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BIOSAFETY TRAINING

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Uottawa2k9 BIOSAFETY TRAINING Human Resources - Occupational Health Disability & Leave Pierre Laflamme May 16, 2012 Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BIOSAFETY TRAINING


1
BIOSAFETY TRAINING
Uottawa2k9
Human Resources - Occupational Health Disability
Leave
  • Pierre Laflamme
  • May 16, 2012

Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health
and Safety
2
COURSE OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Laboratory Associated Infections
  • Blood-borne Pathogens
  • Classification of Biohazards
  • Infection/Biohazard Control
  • Spill Response
  • Biomedical Waste
  • Regulations

BIOSAFETY
3
INTRODUCTION
4
What is a BIOHAZARD?
  • Any organism or its toxin that is known to cause
    disease in humans or animals or that is a
    potential hazard to humans, animals or the
    environment.
  • Examples
  • Microorganisms such as viruses, bacteria, fungi,
    and parasites
  • and their toxins.
  • Blood, body fluids and tissues from humans and
    animals.
  • Transformed cell lines

5
What is BIOSAFETY?
  • The combination of measures employed when
    handling biohazardous materials to
  • Protect personnel from exposure to infectious
    agents
  • Prevent environmental contamination
  • Provide an environment for high quality research
    while maintaining a safe work place
  • Comply with applicable federal, provincial and
    municipal requirements

6
How is BIOSAFETY achieved?
  • Administrative controls
  • Training, Inspections, Permits and Certificates
  • Engineering Controls
  • Biological Safety Cabinets, Ventilation
  • Personal Protective Equipment
  • Practices and Procedures
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Immunization when necessary

7
What is BIOSECURITY?
  • Measures employed to protect biohazardous
    materials, or critical relevant information,
    against theft or diversion by those who intend to
    pursue intentional misuse.

8
How is BIOSECURITY achieved?
  • Physical barriers
  • Buildings, doors, locks, key card access
  • Psychological barriers
  • Security personnel, cameras
  • Monitoring Activities
  • Patrols, monitoring by support staff
  • Personnel Clearance
  • Access to authorized personnel only

9
Who are the STAKEHOLDERS?
  • EXTERNALLY
  • Public Health Agency of Canada
  • Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • Environment Canada
  • Transport Canada
  • Ontario Ministry of Labour
  • Emergency Response Personnel
  • Suppliers Contractors
  • Community
  • INTERNALLY
  • Vice-President (Research)
  • Committees
  • University Services (ORM, HR, PRS, PS)
  • Deans, Chairs, Principal Investigators
  • Employees, Students
  • Manager of Biological Containment Suite

10
University KEY SERVICES
  • Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health
    and Safety

Certificates and Permits Training Procedures
(Waste disposal) Risk Identification
(Inspections) Emergency plans Accident/Incident
follow-up
11
University KEY SERVICES
  • HR (Occupational Health, Disability and Leave)
  • Medical surveillance
  • Immunizations
  • Medical Follow-up
  • Interface with Workplace Safety and Insurance
    Board

12
WHY ARE WE CONCERNED?
  • Potential for acquiring a laboratory-associated
    infection (LAI)
  • Contamination of the environment
  • Contamination of research

13
LABORATORY ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS
14
LABORATORY ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS
Infection Source
  • Microorganisms
  • Cells and tissues
  • Blood and body fluids
  • Any items contaminated with the above

Route of Transmission
Susceptible Host
  • Percutaneous inoculation (needles and bites)
  • Inhalation of aerosols
  • Contact of mucous membranes
  • Ingestion
  • Immune system
  • Vaccination status
  • Age

15
LAIs
  • Only 20 of LAIs are related
    to a causative or defined event
  • 80 are caused by human errors
  • 20 are caused by equipment failure
  • Types of accidents causing LAIs
  • Spills and sprays
  • Needles
  • Sharp objects and broken glass
  • Bites or scratches from animals

http//www.weizmann.ac.il/safety/bio2.html
16
BLOOD-BORNE PATHOGENS Human Resources Occupation
al Health Disability Leave
17
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS (BBP)
  • Sources
  • Blood
  • Semen
  • Vaginal Secretions
  • Other Bodily Fluids
  • Cerebrospinal
  • Amniotic
  • Synovial
  • Tissue Cultures
  • Organ Cultures
  • Infected Experimental Animals

