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Lines and circles: West and East ???:?????

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Title: Lines and circles: West and East ???:?????


1
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2
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3
???? ????????????
???????????Lines and CirclesA Contrastive
Studyof Western and Chinese Cultures(Part I)
?????? ???????? ?? ??????
4
Lines and Circles A Contrastive Study of Western
and Chinese Cultures

This lecture is based on an article of
mine Lines and Circles, West and East
published successively in English Today
(Cambridge University Press), Asian Studies
(Oxford University Press), The Quest (An
American philosophical journal) and Social
Sciences (A Chinese journal).
5

????? ?????? ? ?
Lines and Circles A Contrastive Study of Western
and Chinese Cultures
??????????????????????????????????????????
???????????????????????????????????????????
?
This lecture is based on an article of
mine Lines and Circles, West and East
published successively in English Today
(Cambridge University Press), Asian Studies
(Oxford University Press), The Quest (An
American philosophical journal) and Social
Sciences (A Chinese journal).
6
A Risky and Controversial Topic. ?????????????
Culture is a pervasive concept. ?????????????
Culture is a dynamic process. ???????????
Cultural difference is relative. ?????????
7
What is culture? ?????
w
8
What is culture?
  • Culture is that complex whole which includes
    knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom, and
    any other capabilities and habits acquired by man
    as a member of society. Edward
    Tylor (1871) (a British
    anthropologist)

????????????,????????????????????????
????????????????????
????? (1871) ??????
9
What is culture?
  • Culture consists of patterns, explicit and
    implicit, of and for behavior acquired and
    transmitted by symbols, constituting the
    distinctive achievement of human groups,
    including their embodiment in artifacts the
    essential core of culture consists of traditional
    (historically derived and selected) ideas and
    especially their attached values. Culture systems
    may, on the one hand, be considered as products
    of action, on the other hand, as conditioning
    elements of future action.
  • Alfred Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn
    (two American anthropologists, 1961)

10
?????
  • ???????????????????????????,???????????????,??????
    ??????????????????(???????????)??,???????????,???
    ???????????,????????????????????
  • ?????????? ??????

11
What is Culture?
  • Culture is the acquired knowledge that people use
    to interpret experience and to generate behavior.
    J. P. Spradley (Psychologist)

??????????,???????????????,????????
?????(????)
12
What is Culture?
  • Culture refers to the total pattern of human
    learned behavior transmitted from generation to
    generation. Salzmann (Sociologist)

????????????????,?????????? ?
????(????)
13
What is culture?
  • Culture is the total range of activities and
    ideas of a group of people with shared traditions
    which are transmitted and reinforced by members
    of the group.
    CED

?????????????????????,????????????????????
??????
14
  • Culture is the total pattern of human behavior
    and its products embodied in thought, speech,
    action and artifacts.

??????????????,?????????????????
  • Culture is a complex of typical behavior or
    standardized social characteristics peculiar to a
    specific group. WNID

????????????????????????????
???????
15
Characteristics of Culture?????
16
Characteristics of Culture
  • Non-natural (????)
  • Non-individual (????)
  • Non-innate (????)
  • Regional and trans-regional (????????)
  • Epochal and trans-epochal (????????)

17
Essentials of Culture
  • External (???? / ????)
  • behavior language, gestures, customs ??
    ?????????
  • products literature, art, music,
    artifacts ?? ?????????????????
  • Internal (???? / ????)
  • ideas beliefs, values, morals ??
    ???????????

18
Essentials of Culture?????
19
Essentials of Culture
  • Dead (??? )
  • products (achievements) literature, art,
    music, artifacts, architecture ??
    ?????????????????
  • Living (??? )
  • ideas beliefs, values, morals ??
    ???????????
  • behavior language, gestures, customs ??
    ?????????

20
Layers of Culture ?????
21
Layers of Culture
??/??Products/Symbols
Behaviors ??
Values/Ideas ????
Assumptions ???????????
22
Cultures Universality and Individuality ????????
???????,???? ????,?????
  • Commonality of human nature ????

