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Crime

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Crime Today Crime versus Deviance Causes of crime (functionalism, symbolic interactionism, conflict theory) Juvenile Delinquency Solutions Turn in your survey questions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Crime


1
Crime
  • Today
  • Crime versus Deviance
  • Causes of crime (functionalism, symbolic
    interactionism, conflict theory)
  • Juvenile Delinquency
  • Solutions
  • Turn in your survey questions
  • assignment from last week at
  • the end of class

2
Crime vs. Deviance
Crime Deviance
Breaking the laws of a society Breaking the norms of a society
3
Deviance
  • A deviant act is any act that that violates the
    norms of the society you live in
  • This may or may not necessarily be a criminal act
    in the society where you live
  • EX cutting in line at the bank is deviant
  • EX robbing the bank is deviant and criminal

4
How do we get info about crime?
  • Official statistics
  • Victimization surveys
  • Self-report offender surveys

5
Problems With Official Statistics
  • Many crimes are not reported.
  • Some reported crimes are not recorded by police.
  • Some rates may be exaggerated.

6
What causes criminal behavior?
  1. Biological theories
  2. Psychological theories
  3. Sociological theories

7
What causes criminal behaviorSociological
theories
Structural Functionalism 1. Strain theory 2.
Crime can be functional Symbolic
Interactionism 3. Control theory 4. Labeling
theory 5. Deterrence theory 6. Differential
Association 7. Conflict Perspective
8
Structural FunctionalismRobert Merton Strain
Theory/Theory of Anomie
  • Strain theory when people believe a goal is
    important
  • but do not have legitimate means to attain it
  • they experience strain
  • state of anomie-a sense of normlessness
  • Merton created a list of the modes of adaptation
    to a state of anomie

9
Robert Merton Strain Theory/Theory of Anomie
Cultural goal goal that most people in society
feel is important Institutionalized means
legitimate way of attaining the goal
financial success
go to college and apply for a high paying
job work hard to perfect your talent and receive
a high pay for it
Societys Goals ___ Societys Way ___
10
Merton- Strain Theory
  • 1. Innovation-accept the cultural goal but reject
    the institutional means of attaining it

Societys Goals yes Societys Way no
  • Example Drug Dealer
  • seeking financial success but not following norms
    of society to achieve the success

11
Merton- Strain Theory
  • 2. Ritualism-does not buy into the goals of
    society but follows the routines

Societys Goals no Societys Way yes
  • Example an apathetic high school student who
    goes through the motion of going to classes but
    has no desire to go to college and get a high
    paying job

12
Merton- Strain Theory
  • 3. Retreatism- individuals have rejected both
    the goals of culture and retreated
    from society

Societys Goals no Societys Way no
  • Example drug addict
  • divorce themselves from society
  • do not seek the goals or rewards of society
  • only seek access to the drug they are addicted to
  • willing to break the law to obtain those drugs

13
Merton Strain Theory
  • 4. Rebellion-rejecting the values and
    institutions of ones culture and substituting
    them for a new set of values.

Societys Goals no, makes own goals Societys
Way maybe
  • Example
  • Animal rights activist
  • A woman rejecting the goal of attaining financial
    success and deciding to focus on animal rights
    instead

14
Merton- Strain TheoryThose who dont feel
strain/anomie conform
  • 5. Conformity-individuals who accept the cultural
    goals of society as well as the institutionalized
    means of attaining these goals.

Societys Goals yes Societys Way yes
Example Business owner. Believes in the goals of
personal financial achievement, studies business
administration in college, earns an M.B.A and
then begins their own online company
15
Other structural functionalist viewpoints
  • Crime is functional for society
  • Strengthens group cohesion people develop
    solidarity when they come together to express
    outrage over a criminal violation.
  • Punishment reiterates boundaries of what is
    considered right or wrong
  • May be a catalyst for social change

16
Structural functionalist Review emphasize how
deviants are products of society
  • Deviance occurs because the structure of society
    makes it impossible for some people to achieve
    success in legitimate ways

17
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Control theory
  • A strong social bond between individuals and
    society keeps most individuals from violating
    social norms.

18
Can you match the labels to the photograph?
librarian
sex offender
lawyer
student
teacher
surgeon
CEO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
19
CEO
librarian
teacher
sex offender
lawyer
surgeon
student
20
Labeling Theory
  • Society creates deviants by labeling those who
    have been apprehended as different
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy
  • Example Spurters

21
Other symbolic interactionist viewsDifferential
Association Theory
  • Interaction with others teaches individuals
  • values and attitudes associated with crime
  • techniques and motivations for criminal behavior
  • Some say the interaction can be virtual (through
    video games, movies, music)
  • What do you think? Can video games or violence in
    movies increase criminal behavior?