18
RISK OF EXPOSURE
  • Pathogen involved
  • Type of body fluid
  • Route of exposure
  • Duration of exposure
  • Volume of blood involved in exposure
  • Concentration of virus at time of exposure
  • PPE worn

19
SPECIFIC EXAMPLES OF BBPS
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • HIV

20
FACTS ABOUT SOME BBPs
Pathogen Hepatitis B Hepatitis C HIV
Pathogenicity 2 major forms asymptomatic symptomatic asymptomatic symptomatic non-specific symptoms acute infection non-specific flu-like, mono-like symptoms
Mode of transmission percutaneous/ permucosal exposure to body fluids, organs indirect contact with contaminated lab items (e.g. needles, syringes) Percutaneous exposure to contaminated blood (102 103 infectious particles/ mL) intravascular inoculation (e.g. transfusion) of contaminated blood products direct exposure of virus to mucosa (oral, rectal, vaginal)
Incubation period usually 24 - 180 days average 60-90 days 2 weeks - 6 months most commonly 7 10 weeks chronic infection may persist up to 20y before onset of cirrhosis variable generally 1 - 3 months between time of infection to development of detectable Abs time from HIV infection to diagnosis of AIDS ranges from lt 1y to 15y or more
Survival outside host Survives in dried blood for long periods (weeks) stable on environmental services for at least 7 days at 25 C not known similar to hep B (survives in dried blood for long periodsweeks) viable in blood in syringes _at_ RT for 42d Cell-free HIV dried on glass coverslips in 10 serum can survive forlonger than 7d, depending on initial titre
Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) MOST FREQUENTLY occurring LAI lab workers incident rate 7X gt general population health care workers handling blood at higher risk to infection low (e.g. as of 2001, total of 57 cases of documented occupationally acquired HIV among US health care workers
Source http//www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/lab-bio/res/ps
ds-ftss/index-eng.php
21
ISSUES TO CONSIDER
  • Symptoms
  • Mode of transmission
  • Incubation period
  • Survival outside host
  • Communicability
  • Immunization
  • Prophylaxis / Treatment

22
IF AN EXPOSURE OCCURS
  • Initiate first aid
  • Notify your supervisor / designated person
  • Report to hospital emergency department or
    Universitys Health Services
  • Report incident to OHDL
  • Occupational Health, Disability and Leave
    Office, ext. 1472 http//www.rh.uottawa.ca/00_mai
    n/index_f.asp

23
UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
  • Minimum standard of practice for preventing the
    transmission of BBP includes
  • Education
  • Hand washing
  • Wearing protective barriers
  • Use safe work practices

24
BIOHAZARD CLASSIFICATION
25
BIOHAZARD CLASSIFICATION
  • Conventional Agents Risk Groups 1 to 4
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Tissue Culture
  • Animal Work
  • Anatomical Specimens
  • Unconventional Agents

Class D, division 3 of WHMIS (Poisonous and
Infectious Material - Biohazardous Infectious
Material)
26
BIOHAZARD CLASSIFICATION
  • Conventional agents are categorized into risk
    groups based on their particular characteristics
    such as
  • Pathogenicity (Infectivity of the agent -
    disease, severity, mortality)
  • Infectious dose
  • Mode of transmission (Airborne, Ingestion,
    Parenteral)
  • Host Range (Animal or human pathogen
  • Availability of effective preventive measures
    (PPE)
  • Availability of effective treatment

27
BIOHAZARD CLASSIFICATION
  • Conventional agents are categorized based on the
    measures required for handling each organism
    safely in a laboratory setting, such as
  • Operational Requirements (Protocols, Biological
    safety cabinets, Lab safety practices)
  • Engineering Requirements (Maintenance,
    certification, repairs)
  • Physical Requirements (PPE)