Penetrativeness and fusibility ???????
Accumulation and tradition ?????
Linearity and Circularity ?????
23
My idea about the contrastive study is based on a
western diagram and a Chinese picture.
24
Plato???
The development of western philosophy is
a series of footnotes to Plato. -- Whitehead
???????????????????
???
Platos divided line of knowledge
gnosis / knowledge
noesis / reason
dianoia / idea
A line of abstraction
pistis / faith
eikasia / imagination
25
???????? ?????????
26
Contrast in respect of
  • Worldview (???)
  • Core values (?????)
  • Outlook on time (???)
  • Modes of thinking (????)
  • Linguistic expression (????)
  • Outlook on Arts (???)

27
How is the world observed and viewed in both
cultures? ???????? ???????????
28
? ? ? ?
Man and Nature
29
1. Worldview ???
Linear division and circular enclosure (????)
Western one dividing into two (????)
Chinese two combining into one (????)
???????,?????????????,????,??????????
???????,?????????????,????,???????????
Opposites Western independence and opposition
Chinese interdependence and integration
30
To the Asian, the world is a complex
place, composed of continuous substances,
understandable in terms of the whole rather in
terms of the parts, and subject more to
collective than to personal control. To the
Westerner, the world is a relatively simple
place, composed of discrete objects that can be
understood with undue reference to context, and
highly subject to personal control. Very
different worlds, indeed.
The Geography of Thought
Richard E. Nisbett
?????(??????),??????,????????????????,???
???,??????????
31
Western Linear division (??)
One dividing into two (????)
32
Ancient Greek Philosophers ??????
Heracleitus ????? (540 480 BC)
Plato ??? (427 347 BC)
Aristotle ????? (384 322 BC)
33
Linear dividing philosophy
Matter Vs Mind Element Vs Energy Body Vs Soul God
Vs Man Subject Vs Object
??? Plato (428 -347 B.C.)
?????Heraclitus (540-480 B.C.)
34
Linear dividing philosophy
  • Heracleitus, one of the founders of dialectics
    ????????????

Strife is justice.
All things come into being by conflict of
opposites, and the sum of things (ta hola, "the
whole") flows like a stream.
???????????????,????????????????
?????Heraclitus (540-480 B.C.)
35
  • Platos distinction between the sensible
    world and the ideal world ?????????????????

??? Plato (428 -347 B.C.)
Platos Theory of Forms contrasts
reality with phenomena soul with body knowledge
with opinion reason with sensation and
rationality with emotion. ????????????????????
?????????????????????
36
  • Aristotles dualistic cosmology
    ???????????

Aristotelian cosmology is based on
the principle of the mover and the moved. It is
dualistic God, the immovable Mover, who
transcends cosmic reality and cosmic reality,
consisting of the heavens which rotate around the
earth. ?????????????????????????????????????????
?,??????????????,????????
37
Modern Philosophers ????????
Kant?? (1724 1804)
Spinoza???? (1632 1677)
Descartes??? (1596 1650)
38
Philosopher Descartes (??? French)
  • Father of Modern Philosophy
  • Hegel (???)

Je pense, donc je suis. I think, therefore I
am. I am thinking, therefore I exist.
??????
39
Philosopher Descartes (??? French)
  • Substance dualism (?????)

Descartes divided the world into
extended substance (matter) and thinking
substance (mind), and these two have mutually
incompatible properties. Accordingly the soul is
entirely distinct from the body.
??????????????(??)???????(??),?????????
???????,????????????
The body works like a machine, with the
material properties of extension and motion, and
it follows the laws of physics. The mind (or
soul) is a nonmaterial entity that does not
follow the laws of physics.
40
  • Spinoza (????, Dutch-Jewish)

Psycho-physical Parallelism (?????)
The mental realm and the physical realm do not
affect each other. They are independent of each
other and run parallel paths.???????????????,?????
?,????????
41
  • Kant (??, German )

Phenomenal world vs. noumenal world (?????????)
What is (reality) and ought to be (value)
are independent of each other, like two closed
circles. ????????????
42
Exceptions to Western Division Worldview
Reality is one, and existence is timeless,
uniform, and unchanging. The
way of Truth ????,???????????????
Parmenides ???? (c. 500 BC)
43
Exceptions to Western Division Worldview
Emerson believed in the harmony and
beauty of man and nature. ???????????????
As a supporter of transcendentalism,
Emerson emphasized the souls inborn knowledge of
ultimate realities of the universe.
??????????,???????????????????????
Ralph Waldo Emerson ??? (1803-1882)
44
  • Christianity and Bible

Christianity God and Man God creates Man and
Man sins against God. ????????,????????? Seven
deadly sins G G S W L E P
Theme of Bible Human redemption ??????????
God occupies a dominant position.
45
West linear division
  • Scientist Archemedes (????)