22
Differential association theory
  • argue that certain groups or subcultures in
    society have criminal acts woven into the texture
    of life

23
Deterrence Theory
  • People commit crimes if the perceived
    consequences do not outweigh the potential benefit

Example Cheating Plagiarism
24
Symbolic Interactionism Review emphasizes the
importance of labels, group influence, and
consequences
  • Deviance is learned through the groups we
    interact with and the labels we acquire
  • Choice is based on cost/benefit assessment

25
Conflict theory emphasizes how the criminal
justice system is controlled by a small group of
people who have power
  • Sees the law as an instrument of oppression
  • The law punishes the working class because they
    have the potential to rebel and overthrow the
    current social order

26
Black men in the United States are 6.6 times more
likely than white men to be incarcerated. More
than 10 of all Black males ages 25 to 39 were in
prison or jail as of June 30, 2008.
(Humanrightswatch.org April 09)
Latino
27
Whites, Latinos, and Blacks arrested for
Marijuana Possession in New York City
Marijuana use among races in the United States
The National Household Survey on Drug Abuse
Source NHSDA 2000 http//www.oas.samhsa.gov/2k2/Y
outhMJuse/YouthMJuse.htm
28
White Collar Crime
  • Crimes committed in course of employment
  • Occupational - individuals commit crimes in the
    course of their employment.
  • Corporate - corporations violate law to maximize
    profit.

29
Corporate Crime a form of white-collar crime
In 2002, Firestone executives let faulty tires
remain on U.S. vehicles, even though they were
recalling the tires in Saudi Arabia and
Venezuela. More than 200 Americans died from
accidents Firestone- manufacturing defective
tires, Ford- equipping vehicles with tires that
were too small No Firestone or Ford Executive
went to jail (Henslin, 2006)
30
Corporate Crime a form
of white-collar crime
Hughes Electronics Boeing Satellite Systems
2003, two leading U.S. aerospace companies, were
accused of illegally exporting missile technology
to China. The technology allowed China to
improve its delivery system for nuclear weapons,
therefore placing the United States at risk. The
two companies pled guilty and paid fines. No
executives from Hughes or Boeing went to jail.
(Henslin, 2006)
31
Conflict Theory Review
  • Social inequality leads to crimes as a means of
    economic survival.
  • Those in power define what is criminal.
  • Law enforcement penalizes those without power
    (often racial minorities or those of lower
    socioeconomic status) and benefits those with
    power.

32
Real World Connections
  Read the crime/news incident   ANSWER THE
QUESTIONS WITH YOUR GROUP Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
33
5 Charged in Drug Ring Police Call Gang-Related
A) Summarize the crime B) Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
34
Bronx Woman Arrested for Illegal Breast
Enlargements
A) Summarize the incident B) Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
35
LAPD Defends Officers Who Shot Man During Struggle
A) Summarize the incident B) Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
36
Grand Jury Probes What Edwards Knew About Spending
A) Summarize the incident B) Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
37
Parents of Dead Mexican Teenager Sue U.S.
Government
A) Summarize the incident B) Which sociological
explanation of deviance best explains the crime?
  Why?  
38
Juvenile Delinquency
View Juvenile Correction Facilities
39
  • Juvenile Delinquency
  • When young people do not have what they need,
    what types of behaviors may they engage in?
  • Problem alcohol use
  • Problem drug use
  • Criminal acts
  • Violent acts
  • Missing school
  • Low grades in school
  • Unprotected sex
  • Teenage pregnancy

40
  • What do young people need in order to avoid these
    types of high risk behaviors?

41
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Control theory
  • A strong social bond between individuals and
    society constrains some individuals from
    violating social norms.
  • Elements of the social bond
    (a) Attachment to significant others
  • (b) Commitment to conventional goals
  • (c) Involvement in conventional activities
  • (d) Belief in the moral standards of society

42
Symbolic Interactionism
  • Control theory
  • There are two control systems
  • 1. inner controls (conscience, morals, ideas of
    right and wrong)
  • 2. outer controls (people family, friends)
  • that work against our tendencies to deviate. If
    one or more are missing people may commit crimes

43
Take the survey
  • Think back to when you were 8-15 years old
  • How many of the items listed were a part of your
    life?
  • Check all that applied.
  • Count how many you checked (you will not have to
    share this number with the class)
  • Star 3 items on External Assets page (regardless
    of if you had them or not) that you feel are most
    important in influencing a successful adult life.