28
CONVENTIONAL AGENTS
Risk Group Individual Risk Community Risk Containment Level Examples
1 Low Low Level 1 Escherichia Coli
2 Moderate Limited Level 2 Bacteria Streptococcus and Salmonella Viruses Adenovirus, Hepatitis A, B C, Influenza
3 High Low Level 3 Bacteria Bacillus anthracis and, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virus HIV
4 High High Level 4 Viruses Ebola virus and Lassa virus
Unlikely to cause disease in healthy workers or
animals
Rarely cause serious human or animal disease
May cause serious disease
Likely to cause very serious disease
29
RECOMBINANT DNA
  • Recombinant DNA technology or genetic
    engineering
  • in vitro incorporation of genetic material from
    one cell into another or from one organism to
    another
  • In Canada the level of risk depends on
  • the source of DNA being transferred
  • the vector
  • the host
  • The Office of Risk Management will assist the
    investigator in this determination.

30
TISSUE CULTURE
  • Mammalian cell lines have to be considered
    infectious as they may contain infectious agents
  • Untransformed mammalian cell lines - Risk Group 1
  • MCF-7 (Human breast carcinoma cell line)
  • NIH 3T3 (Mouse fibroblast cell line)
  • Transformed mammalian cell lines Risk Group 2
  • HeLa (Human - contains papovavirus)
  • All mammalian cell lines should be handled in a
    Level 2 Containment.

31
ANIMAL WORK
  • Animals can harbour infectious agents (naturally
    or introduced) which can be transmitted to humans
  • Scratches, bites, aerosols (needles and litter
    changes), body fluids and excrements
  • Level dependent on type of work being conducted.
  • Special Animal Care training is required for all
    personnel working with animals.
  • All work involving animal use must receive prior
    approval from the Animal Care Committee

32
ANATOMICAL SPECIMENS
  • All specimens should be considered infectious due
    to potential presence of infectious agents
  • Its important to consider the type of specimen
  • blood, organs, tissues
  • Spinal sample, brain tissue
  • From infectious patient
  • In general Level 2 but it depends on the nature
    of the work.

33
UNCONVENTIONAL PATHOGENS
  • Includes unconventional agents, slow viruses and
    prions causing progressive neurological diseases
  • Creutzfeld-Jakob disease in humans, Mad Cow
    Disease, Scrapie in sheeps and goats
  • Resistant to destruction by chemical and physical
    procedures that normally inactivate viruses
  • Precautions
  • Handle tissues as Risk Group 2 or higher
  • Handle formalin-fixed tissues and
    paraffin-embedded blocks as if still infectious
  • Follow up-to-date disinfection protocols.

34
WHERE ARE BIOHAZARDS FOUND?
35
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL
36
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL
  1. Administrative Controls
  2. Engineering Controls
  3. Personal Protective Equipment
  4. Practices and Procedures

37
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL 1. ADMINISTRATIVE
CONTROLS
38
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Administrative procedures to minimize the risk of
    exposure
  • Risk assessment
  • Training/Education
  • Resources
  • Inspections
  • Permits and Certificates
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Signage

39
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Risk Assessment
  • Will determine for each biohazard
  • Risk group
  • Containment level
  • Operational practices
  • Safety measures
  • Responsibility of users
  • Know and understand the various characteristics
    of the agent(s) you are working with.
  • (Material Safety Data Sheets and suppliers or
    manufacturers information sheets)

40
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Medical Surveillance
  • Training Education
  • WHMIS
  • Lab specific policies and procedures
  • Biosafety training, Laboratory safety training
  • Resources
  • ORM web site, Biosafety page
  • Faculty web sites
  • Biosafety Manual
  • Training Videos
  • National and International Biosafety Guidelines

41
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Inspections
  • Routine self-inspections
  • Biosafety Inspection Checklist available on-line
  • In addition, ORM and Health, Safety and Risk
    Officers will inspect labs to ensure compliance
    with regulations/ guidelines and provide
    feedback.

42
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS
  • Signs Labeling
  • Biohazard warning signs must be posted on doors
    to rooms where biohazardous materials are used
    and/or stored.
  • Biohazard labels should be placed on containers,
    equipment and storage units used with biological
    agents.

