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Measuring and Explaining Crime

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Chapter 2 Measuring and Explaining Crime National Crime Victimization Survey Data is gathered by the Bureau of Census and compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Measuring and Explaining Crime


1
Chapter 2
  • Measuring and Explaining Crime

2
Chapter Objectives
  • Identify the publication in which the FBI reports
    crime data, and list the three ways in which the
    data are reported.
  • Distinguish between Part I and Part II offenses
    as defined in the Uniform Crime Report (UCR).
  • Distinguish between the National Crime
    Victimization Survey (NCVS) and self-reported
    surveys.
  • Discuss the prevailing explanation for the rising
    number of women incarcerated in the United
    States.
  • Discuss the difference between a hypothesis and a
    theory in the context of criminology.
  • List and briefly explain two important branches
    of social process theory.
  • Discuss the connection between offenders and
    victims of crimes.
  • Explain the theory of the chronic offender and
    its importance for the criminal justice system.

3
Chapter Objectives
  • Explain the Twinkie Defense and give the case
    in which it became important.
  • Describe Cesare Lombrosos crime theory.
  • Why is it important for a police officer or
    detective to have a working knowledge of why
    people commit crimes.

4
Chapter Objectives
  • Explain the differences between crimes mala in se
    and mala prohibita.
  • Identify the publication in which the FBI reports
    crime data.
  • Distinguish between Part I and Part II offenses
    as defined in the UCR.
  • Describe the National Crime Victimization Survey.
  • Explain the difference between a crime report
    (UCR) and crime survey (NCVS).
  • List the offenses that are identified as index or
    Part I crimes by the FBIs Uniform Crime Report.
  • Corpus Delecti and the elements of a crime will
    be discussed during the chapter 4 lecture
    presentation.

5
How is crime.
  • Measured
  • Counted

?
6
Counting Crime, Criminals, and Victims
National Crime Statistics are collected, analyzed
and published by two major sources.
7
Federal Crime Statistics
  • Uniform Crime Report
  • Published by the FBI

8
Federal Crime Statistics
  • National Crime Victimization Survey
  • Published by the BJS

9
So how do I find out this information?
  • On the internet

10
FBI Website
11
National Criminal Justice Reference Service
12
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR)Part 1 Indexed Crime
  • Criminal Homicide
  • Aggravated Assault
  • Forcible Rape
  • Robbery
  • Burglary
  • Larceny-Theft
  • Motor Vehicle Theft
  • Arson

13
Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) Indexed Crime
2003 UCR National Statistics
14
How a crime rate is determined
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25
Self reported crime data
  • Asks respondents to tell about their criminal
    activities.
  • Measures the dark figure of crime.
  • Reveals that crime is a very common activity.
  • Demonstrates youth crime is spread throughout the
    social classes.
  • Is probably a reliable measure of trends over a
    period of time

26
General crime trends
  • Crime rates are not steadily rising.
  • A decline in property crime rates has stabilized
    crime rates in general.
  • Violent crime has dropped since 1993.
  • Males 16-24 are the most crime prone group

27
Solving crime by making arrests
  • About 15 million arrests are made each year.
  • Arrests are referred to as clearance in UCR
    statistics.
  • In reality, most crimes are cleared without an
    arrest.

28
Police clear approximately 20 of all reported
crimes
29
Solving crimes by making arrests
  • Which F.B.I. Uniform Crime Report (UCR) Index
    Crime has the highest clearance rate?

30
Solving crimes by making arrests
This means if you are a victim of a homicide in
Los Angeles There is less than a 50/50 chance it
will ever be solved by arrest.
31
Counting crime, criminals and victims using
official data
  • Does official mean accurate?

32
Analysis of Uniform Crime Reports
  • Not all crime is reported
  • Administrative errors in recording data
  • Interpreting UCR definitions
  • Systematic counting errors
  • Deliberately altered or manipulated data
  • Methodological problems

33
Counting crime, criminals and victims using
official data
34
National Crime Victimization Survey
  • Data is gathered by the Bureau of Census and
    compiled by the Bureau of Justice Statistics.
  • Sample includes 100,000 people in 50,000
    households.
  • Respondents are over the age of 12.
  • Respondents queried every six months about
    household and personal victimizations.