Give me but one firm spot on which to
stand, and I will move the earth.
????????????,????????
Archemedes (287212 BC)
46
Scientist Isaac Newton (??)
Scientific discovery is not a creative
process, it is merely an uncovering of
distinctions that were waiting to be observed.
???????????,????????????????????
Isaac Newton 1643 1727
47
Scientist Francis Heylighen (???)
Classical science begins by making as
precise as possible distinctions between the
different components, properties and states of
the system under observation.
??????????????????????????,?????????????????

Francis Heylighen (1960 )
48
?
?
Western Worldview Relatively Linear One dividing
into Two
????
49
Chinese circular enclosure(??)
Two combining into one (????)
??? The Picture of Eight Trigrams
50
???????? ??????, ??????, ??????,
??????? ??????
The Qian Trigram Statement Origination is the top
of all virtues, Prosperity the blend of all
excellencies, Harmony the fusion of
righteousness, Integrity the fundamental
principle of things.
The Picture of Eight Trigrams ???
51
???? ????,????? ??????
A Summary of the Qian Trigram The origin of all
things is in peace and harmony.
?????????,??????,??????,???????

?????? A great man identifies with
heaven and earth for virtues, with the sun and
the moon for brightness, with four seasons for
order, and with gods and spirits for luck.
The Picture of Eight Trigrams ???
52
Three Pillars of Traditional Chinese Culture
  • Confucianism ??
  • Buddhism ??
  • Taoism ??

Confucius ??
Bodhidharma ??(????)
Lao-tzu ??
53
Chinese circular enclosure
  • Taoism ??

Philosophical Concept Tao (?)
?????????? Tao consists in Yin and Yang.
The Book of Changes (600 BC)
54
Man and Nature Are One
  • Taoism

???,???,???,????????????,??????
????42?
Tao gave birth to the One the One gave
birth successively to two things, three things,
up to ten thousand. These ten thousand creatures
cannot turn their backs to the shade (Yin)
without having the sun (Yang) on their bellies,
and it is this blending of the breaths (Yin and
Yang) that their harmony depends.
Translated by Arthur Waley
Lao Tzu ?? (571- 471 BC)
55
Man and Nature Are One
  • Taoism

??????,???????? Heaven and earth
co-exist with me, and I am identified with
everything in the universe. ?????
??????,??????????????? Nature and
Man are unified as one whether you like it or
not. They are not in conflict.
?? (369 286 BC)
56
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism ??

?????,???????????,?????????,?????????
??
The full play of human nature brings about
the full play of the nature of things, which in
turn contributes to the evolution of the universe
and thus human nature identifies with the
universe. The
Doctrine of Mean
Zi Si ??/?? (BC 483-402)
57
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism

????,????????????
?????
The full exertion of human mind results in
the knowledge of human nature the knowledge of
human nature leads to the knowledge of the
universe.
Mencius
Mencius ?? (BC 372-289)
58
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism

????,????,????,????,?????
The energy of heaven and earth is a unified
one. It consists in Yin and Yang and manifests
itself in four seasons and five elements.
???????,?????????,?????
??? ?? 179 104 BC
Heaven also has feelings like delight and
anger, joy and sorrow. Heaven and Man can be
classified under the same category.
59
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism

?????,???????,???????,?????
??
My body is part of Heaven and Earth my
nature is guided by the universe people are my
siblings and things are one with me.
Zhang Zai ?? (?? 10201077)
The founder of Qi School of Thought ??????
Qi
60
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism

??,????????? ??????
A man of high character thinks of himself as
integrated with the universe as a whole.
The founder of Li school of thought ??????
Li
Chen Hao ?? (?? 1032-1085)
61
Man and Nature Are One
  • Confucianism

??????,??????? ?????
The universe is my mind and my mind the
universe.
The founder of of Xin school of thought ??????
Lu Jiuyuan ??? (?? 1139-1193)
Xin
62
Man and Nature Are One
  • Buddhism (?? Zen School ??)