43
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL 2. ENGINEERING
CONTROLS
44
ENGINEERING CONTROLS
  • Technology based
  • Reduce or eliminate exposure to hazards
  • Containment
  • Types Primary and Secondary
  • Levels 1, 2, 3 and 4
  • For effective containment, users must
  • be aware of the potential hazards
  • be trained
  • Handle the material safely by adhering to
    standard microbiological practices and techniques

45
PRIMARY CONTAINMENT
  • First line of defence.
  • Ensures protection of personnel and immediate
    environment from exposure to the infectious
    agent.
  • Protective envelope that encapsulates the
    infectious agent or animal.
  • Petri dish, vial
  • Biological safety cabinets
  • animal caging equipment

46
SECONDARY CONTAINMENT
  • Protects the environment external to the
    laboratory from exposure
  • Includes facility design and operational practices

47
CONTAINMENT LEVEL 1
  • Basic laboratory
  • Requires no special design features
  • Biosafety cabinets are not required and work may
    be performed on the open bench.

48
CONTAINMENT LEVEL 2
  • Clinical, diagnostic, research and teaching
    facilities with level 2 agents.
  • Requires a class I or class II biological safety
    cabinet if any potential for aerosol or splash
    exists.
  • An emergency plan for handling spills must be
    developed.
  • Access should be controlled.

49
CONTAINMENT LEVEL 3
  • Specialized design and construction with
  • primary barriers to protect the individual
  • secondary barriers to protect the environment
  • Requires type II or type III biosafety cabinets
  • All staff must undergo specific training on the
    agents used, PPE, equipment, waste management as
    well as practices and procedures.

50
CONTAINMENT LEVEL 4
  • Only one level 4 facility in Canada (Canadian
    Centre for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg,
    Man.)
  • Design specifications are extremely stringent
  • The worker is completely isolated from infectious
    material.

51
BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS
  • Primary containment
  • Minimize contact between operator and the
    infectious agent by the use of directional
    airflows
  • There are 3 main classes of cabinets (I, II, III)
    which provide various levels of protection.
  • Class II and III BSC contain HEPA filters which
    remove particles (min 0.3 microns) from supply
    and exhaust air with 99.97 efficiency .
  • BSC should be located away from doors and high
    traffic areas

52
BIOLOGICAL SAFETY CABINETS
  • Laminar Flow Hoods or Clean Air Benches
  • Vertical or horizontal laminar flow
  • HEPA filtered supply air only
  • Provide product protection only
  • Not to be used with biohazards
  • Biological Safety Cabinet
  • Laminar air flow and HEPA filtered exhaust air
  • Personnel and environment protection
  • HEPA filtered supply air product protection
    with Class II III
  • To be used with biohazards

VS
53
WORKING SAFELY IN A BSC
  • Step 1
  • Before using the cabinet
  • Turn off UV lamp turn on fluorescent lamp
  • Ensure BSC is certified
  • Disinfect work surfaces with appropriate
    disinfectant
  • Place essential items inside cabinet
  • Allow the blower to run for 5-10 min before work

54
WORKING SAFELY IN A BSC
  • Step 2
  • While using the cabinet
  • Ensure material and equipment is placed near the
    back of the hood, especially aerosol-generating
    equipment. Do not block any vents
  • Use techniques that reduce splatter
    and aerosols.
  • General work flow should be from clean to
    contaminated areas
  • Minimize movement so as not to
  • impede air flow

55
WORKING SAFELY IN A BSC
  • Step 3
  • After using the cabinet
  • Leave blower on at least 5 minutes to purge
    cabinet
  • Remove and decontaminate equipment and materials
  • Disinfect cabinet surfaces
  • Turn off blower and fluorescent lamp, turn on UV
    lamp

56
WORKING SAFELY IN A BSC
  • Maintenance
  • Before and after each use - Wipe down work
    surfaces
  • Weekly - Clean UV lamp
  • Monthly - Wipe down all vertical surfaces
  • Annually - VerifyUV lamp intensity
    - Decontamination with formaldehyde gas
    (by ORM)
  • - Certification (by ORM)

57
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL 3. PERSONAL
PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
58
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
  • PPE is an important line of defence
  • Responsibility of both the user and the
    supervisor to ensure that PPE is worn
  • PPE is specific to each containment
  • level
  • Examples of PPE?