35
Who are crime victims
36
Murder in Los Angeles County
37
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38
The Ecology of Victimization
  • Most victimizations occur in large urban areas.
  • Most incidents occur in the evening hours
  • The most likely sites are open public areas
  • An overwhelming number involve only one victim
  • Most serious crimes take place after 6 PM

39
Most crime is intra-racial
  • Not inter-racial
  • Black gangs target other Black gangs
  • Latino gangs target other Latino gangs

40
Most crime is intra-racial
  • Blacks were victims of an estimated 805,000
    nonfatal violent crimes and of about 8,000
    homicides in 2005.
  • Blacks accounted for 13 of the U.S. population
    in 2005, but were victims in 15 of all nonfatal
    violent crimes and nearly half of all homicides.
  • During the 5-year period from 2001 to 2005, the
    average annual rate of nonfatal violent
    victimization against blacks was 29
    victimizations per 1,000 persons age 12 or older.
    For whites the rate was 23 per 1,000, and for
    Hispanics, 24 per 1,000.
  • These findings are based on data from the Bureau
    of Justice Statistics National Crime
    Victimization Survey (NCVS) and the Federal
    Bureau of Investigations (FBI) Uniform Crime
    Reporting Program (UCR), Supplementary Homicide
    Reports.

41
Comparison UCR v. NCVS
UCR
NCVS
Scope - Crimes reported to the police in most
jurisdictions Collection Method -
Police departments and FBI Kinds of Information -
Offense counts crime clearances persons
arrested, persons charged officers
killed, characteristics of homicide
victims Sponsor - FBI
  • Scope - Both reported and
  • unreported to police nationwide
  • Collection Method -
  • Survey Interview
  • Kinds of Information -
  • Details about victims and
  • crimes - reported and unreported. Use of weapons,
  • injuries, economic effects
  • Sponsor - Bureau of
  • Justice Statistics

42
Are Crime Statistics Accurate?
  • Data Reliability
  • If the data are counted over and over, will the
    same results be obtained?
  • Data Validity
  • Do the data really measure what they intend to
    measure?

43
Realities of Crime
  • All crimes are not treated the same by the
    criminal justice system.
  • All criminals are not treated the same by the
    criminal justice system.
  • Much of the public has a distorted understanding
    about criminal justice processes.

44
Factors effecting crime trends
  • Age (number 1 factor)
  • Economy
  • Social Problems
  • Firearms
  • Gangs
  • Drugs
  • Justice Policy

45
What is the impact of crime?
  • Economic Costs loss of property, lower
    productivity, medical care.
  • Psychological and Emotional Costs pain, trauma,
    and the lost quality of life.
  • Cost of operating the criminal justice system.

46
What is the impact of crime?
47
What is the impact of crime?
48
What is a crime theory?
  • A general statement or set of statements that
    explain many different facts by reference to
    underlying principles and relationships.
  • Why did someone commit a crime.
  • Juries love a motive although it is not an
    element of any crime.
  • Police officers must be prepared to deliver
    honest and professional testimony that should
    include
  • Possible motives
  • Related Evidence to motive

49
General Types of Crime Theories
  • Trait Theories
  • Cesare Lombroso (1835 1909)
  • Father of Criminology
  • Criminals are throwbacks to early mankind
  • Can be identified by physical characteristics

50
General Types of Crime Theories
  • Psychological Theories
  • Personality, developmental, social learning or
    cognition
  • Sociological Theories
  • Social forces and socialization patterns
  • Choice Theories
  • Because a person chooses to do so
  • Trait Theories
  • Biochemical conditions influence criminal
    behavior

51
General Types of Crime Theories
  • Trait Theory
  • Some trait theories suggest that offenders have
    abnormal biochemical levels or organic substances
    that influence their behavior and in some way
    make the prone to anti-social behavior. Twinkie
    Defense.
  • You are what you eat

52
General Types of Crime Theories
  • Is it really possible to understand why an
    individual commits a crime?
  • Does it really matter?
  • The study of criminals and their victims is
    called criminology.
  • The title of someone who majored in criminology
    would be criminologist.

53
General types of crime theories
  • Tru TV Criminal Mind
  • Bad to the Bone
  • You can read more on this subject by going to the
    class bookmarks page for chapter 2.

54
San Francisco Mayor murder
55
The Twinkie Defense
  • The Twinkie Defense
  • Reduced Dan Whites conviction to manslaughter
  • What you eat can affect your behavior
  • Today that trait theory applies to sugar in a
    diet.

1979 Button
56
The Twinkie Defense
57
Why did this person kill?
  • The next few slides have photographs of some well
    know criminals.
  • This is not a graded exercise, if you dont know
    who the individual is or their crimes, you can
    click on their picture for more information.
  • Can you fit their crimes to a specific theory?

58
Why did this person kill?
59
Why did this person kill?
60
Do you recognize this criminal?
61
Do you recognize this criminal?
62
Do you recognize this criminal?
63
Did this person kill?
64
Chapter 2
  • Measuring and Explaining Crime
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