?(brahman) ?(heaven) ???? ????
tat tvam asi. (Sanskrit ??) You are that (the
universe). (English) ????(???)? (Chinese)
???????,????,????,???? A Buddhist scripture
says, Matter and mind are all in one. Matter
must be in mind, and mind in matter.
Bodhidharma ??(????)
63
Three Pillars of Chinese Culture
Confucianism ???? Taoism ???? Buddhism ????
Worldview ??? Oneness of man and nature Moralization of personality ????,????? Oneness of man and nature Naturalization of personality ????,????? Oneness of man and nature purification of personality ????,????
Outlook on Life ??? Being active in worldly affairs ?? Being aloof from worldly affairs ?? Being weary of worldly affairs ??
Mode of thinking ???? Holistic Dialectical ????,???? Dialectical Intuitive ????,???? Intuitive Fuzzy ????,????
Schools of Thought
Manifestation
64
Exceptions to Oneness Worldview
??????? Master the law of nature and make use of
it.
Zhu Xi ?? (?? 1130-1200)
????,????,????,??????? One
dividing into two applies to everything. Things
are continuously divided to infinity.
Xun Zi ?? (BC 340-278)
65
Chinese CircularityIdioms
???? Heaven and Man interact with each other. /
Natural phenomena and human affairs find response
in each other. ???? The law of nature and
feeling of Man are in unison.
66
Chinese CircularityIdioms
???? Heaven accords with human wishes. ???? Nature
is angry while people resentful.
67
???? Heavens will brings about human
affinity. ???? Nature and Man turn to one.
68
Chinese Circularity Literature
  • Poetic lines
  • ???????,???????? ??

Flowers smile on the happy occasion Birds sing
with the joyful congregation.
69
Chinese Circularity Literature
  • Poetic lines
  • ?????,?????? ??

Trees sway in a mournful gale Waves surge like
hill and dale.
70
  • Poetic lines
  • ???????,???????? ???

Catkins scattered by wind, My motherland is
being disintegrated Rain striking duckweed, I
sink against the tide, broken-hearted.
71
?
?
Chinese Worldview Relatively Circular Two
Combining into One
?????????????
????
72
The Advantages of Each Worldview The
one-dividing-into-two linear worldview
contributes to the development of science and
technology in exploring nature and to Mans
survival through his struggle against nature. The
two-combining-into-one circular worldview
facilitates the development of ethics in
transforming society and benefits Mans survival
in seeking harmony with nature.
????????? ????????????????????,?????????
??,?????????????????????????????,???????????,????
??????
73
1. Worldview ???
Linear division and circular enclosure (????)
Western one dividing into two (????)
Chinese two combining into one (????)
???????,?????????????,????,??????????
???????,?????????????,????,???????????
Opposites Western independence and opposition
Chinese interdependence and integration
74

Have a break !
????!
75
American Friends Welcome to Shanghai maritime
University!
Hello!
76
A Chinese saying goes, Its such a great
delight to have friends visiting from afar.
77
A Chinese poem says, A bosom friend afar
brings a distant land near. ?????,?????
78
Friends
From
Denmark
Welcome to Shanghai
Hello!
79
Welcome to Shanghai, Friends from Denmark!
80
A Chinese poem says, A bosom friend afar
brings a distant land near.
81
Exceptions to Western Division Worldview
At the heart of Pythagoras' teachings was
the vision of the underlying "harmony" of the
universe. This harmony indeed existed only
in the abstract--just as numbers and mathematical
formulas are abstractions. ?????????????
PYTHAGORAS ????? (c. 580 to 510 BC)
82
Exceptions to Western Division Worldview
Harmonices Mundi (Latin) The Harmony of the
Worlds (English) Kepler discovered physical
harmonies in planetary motion.
Johannes Kepler (15711630)
83
Lines and CirclesA Contrastive Study of
Western and Chinese Cultures?????
??????(Part I)
? ?
84
Lines and CirclesA Contrastive Study of
Western and Chinese Cultures?????
??????(Part I)
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