59
PPE
  • Criteria for consideration
  • Routes of exposure that need to be blocked
  • Degree of protection offered
  • Ease of use
  • Only effective if
  • correctly selected, fitted, used and cared for
  • the individual is well trained
  • Ensure PPE is removed before leaving the lab

60
PPE
  • Footwear
  • Closed toe and heel shoes only.
  • No sandals!
  • Shoe coverings are worn in some higher
    containment labs and animal facilities.

61
PPE
  • Lab Coats/Gowns
  • Protect street clothing from spills
  • Offer additional body protection
  • Long-sleeved, knee length with snaps
  • Elastic cuffs
  • Back-closing gowns
  • Periodic cleaning required

62
PPE
  • Gloves
  • Offer protection against a variety of hazards
    (heat, cold, chemical agents, biological agents,
    radioisotopes)
  • Latex, nitrile, rubber vinyl for work with
    biological agents.
  • Gloves should not be reused and should be changed
    frequently.
  • Utility gloves can be disinfected and reused if
    they show no sign of degradation.

63
PPE
  • Eye Face Protection
  • Goggles, safety glasses to protect the eyes
  • Full face shield to protect facial skin
  • Offer protection against chemical and biological
    splashes
  • No contact lenses
  • Respirators
  • Only personnel who have been fit-tested and
    trained should wear respirators.
  • Worn in atmospheres that pose an infectious or
  • toxic hazard

64
MOVIE
65
BREAK
66
INFECTION/BIOHAZARD CONTROL 4. PRACTICES AND
PROCEDURES
67
PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES
  • General Safety Guidelines
  • Good Microbiological Practice
  • Handwashing
  • Receipt of Packages
  • Opening Packages
  • Specific Procedures
  • Centrifuges
  • Needles Syringes and other sharps
  • Pipettes
  • Blenders, Grinders, Sonicators Lyophilizers
  • Inoculation Loops
  • Cryostats

68
GENERAL LABORATORY SAFETY GUIDELINES
  • Understand the hazards you face in the laboratory
  • Be adequately trained
  • Appropriate PPE must be worn
  • The lab should be kept clean and in order
  • Long hair must be tied back
  • Work surfaces must be cleaned and decontaminated
    daily
  • The use of needles should be limited
  • Lab doors have to be closed
  • Access to the lab has to be restricted

69
1. GOOD MICROBIOLOGICAL PRACTICE (GMP)
  • Mitigates the risk of
  • 1. Personnel exposure
  • 2. Contamination
  • a) sample
  • b) environment
  • What are we talking about ?

70
2. GOOD MICROBIOLOGICAL PRACTICE (GMP)
  • Universal Precautions
  • More knowledge about the organism being used
    easier to take the necessary precautions
  • Appropriate PPE greatly minimizes risk of
    exposure
  • Engineered controls (BSCs) prevent release of
    aerosols outside cabinet (and helps protect
    user!)
  • Frequent hand washing avoid infections

71
3. GOOD MICROBIOLOGICAL PRACTICE (GMP)
  • Prepare yourself for the work
  • Know what you will be doing
  • Structure the work in a logical fashion (work
    flow)
  • Prepare the work area
  • Ensure all material that needs to be in the BSC
    is sterile before placing it there
  • Ensure waste containers are at hands reach and
    are not overflowing and likely to collapse/ fall
    over
  • Use aseptic technique
  • Consult web http//www.protocol-online.org for
    SOPs techniques
  • Properly trained to use equipment accordingly and
    when in doubtASK!
  • Clean up and decontaminate

72
4. GOOD MICROBIOLOGICAL PRACTICE (GMP)
  • Disinfect work surfaces with suitable
    disinfectant before and after
  • Clean spills immediately and disinfect area
    thoroughly
  • Keep bench top uncluttered
  • Minimize traffic and unnecessary movements around
    work area
  • all work with infectious material should be
    carried out in a specific area
  • Material should not be carried throughout, or out
    of lab, unless in a closed or capped container
  • Minimize aerosol generation if unavoidable,
    carry out activities in a BSC

