taken the position that it is the promotion of
    linguistic diversity which should be pursued in
    language education policy. For in addition to
    mobility, intercomprehension and economic
    development, there is the further important aim
    of maintaining the European cultural heritage, of
    which linguistic diversity is a significant
    constituent. This means, then, that language
    teaching must be seen as the development of a
    unique individual linguistic competence
    ('knowing' languages whichever they may be) and
    also as education for linguistic tolerance.

16
A political commitment to protecting linguistic
diversity
  • Policies for language education should therefore
    promote the learning of several languages for all
    individuals in the course of their lives, so that
    Europeans become plurilingual and intercultural
    citizens, able to interact with other Europeans
    in all aspects of their lives

17
A response to the increasing diversity of
schools populations
  • In London, where I live and work, and where my
    children go to school, 32 of schoolchildren
    speak another language in addition to English.
    Three hundred languages, from Albanian to Zulu,
    are spoken by London schoolchildren, yet most
    pupils experience of another language within the
    school curriculum is French, possibly German or
    Spanish.

18
A response to the increasing diversity of
schools populations
  • Minority languages in Romania
  • 19 minority languages Hungarian, German,
    Ukrainian, Slovak, Serbian, Turkish, Tartar,
    Croatian, Russian, Czech, Bulgarian, Armenian,
    Greek, Romani, Polish, Hebrew, Italian, Chinese,
    Ceangai
  • Educational structures with tuition in the mother
    tongue Czech, German, Hungarian, Serbian,
    Slovakian, Ukrainian
  • Educational structures with tuition partially in
    the mother tongue Croatian, Turkish
  • Educational structures with tuition in Romanian
    and study of the mother tongue Armenian,
    Bulgarian, Greek, Polish, Romani, Russian
  • (Source General View of Education for national
    minorities in Romania during 2003-2006, 2006)

19
A belief that language learning and use always
involves at least two languages
  • What is at stake is the abandoning of a
     compartmentalised  view of an individuals
    linguistic and cultural competence(s), an abandon
    which is a logical consequence of the way in
    which  plurilingual and pluricultural
    competence  is represented by the Common
    European Framework of Reference
  • this competence is not  a collection of distinct
    and separate competences  but in a  a
    plurilingual and pluricultural competence
    encompassing the full range of the languages
    available to him/her (CEFR p. 129).

20
The Issues
  • The need for a coherent description of
    plurilingual competence
  • Developing effective policies which include the
    presence of a number of languages
  • Methodological innovation which combine general
    educational needs with language development

21
The projects in the present medium term programme
  • 1. CARAP - A framework of reference for
    pluralistic approaches
  • awakening to language
  • The integration of didactic approaches
  • inter-comprehension between related languages

22
CARAP
  • Defines plurilingual and pluricultural competence
  • Is developing didactic approaches to integrate
    them in the classroom

23
Competence
  • The ability to activate interior resources
    (knowledge, skills and attitudes) to be able to
    cope with a set of tasks which are complex

24
Examples of knowledge
  • Knows that cultural differences exist
  • Knows that cultural differences can be the source
    of problems in communication and interaction
  • Knows that aspects of culture and identity
    condition effective communication
  • Knows that cultures may have specific norms of
    social conduct
  • Knows that the way other people interpret our
    conduct may differ from our own interpretation

25
Examples of attitudes
  • Attention / curiosity /sensitivity / positive
    acceptance / receptiveness to diversity / respect
    / esteem / readiness / questioning / relativising
    /adaptability / feeling comfortable
  • With regard to ones own and other peoples
  • Identities / social rites / customs / values /
    language / media /

26
Skills
  • Analyse/ recognise/compare / interact /activate
  • Can use a range of different criteria to
    recognise cultural closeness or distance
  • Can compare different cultural customs and
    practices
  • Can recognise cultural prejudices
  • Can recognise differences and similarities
    between different domains of life in society (for
    example living conditions, working life, respect
    for the environment, participation in civic
    activities)
  • Can compare meanings / connotations connected
    with cultural features (for example, the concept
    of time)

27
The projects in the present medium term programme
  • 2. Minority languages, collateral languages and
    bi-/plurilingual education
  • Aim to collect good practice in integrating
    several languages in primary education using
    developments in the Val dAosta as an example

28
The methodological approach
  • DIDACTIC OPTIONS
  • Diversity of texts
  • Early learning
  • Spiral progression
  • Goes from complex to simple to complex
  • Intensive teaching
  • Texts with social and personal impact
  • Revision and rewriting as correction
  • Inductive approach
  • Shared control
  • Systematic teaching
  • Learning tasks
  • Bilingual learning and teaching
  • OPPOSED to
  • Little variety of text
  • late language learning
  • Linear progression
  • Goes from simple to complex
  • Fragmented learning and teaching
  • School type texts
  • Normative grading
  • Frontal, instructional teaching
  • Teacher control
  • Random teaching
  • Reinforcing tasks
  • Monolingual learning and teaching

29
The projects
  • 3 Majority language instruction as basis for
    plurilingual education
  • Aim to examine the consequences for teaching
    the  first  language of schools to classes
    where the learners come from a variety of
    linguistic backgrounds

30
The problem
  • I am the Director of a large Language College
    (1600 students) in Sheffield, UK, and we are
    currently in the process of exploring ways of
    bringing together all the language experiences of
    all our students in a more cohesive and
    coordinated fashion than we have been able to so
    far. Our pupils are 11-18 years old and speak
    between then 30 different home languages. Our
    language of instruction is, of course, English,
    and we also teach 8 different foreign languages
    (although some of these may well be the home
    languages of some of the pupils). 

31
The problem 2
  • We want to bring some cohesion to the language
    development of our pupils and are looking in
    particular at the following
  • 1. English as a first language (studied across
    the school by all children - including those for
    whom English is not the first language !!)
  • 2. EAL (English as an additional/second
    language) - very patchy provision at the moment,
    and some of the learning there would also benefit
    some of our monolingual youngsters we work more
    intensively with younger pupils, including
    withdrawal lessons but explicit timetabled EAL
    support drops off once the children have mastered
    the basic social language (BICS) with CALP
    (cognitive academic language proficiency) being
    neglected
  • 3. the 30 home languages of our students (some
    of which we teach as foreign language to other
    students, some of which we teach as mother
    tongues to those who wish to gain accreditation
    in their home language) we are working with a
    number of complimentary schools who teach these
    languages to children of their own communities
    and also teach two of these ourselves, outside
    the normal timetable (Arabic, Somali).
  • 4. Modern foreign languages - who could, we are
    sure, learn a lot from EAL and TEFL methodology
    as well as being able to contribute to the
    teaching and development of the other three
    areas.

32
Looking for a response
  • A Framework for Planning

What do learners bring to the task? What does the task demand of them? What support measures are needed?
Social
Cognitive
Linguistic
33
Principles of plurilingual learning
  • It is based on and impelled by a desire to
    communicate.
  • They must be treated as communicators from the
    start.
  • Emphasis should be on meaning rather than form.
  • Language learning takes place with and through
    other learning.
  • It requires models of natural speech in a range
    of normal settings.
  • Learning a language is a creative process that
    involves making errors and formulating rules.
  • It is a risk-taking process so a supportive
    environment is important.
  • It is not a linear process.
  • Bilingual learners already have at least one
    other language to build on.
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