44
40 Developmental Assets
  • Since its creation in 1990, Search Institutes
    framework of Developmental Assets has become the
    most widely used approach to positive youth
    development in the United States.
  • BackgroundGrounded in extensive research in
    youth development, resiliency, and prevention,

    the 40 Developmental Assets represent
    the
  • relationships
  • opportunities
  • personal qualities
  • that young people need to avoid risks and to
    thrive.

45
40 Developmental Assets Fit into 2 categories 1.
Internal Assets And 2. External Assets
46
  • The Power of AssetsStudies of more than 2.2
    million young people in the United States
    consistently show that
  • the more assets young people have, the less
    likely they are to engage in a wide range of
    high-risk behaviors and the more likely they are
    to thrive.
  • Assets have power for all young people,
    regardless of their gender, economic status,
    family, or race/ethnicity.
  • Levels of assets are better predictors of
    high-risk involvement and thriving than poverty
    or being from a single-parent family.
  • The average young person experiences fewer than
    half of the 40 assets.
  • Boys experience three fewer assets than girls
    (17.2 assets for boys vs. 19.9 for girls).

40 Developmental Assets
47
Percentage of 6th- to 12th-Grade Youth Reporting
Selected High-Risk Behavior Patterns by Level of
Developmental Assets

High-Risk Behavior Pattern 010 Assets 1120 Assets 2130 Assets 3140 Assets
Problem alcohol use 45 26 11 3
Violence 62 38 18 6
School Problems 44 23 10 4
Data based on aggregate Search Institute sample of 148,189 students across the United States surveyed in 2003. Data based on aggregate Search Institute sample of 148,189 students across the United States surveyed in 2003. Data based on aggregate Search Institute sample of 148,189 students across the United States surveyed in 2003. Data based on aggregate Search Institute sample of 148,189 students across the United States surveyed in 2003. Data based on aggregate Search Institute sample of 148,189 students across the United States surveyed in 2003.
48
Providing Developmental Assets
Developmental Assets are basic building blocks of
life that all kids need to succeed. Research
with almost 3 million young people in North
America shows that these assets play a powerful
role in helping young people make positive
choices, avoid high-risk behaviors, and thrive.
49
Possible Solutions
  • QUICK WRITE 3 minutes Which of the following
    proposed solutions do you think would be MOST or
    LEAST effective at reducing crime among youth and
    adults? Why?
  • Youth programs (boys and girls clubs,
    after-school activities,
    high quality pre-school)
  • Community programs (neighborhood watch)
  • Legislative action (increase gun control)
  • Reducing poverty (better education, on the
    job-training)
  • Alternatives to prison (probation, psychological
    treatment, house arrest, group therapy)
  • Prison reform (increase occupational training
    programs)
  • Parental responsibility laws (making parents
    responsible for delinquent behavior of their
    children)
  • Better law enforcement (strictly enforced curfews
    or focus on combating street gangs)
  • Juvenile boot camps (scared straight approach)
  • Parenting Training (parenting classes, resources,
    counseling)
  • Decriminalization of some laws for adults (drug
    use, gambling, prostitution)

50
Review research methods
  1. Select a topic
  2. Literature Review
  3. Research design/ Methods
  4. Collect data
  5. Code data
  6. Results and discussion
  7. Inform Others

51
Survey Questions
Developing Strong Survey and/or Interview
Questions. 1. Read the questions. 2. Write
the mistake made 3. For those questions that you
feel are weak, re-word the question on the line
below to improve it. Types of questions to
avoid Double barreled questionsSensitive
questionsThreatening questionsLeading/loaded
questionsRespondent unlikely to be able to
answer correctlyUnclear questions
52
Coming up
  • Due next week Paper 1 read details on website
  • Read ch 7 and 13
  • Turn in your survey questions assignment from
    last week before leaving

53
Types of Crime
1) Index crimes (street crimes) 2 types
Violent Crimes Property Crimes
Murder Burglary (entering a structure break-in)
Rape Theft /Larceny (perpetrator did not illegally enter a structure)
Robbery (use of force, holdup) Motor vehicle theft
Aggravated assault Arson
54
Types of Crime
  • 2) Vice crimes (non-violent)
  • Drug use
  • Prostitution
  • Gambling
  • 3) White collar crime
  • 4) Organized crime
  • 5) Computer crime
  • 6) Juvenile delinquency

55
Computer Crimes
  • Any law violation in which a computer is the
    target or means of criminal activity.
  • One of the fastest growing crimes in U.S.
  • Hacking - unauthorized computer intrusion.
  • Identity theft - stealing of someone elses
    identification to obtain credit.
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