73
5. GOOD MICROBIOLOGICAL PRACTICE (GMP)
  • Keep sterile and non-sterile objects separate
  • Minimize exposure to outside air
  • Avoid contact with non-sterile surfaces and items
  • Hold open containers at an angle whenever
    possible
  • Identify and properly dispose of different types
    of waste

74
HANDWASHING
  • One of the single effective means of preventing
    infections if done properly and frequently
  • When to wash hands?
  • Before starting any manipulations
  • Before leaving the lab
  • When hands are obviously soiled
  • Before and after completing any task in a BSC
  • Every time gloves are removed
  • Before contact with ones face or mouth
  • At the end of the day

75
RECEIPT OF PACKAGES
  • At Shipping Receiving
  • Verify shipment is yours, and expected.
  • Inspect the integrity of container.
  • If damage and breakage possible, transfer the
    package into a secondary container lined with
    absorbent paper (absorbent side up)
  • Transfer to a cart with 4 sides for transfer to
    lab.
  • Decontaminate all the areas in SR where the
    package came into contact with.
  • All individuals who may have come into contact
    with the material must wash their hands
  • REMEMBER AT THIS POINT YOU DO NOT KNOW IF THE
    SAMPLE HAS BEEN BE BREACHED !

76
OPENING PACKAGES IN LAB
  • Scenario 1 Package appears damaged.
  • Transfer the sample to a biological cabinet and
    open and inspect each layer of packaging
    confronted with for signs which would indicate
    the sample integrity.
  • If damaged, inform your supervisor and ORM (x.
    3153)
  • Dispose of sample in the appropriate manner
  • Package must be sterilized or sent for
    incineration.

77
OPENING PACKAGES IN LAB
  • Scenario 2 Package is intact.
  • Open package in the containment level required by
    the sample
  • Add sample to inventory
  • Read and file MSDS or supplier information sheet
  • Deface all markings on the package prior to
    disposal

78
SAFE USE OF CENTRIFUGES
  • Before use
  • Check centrifuge tubes for cracks
  • Avoid Overfilling
  • Place caps or stoppers properly
  • Balance loads
  • Use sealed buckets (safety cups) or sealed rotors
  • Before leaving ensure centrifuge achieves run
    conditions
  • After run
  • Centrifuge has to be completely stopped before
    opening the lid
  • Check for spills or leaks before removing
    samples. Clean spills
  • Allow aerosols to settle (30 min) or open in a BSC

79
NEEDLES AND SYRINGES
  • Avoid use whenever possible
  • Use a BSC for all operations with infectious
    material
  • Fill syringes carefully
  • Shield needles when withdrawing from stoppers
  • Do not bend, shear or recap needles.
  • Dispose of all used needles/syringes in yellow
    sharps containers

80
PIPETTES
  • Mouth pipetting is prohibited.
  • Never force fluids out.
  • To avoid splashes, discharge the liquid down the
    receiving container wall.
  • Never mix material by suction and expulsion.
  • Reusable pipettes should be placed horizontally
    in a disinfectant filled pan.

81
BLENDERS, GRINDERS, SONICATORS, AND LYOPHILIZERS
  • Operate in a BSC whenever possible. Allow
    aerosols to settle for 5 minutes before opening.
  • Decontaminate after use
  • Blender
  • Do not use glass blender jars
  • Use safety blenders which can be autoclave
  • Lyophilizers (used for dehydration process)
  • Use glassware designed for vacuum work, ensure
    there is no damage before using
  • Use vapour traps whenever possible

82
INOCULATION LOOPS
  • Sterilization in an open flame may create
    aerosols which may contain viable microorganisms.
  • Shorter handles minimize vibrations
  • Disposable plastic loops are good alternatives

83
CRYOSTATS
  • Wear gloves during preparation of frozen sections
    and heavy gloves when accessing the cryostat.
  • Decontaminate frequently (70 Ethanol)

84
SPILL RESPONSE
85
SPILLS
  • Spill response will vary depending on
  • What was spilled?
  • How much was spilled?
  • Where was the spill?
  • What is the potential for release to the
    environment?
  • Spills should be cleaned up immediately (unless
    an aerosol was generated), to ensure proper
    decontamination.
  • Ensure appropriate PPE is worn and clean-up
    equipment is readily available.

