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New Challenges in a New Millennium


Global Financial Crisis The 2008 financial crisis had roots in the Asian crisis ... violence in Darfur led to ____ __-_____ becoming the first sitting head of state ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Challenges in a New Millennium

New Challenges in a New Millennium
  • CHAPTER 33

Globalization and Economic Crisis
  • An Interconnected Economy
  • Economic growth in _____ and _____, along with
    their large populations, made them future world
    economic powers. These nations and the United
    States increased their demand for ___ to the
    point that the price per barrel rose from 20 in
    1999 to 70 in 2006, then fell abruptly during
    the economic crisis of 2008.
  • To promote economic growth and reduce
    vulnerabilities, many countries formed free-trade
    zones and regional trade associations. The
    strengthening of the ________ _____ (EU) and the
    creation of the _____ ________ ____ _____
    _________ (NAFTA) were notable examples of this
  • The ________ __________ ____________ (SCO) was
    formed in 2001 with China, Russia, and four
    former U.S.S.R. regions initially for the
    purposes of collective security. Oil-rich Iran
    applied for membership in 2008.
  • The _____ _____ ____________ (WTO) was founded in
    1995 to encourage reduced trading barriers and
    enforce international trade agreements. The
    organization has numerous vocal critics. The
    _____________ ________ ____ (IMF) and the World
    Bank provide assistance to countries in economic
    trouble, but few expected the drastic downturn in
    the global economy.
  • Global Financial Crisis
  • The 2008 financial crisis had roots in the Asian
    crisis of 1997 when the investment boom in Asian
    countries burst. Money then flowed the other way,
    much to the U.S., allowing the U.S. to fight ___
    wars while lowering taxes.
  • In 2008 the U.S. housing boom collapsed causing
    devaluation in housing and generating a large
    number of home ____________. U.S. financial firms
    and banks teetered on the brink of collapse.
    Unemployment increased. U.S. presidential
    candidate Barack Obama won the election in part
    from faith in his ability to stem the economic

Globalization and Economic Crisis
  • Globalization and Democracy
  • In the last decades of the __th century, the
    number of democratic institutions increased
    throughout the world.
  • The great appeal of democracy is that it allows
    for the _________ resolution of differences among
    a countrys social, cultural, and regional
    groups, and reduces the threat of ___ between
    democratic nations.
  • The economic crisis of ____ caused some new
    democratic governments to fall.
  • Democracy in Pakistan seemed uncertain President
    ______ _________ stepped down rather than face
    impeachment because of his support of the U.S.
    The government also faced growing strength of the
    Pakistani _______.
  • ______ countries have moved toward more open
    political processes. The election of the BJP in
    India increased tensions between Indias ______
    and _______. In 2004, the BJP lost a national
    election to the Congress Party and peacefully
    handed over power.
  • With the notable exception of South Africa,
    elections in sub-Saharan Africa have often been
    used by would-be dictators as the first step in
    establishing their political and military
    dominance. In Sudan, violence in Darfur led to
    ____ __-______ becoming the first sitting head of
    state to be charged with genocide by the
    International Criminal Court in 2009.

Globalization and Economic Crisis
  • Regime Change in Iraq and Afghanistan
  • Experiments in democracy took place in
    ___________ and ____ after the United States
    overthrew both regimes.
  • Ruled by the Taliban at the time of the 9/11
    attacks, and harboring _____ ___ _____,
    Afghanistan became the target of the United
    States in December 2001. With the fall of the
    Taliban, _____ ______ was elected interim
    president in 2002 and was Afghanistans first
    democratically elected president in 2004.
  • Afghanistans government has not proven strong
    enough to control ________ in some outlying
    regions, and it has had to fight attempts by the
    Taliban to regain power. Despite efforts to the
    stem production, the majority of Afghanistans
    agricultural income comes from opium production.
  • The United States began a preemptive strike
    against Iraq on March 20, 2003, under the belief
    that Iraq held _______ __ ____ __________ (WMDs),
    although United Nations weapons inspectors had
    not found any evidence of WMDs in Iraq. When no
    WMDs were found, President George W. Bush then
    stated that the reason for the invasion was to
    liberate the Iraqi people from oppression and
    install a _________.
  • After major fighting ended in Iraq, the United
    States led Iraqis through the steps to a
    constitutionally elected government in January
    ____. As democracy took shape in Iraq, they also
    endured a guerilla insurgency and, after the
    election of a Shi-ite majority, conflict between
    Shi-ite and _____ factions, verging on civil war.
    By the time Barak Obama took office, however,
    signs of stabilization led him to announce
    withdrawal of U.S. combat forces by August 2010.
  • The hardships of democratization in Iraq and
    Afghanistan led other Middle Eastern countries to
    question U.S. urgings to liberalize their
    political systems. The capture of 23 seats in the
    Lebanese parliament by __________ in 2005 and the
    majority of seats won by Hamas in the Palestine
    Governing Council seemed to confirm for
    oil-producing countries their hesitancy to hold
    free elections. In 2007, Hamas attacks against
    Israel led to aerial bombardment by Israel on the
    Gaza Strip.

