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Iron and Steel

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The basic oxygen furnace is a large pear-shaped steel barrel lined with refractory. See Figure 11-4. The furnace is tilted so that the charge of molten pig iron and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Iron and Steel


1
(No Transcript)
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Chapter 11
  • Iron and Steel

Ironmaking Steelmaking
3
  • The blast furnace is used to convert iron ore
    into pig iron.

4
  • Elements present in pig iron must be refined to
    allowable amounts to meet steelmaking
    specifications.

5
  • The microstructure of wrought iron consists of
    ferrite grains incorporating a large quantity of
    silicate slag elongated in the working direction.

6
  • In the basic oxygen furnace, oxygen is lanced
    into the molten pig iron and scrap steel.

7
  • The open hearth furnace can make large amounts of
    steel in one heat.

8
  • The electric-arc furnace is the most common
    furnace used in making many alloys of steel.

9
  • Each level of deoxidation practice exhibits a
    significant influence on the macrostructure of
    the ingot.

10
  • A shroud is used to protect the molten steel from
    picking up atmospheric gases as it is poured from
    the ladle into the mold.

11
  • The four types of semifinished forms (blooms,
    billets, slabs, and rounds) are defined by shape
    and dimensions.

12
  • The ingot mold is tapered to facilitate its
    removal from the steel ingot after solidification.

13
  • The macrostructure of a cast ingot consists of a
    chill zone of fine equiaxed grains adjacent to
    the mold wall, columnar grains that grow
    perpendicular to the wall, and equiaxed grains
    toward the center.

14
  • Primary rolling reduces the ingot to semifinished
    forms of desired cross section.

15
  • Continuous casting is a direct and continuous
    method of producing blooms, billets, slabs, and
    rounds.

16
  • Pipe is a shrinkage cavity located in the upper
    portion of the ingot.

17
  • Heavy press forging is performed in a large
    hydraulic press in order to reduce the size of
    the ingot to a semifinished form larger than a
    standard bloom.

18
  • Structural shapes are formed in several rolling
    sequences, known as roughing, intermediate
    rolling, and finishing.

19
  • Wire is drawn in several stages, known as drafts,
    on a wire drawing machine. After each draft the
    wire is coiled.

20
  • Tubing products may be produced as seamless or
    welded.

21
  • Inclusions become elongated in the working
    direction of the steel and lead to directional
    mechanical properties, known as anisotropy.

22
  • The AISI-SAE designation system indicates the
    alloying elements and the partial chemical
    composition.

23
  • The end use of carbon steel is strongly
    influenced by the carbon content.

24
  • Generic ASTM specifications indicate common
    characteristics of families of product forms and
    prevent excessive repetition in the individual
    product specifications.

25
  • Quality descriptors in ASTM standards are used to
    distinguish products well suited to specific
    applications.
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