86
SPILLS-GENERAL CLEAN-UP
  • Cover spill area with absorbent material
  • Soak the spill area with an appropriate
    disinfectant (i.e. 10 bleach)
  • Pour disinfectant from the outside of the
    absorbent material towards the inside
  • Leave on for 20 to 30 minutes
  • Pick up any broken glass (with forceps!) and
    place in a sharps container
  • Wipe up with absorbent material
  • Waste should be disposed in appropriate
    biohazardous waste container

87
SPILLS-SPECIAL CASES
  • Within a Centrifuge
  • Within a BSC
  • Open Areas (lab, during transport)
  • The spill response plan template is available at
    (http//www.uottawa.ca/services/ehss/docs/SPILLRES
    PONSEPLAN.pdf)

88
SPILLS
  • All users of biological materials should be
    familiar with the spill clean-up procedures.
  • All spills are to be reported ASAP to the lab
    supervisor and ORM.
  • Additional assistance is available from
  • ORM x 5892
  • Your departmental safety officer
  • ERT x 5411 (through Protection Services)

89
BIOMEDICAL WASTE
90
DECONTAMINATION, DISINFECTION, AND STERILIZATION
  • Decontamination The destruction of
    microorganisms to a lower level such that it
    removes danger of infection to individuals.
  • Sterilization The complete destruction of all
    viable microorganisms.
  • Disinfection Use of agents (physical or
    chemical) to destroy harmful organisms on
    inanimate objects

91
DECONTAMINATION PHYSICAL
  • Heat
  • Autoclaving (most practical and recommended)
  • Incineration (for disposal of sharps and tissues)
  • Irradiation
  • UV light (wavelength of 253 nm is germicidal)
  • Gamma (disrupts DNA and RNA)
  • Filtration
  • HEPA (biological safety cabinets, ventilation)

92
AUTOCLAVES
  • Items that CAN be autoclaved
  • Cultures and stocks of infectious material
  • Culture dishes and related devices
  • Discarded live and attenuated vaccines
  • Contaminated solid items (petri dishes, eppendorf
    tips, pipettes, gloves, paper towels)

93
AUTOCLAVES
  • Items that CANNOT be autoclaved
  • chemicals (flammables, oxidizers, phenols, acids,
    alkalides)
  • chemotherapeutic or radioactive waste
  • bleach (or other chlorinated products)
  • certain kinds of plastics
  • Sharps (not at the University of Ottawa)

94
AUTOCLAVES
  • Preparation of waste
  • Use only approved autoclave bags
  • Do not overfill autoclave bags
  • Separate material for re-use from that which will
    be disposed, and dry from liquid material
  • If outside of bag is contaminated, double bag
  • All flasks containing biological material should
    be capped with aluminum foil
  • Ensure items are labeled with contact information

95
SAFE USE OF AUTOCLAVES
  • Many autoclaves are now run by dedicated staff,
    however, if you are operating an autoclave
  • Learn how to use it!
  • Ensure PPE is worn
  • Recognize acceptable material and packaging
  • Proper loading and unloading
  • All users/operators must take the autoclave
    training

96
DISINFECTION CHEMICAL
  • Generally for disinfection rather than
    sterilization
  • Choice depends on
  • Type of material to be disinfected
  • Organic load
  • Chemical characteristics
  • Most common are chlorine compounds and alcohols
    (broad range)