The Question of Values
  • Faith and Politics
  • ___________ ___________ became a powerful,
    conservative political force in the United
    States, particularly during the presidency of
    George W. Bush. Catholic conservatives led
    opposition to ________, homosexuality, marriage
    of priests, and admission of _____ to the
    priesthood. Israels hyperorthodox Jews, known as
    _______, vehemently resisted both Israels
    unilateral withdrawal from Gaza in 2005 and plans
    for withdrawal from parts of the West Bank. In
    India, Hindu zealots made the ___ party a
    powerful political force.
  • The birth of the Islamic Republic of ____ in 1979
    made the current of Muslim political
    assertiveness visible to all, but by the year
    2000, acts of _________ by non-Iranian Muslim
    groups claiming to be acting for religious
    reasons were capturing the headlines. Media
    technology increased terrorisms effectiveness as
    a political tactic from the 1980s onward,
    especially with spectacular attacks against the
    United States and Europe.
  • Most notorious of the terrorists was the
    Saudi-born charismatic leader Usama bin Laden.
    Through his group of fighters called __-_____, he
    attacked American embassies, the U.S. Navy
    destroyer ____, and the World Trade Center and
    the ________ in 2001. Further terrorist attacks
    by Indonesians in 2002, North Africans in 2004,
    and English-born Muslims in 2005 suggested that
    the violence begun by al-Qaeda had become
    decentralized and that recruits might no longer
    be taking orders from bin Laden. Debate has not
    settled on the reasons for the increasing
    violence but fear of terrorism became pervasive
    throughout the world, and many peaceful Muslims
    found themselves suspect because of their beliefs.

The Question of Values
  • Universal Rights and Values
  • The ______ _______ sought to protect the rights
    of individuals through the _________ ____________
    __ _____ ______, passed by the General Assembly
    in December ____. The declarations emphasis on
    individual rights was derived mostly from
    ________ and ________ history many of the
    countries that later signed this declaration had
    reservations about the universal nature of
    concepts that had been formulated exclusively on
    the basis of the western cultural tradition.
  • Rather than addressing fundamental philosophical
    issues regarding the concept of human rights,
    human rights activists worked through
    _______________ _____________ (NGOs) and focused
    their efforts on agreed-upon violations of human
    rights _______, imprisonment without trial, and
    summary execution by death squads, and on famine
    relief and refugee assistance.
  • U.S. demands that its citizens be exempted from
    the jurisdiction of the _____________ ________
    _____ and that enemy combatants taken prisoner
    during the war on terrorism did not have to be
    treated in accordance with the _____ ______
    __________, and its withdrawal from the _____
    agreement has prompted charges of hypocrisy from
    critics of the U.S. government. The election of
    Barak Obama, the first African-American president
    of the U.S., seemed to signal a change in
    American attitudes on international rights issues.

The Question of Values
  • Womens Rights
  • Positions on the question of womens rights
    clearly demonstrate the dichotomy of views
    between the western industrialized nations and
    the nations of ______, ____, and Latin America.
  • The feminist movement in the west was concerned
    with ______ rights, equal access to _________ and
    ____, and an end to gender discrimination and
    sexual exploitation. Feminists in the west also
    decried the oppression of women in other parts of
    the world.
  • Some __________ women complained about the
    deterioration of morality and ______ life in the
    west and questioned the priorities of the western
    feminist movement. Efforts to coordinate the
    struggle for womens rights internationally
    gained momentum in the ____s, but these efforts
    were not able to overcome deep-seated cultural
    disagreement on the definition of womens rights.
  • International conferences have focused attention
    on womens issues more than they have generated
    solutions. On the other hand, increasing womens
    education, better ____________ opportunities,
    ___________ participation, and control of
    fertility are goals that promise to lead to
    better gender equality.

Global Culture
  • The Media and the Message
  • After World War II, the United States became the
    worlds main exporter of movies, challenged only
    by _____, Egypt, and ____ ____.
  • In the 1960s, __________ began to spread to most
    of the nonwestern world, where government
    monopolies ensured that the new medium would be
    used to disseminate a unified national viewpoint
    rather than function as a medium for the
    transmission of western culture and opinions.
    American organizations like CNN (_____ ____
    _______) used satellite transmission technology
    to enter the international market, proffering a
    fundamentally American view of the news. In
    response to CNN, other countries have developed
    their own twenty-four-hour news coverage, such as
    __- __________, based in the Persian Gulf emirate
    of _____, which interprets the news of the ____
    War, for instance, from a different perspective
    than U.S. news media.
  • The development of digital technology offered the
    possibility of combining the separate
    technologies of ______, television, and
    _________, while the development of the ________
    transformed business and education. These
    technological innovations could be seen as
    portents of westernespecially ________cultural
    domination, but as technology became more
    widespread, people around the world had more
    opportunities to adapt that technology to their
    own purposes.

Global Culture
  • The Spread of Pop Culture
  • The new technologies helped change perceptions of
    culture by allowing popular culture to become
    more and more visible. At the beginning of the
    __th century, European composers,
    _______________, writers, and _______ drew on
    popular cultures to inspire and enliven their
  • Initially, the content was heavily American but
    consumer products of American, ________, and
    ________ transnational companies found their way
    into international markets and filmmakers began
    to be inspired by global themes for international
  • Emerging Global Culture
  • Cultural links across national and ethnic
    boundaries at the elite level generated much less
    controversy than did the globalization of popular
    culture. _______-American collaboration on _____
    missions and in the business world, the flow of
    graduate students and researchers from around the
    world to American __________ _____________, and
    the use of English as a global language were all
    aspects of globalization at the elite level.
  • The importance of English as a global ________
    became evident in the emergence of an
    international literature in English, though world
    literature remained highly diverse.
  • Western universities have become the model for
    higher ____________ around the world.

Global Culture
  • Enduring Cultural Diversity
  • Diverse cultural traditions persisted at the end
    of the twentieth century despite the
    _______________ of industrial society and the
    integration of economic markets. _____, for
    example, has been a success in the modern
    industrial world in spite ofor perhaps because
    ofits _____-________, ______________ approach to
    ______ relations.
  • The ________ success of Japan and other ______
    countries calls into question the long-standing
    western assumption that all of _____ _______
    culminated in the exceptional convergence of
    political freedom, ___________, and
    industrialization that emerged in the west. Also
    coming into question was whether
    industrialization offered the only viable route
    to ____________.