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Charles Darwin and His Origin of Species

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Charles Darwin and His Origin of Species Darwin s Background Born in England, 1809 Studied Medicine at Edinburgh University Transferred to Cambridge University ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Charles Darwin and His Origin of Species


1
Charles Darwin and His Origin of Species
2
Darwins Background
  • Born in England, 1809 
  • Studied Medicine at Edinburgh University
  • Transferred to Cambridge University
  • Studied to be a Minister

Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs
Division reproduction number, e.g.,
LC-USZ61-104.
3
Darwins Expedition - 1831
  • Hired as Naturalist on H.M.S. Beagle
  • Sailed on Five Year Scientific Expedition
  • Down East Coast of South America
  • Up Pacific Coast to Galapagos Islands
  • Made Stops on Mainland and Islands
  • Observed Variety of Life and Habitats

4
Darwins Work
  • Outlined Theory in his Book in 1859
  • On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural
    Selection
  • Published Other Works on Biology
  • Died in 1882

5
Summary of Origin of Species
  • Proposed Evolution Resulting from Natural
    Selection
  • Organisms Produce Many Offspring
  • Competition for Food, Territory, Mates, etc.
  • Those With Best Traits Survive
  • Organisms Change Over Many Generations
  • Time Frame Millions of Years

6
Darwins Support for His Theory
  • Characteristics of Organisms Coincide With
    Habitats
  • Changes Produced by Breeding of Organisms
  • Geologic Ages Suggested by Charles Lyell
  • Similarities of Various Organisms

7
Limitations of Darwins Theory
  • Apparent Limits to Variation
  • No Mechanism For Sufficiently New Characteristics
  • Transitional Forms Would Require Special
    Environments
  • Oversimplified View of Living Cells
  • The Origin of Life Unexplained
  • Limitations of Fossil Record

8
Limitations of the Fossil Record
  • Sudden Appearance of Complex Life
  • Lack of Clear Transitional Forms
  • Gives More Evidence For Species Disappearance

9
Limitations of the Fossil Record
  • Sudden Appearance of Complex Life
  • Lack of Clear Transitional Forms
  • Gives More Evidence For Species Disappearance
  • Explanation of Strata Insufficient

10
Limitations of the Fossil Record
11
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
  • Magnitude of Fossil Graveyards

12
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
Petrified
forest American Environmental Photographs
Collection, AEP Image Number, e.g., AEP-AZS8,
Department of Special Collections, University of
Chicago Library, American Memory Collection.
13
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
  • Magnitude of Fossil Graveyards
  • Polystrate Fossils

14
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
Vertical Fossil Trees
American Environmental Photographs Collection,
AEP Image Number, e.g., AEP-WYS32, Department
of Special Collections, University of Chicago
Library, American Memory Collection.
15
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
  • Magnitude of Fossil Graveyards
  • Polystrate Fossils
  • Inconsistent Fossil Distribution

16
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
  • Magnitude of Fossil Graveyards
  • Polystrate Fossils
  • Inconsistent Fossil Distribution
  • Fossils Found Together From Separate Ages

17
Strata Better Explained by Hydrologic Catastrophe
  • Magnitude of Fossil Graveyards
  • Polystrate Fossils
  • Inconsistent Fossil Distribution
  • Fossils Found Together From Separate Ages
  • Simple (Older) Organisms Above Complex
    (Younger)

18
Scientists Initial Reactions to Darwins Work
  • A Compilation of Assertions and Hypotheses
  • Unsupported by Scientific Testing
  • Contains Assumptions that Cannot Be Supported
  • Violates the Principles of Cause and Effect
  • Illogical Conclusions

19
So Why Was It Eventually Accepted?
  • It Passed Rigorous Scientific Testing?
  • No, His Hypotheses Are Not Testable 
  • Were Transitional Fossils Found?
  • No Clearly Substantiated Links Found Yet
  • A Mechanism to Produce New Traits Discovered?
  • Mutations Result in Lost Genetic Information

20
The Acceptance of Darwins Theory of Evolution
  • Natural Selection of Genetic Variations is
    Observable
  • Limited to Genes Already Present
  • New Traits Produced Only By Mutations
  • Overwhelming Odds Against Good Mutations

21
Ultimately, Acceptance Depended On One Factor
  • Willingness to Accept a Naturalistic Explanation

22
Credits
  • All clip art is from ClickArt by Broderbund
  • All photographs were accessed through the Library
    of Congress American Memory Collection.
  • The Darwin photograph is from Library of
    Congress, Prints and Photographs Division.
  • The dinosaur fossil photo is from the Chicago
    Daily News negatives collection, Courtesy of the
    Chicago Historical Society.
  • The Bryce Canyon and fossil display photos are
    from the Western History/Genealogy Department,
    Denver Public Library.
  • The fossil trees and Petrified Forest photos are
    from the American Environmental Photographs
    Collection, Department of Special Collections,
    University of Chicago Library.
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