97
WHAT TO USE FOR MY AGENT?
  • Viruses
  • Enveloped (HIV, Herpes)
  • 2 domestic bleach
  • 75 Ethanol
  • Quaternary ammonia
  • 6 formulated Hydrogen peroxide
  • Non enveloped (Hepatitis, Adenovirus)
  • 10 domestic bleach
  • 6 formulated Hydrogen peroxide
  • Gluteraldehyde
  • Formaldehyde
  • Vegetative bacteria (E.coli, Staph)
  • 2 domestic bleach
  • 75 Ethanol
  • Quaternary ammonia
  • 6 formulated Hydrogen peroxide
  • Mycobacteria and fungi
  • 10 domestic bleach
  • 75 Ethanol
  • Phenolic compounds
  • 6 formulated Hydrogen peroxide
  • Spore forming bacteria (Bacillus)
  • 10 domestic bleach
  • Gluteraldehyde
  • Formaldehyde
  • 6 formulated Hydrogen peroxide

98
WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • Discarded biological material from teaching,
    clinical
  • and research laboratories and operations is
    biomedical
  • waste.
  • Biomedical waste includes but is not limited to
  • Animal waste
  • Biological laboratory waste
  • Human anatomical waste
  • Human blood and body fluid waste
  • Sharps

99
WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • All biological waste should be decontaminated
    prior to disposal (including level 1 agents).
  • Treated waste is no longer considered
    biomedical (i.e. microbiological waste, blood
    and bodily fluid waste) and can be disposed of in
    the regular waste stream.
  • Any waste that cannot be treated (i.e. sharps,
    carcasses, tissues and body parts) remains
    biomedical waste and must be incinerated off
    site.
  • ??? LABEL YOUR WASTE ???
  • ? IDENTIFY CONTENTS ?

100
WASTE DISPOSAL
Biomedical Waste (untreated)
101
WASTE DISPOSAL
Biomedical Waste (treated)
in compliance with sewer use by-laws
with H2O (110)
102
REGULATIONS
103
KEY REGULATED ACTIVITIES
  • Purchasing Receiving of Biological Agents
  • PHAC, CFIA, Environment Canada
  • Inventory Records
  • Transportation/Transfer
  • Transport Canada- TDG
  • All Agencies (provincial and federal) emphasize
    and expect Biosecurity

104
PURCHASING
  • Importation permits required by Public Health
    Agency Canada (PHAC) or Canadaian Food Inspection
    Agency (CFIA) for certain agents
  • Material Transfer Agreements (MTAs) between
    importer exporter
  • US restrictions
  • Ensure you meet all criteria and have all
    pertinent documentation

105
BIOMATERIAL ACQUISITION/ MTAs
  • How soon do you need it? You want it
    when?
  • In order to facilitate a quick turnaround,
    provide ORM with
  • copies of MSDSs
  • references (hardcopies)
  • as much background information re product as
    possible

106
INVENTORY
  • What material is presently being used and/or
    stored
  • Location
  • Expiry date
  • Use log book for remaining amount
  • MSDSs
  • Mandatory

107
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING
  • Transportation of Dangerous Goods Act Class 6.2
    (Infectious Substances)
  • PHAC/CFIA restrictions
  • Ensure
  • Proper classification
  • Proper packaging
  • Proper labeling
  • Proper documentation
  • Import/Export Permits

108
TRANSPORTATION OF DANGEROUS GOODS
  • Pre-approved
  • Authorized Individuals
  • Lead time (International Regulations.)
  • Appropriate Scheduling (Holidays, Weekends)
  • Transportation within the building
  • Between lab to lab
  • Colleague to Colleague
  • Between Institutions

109
TRANSPORTATION
  • Important Considerations
  • does material need to be transported at all
  • packaging requirements
  • means and route of transportation
  • regulatory requirements
  • Between lab transfers - 4 sided cart, sealed
    primary container, secondary container, low
    traffic route.
  • Off Campus transfers consult ORM

110
THE BOTTOM LINE
  • If you are not careful and diligent with
    biological agents you risk
  • Infecting yourself, others or the environment
  • Contaminating your research
  • Having Public Health Agency of Canada, Canadian
    Food Inspection Agency, Ministry of the
    Environment or Transport Canada after you

111
BIOSAFETY WEBSITE
http//www.uottawa.ca/services/ehss.biosafety.htm
Biohazardous Materials User Registration
Biosafety Health Assessment Survey
Practical Training Form
112
MOVIE
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