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Welcome to Biology 101 Human Anatomy

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Welcome to Biology 101 Human Anatomy & Physiology I A tour through the Visible Human (National Library of Medicine) Please be sure you initialed the attendance sheet! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Welcome to Biology 101 Human Anatomy


1
Welcome to Biology 101Human Anatomy Physiology
I
A tour through the Visible Human (National
Library of Medicine)
Please be sure you initialed the attendance
sheet! You should do this each time you come to
lecture.
2
General Information
  • Who am I?
  • Greg Erianne, Ph.D.
  • Office SH 205
  • See Course Policies for Office Hours
  • E-mail - CCM gerianne_at_ccm.edu
  • Telephone 973-328-5377 (voice mail)

3
Mariebs Human Anatomy and Physiology Ninth
Edition Marieb w Hoehn
  • Chapter 1
  • The Human Body An Orientation
  • Lecture 1

4
Course Web Sites
  • Our Web sites for this class are located at
  • http//www.gserianne.com/science/GerianneBio101
    (Main)
  • Announcements (VERY IMPORTANT TO LOOK AT
    FREQUENTLY!)
  • Syllabus and all lecture/lab schedules
  • Lecture and Lab slides used in class (ppt and pdf
    formats)
  • Supplementary online materials for Lecture and
    Lab
  • Lecture and Lab Exam Study Guides
  • Links to many other sites including McGraw Hill
    Publishers Web site
  • Extra credit assignments
  • http//courses.ccm.edu (Blackboard Learn
    Secondary)
  • You will need your student ID and password for
    the Blackboard (BB) site
  • This BB site will be used ONLY grades and
    grade-related things
  • http//masteringaandp.com (from Pearson Science)
  • You will need the course ID and have to register
    if you havent been to this site before
  • Lots of resources to use for AP I take
    advantage of it!
  • Printing slides and other materials (see email I
    sent)

5
Overview of Todays Lecture
  • Course Web sites and Publisher Web site
  • Course Description/Textbook/Lab Book
  • Course Objectives and Syllabus Review
  • Blueprint for success
  • Organization of the Human Body
  • Characteristics of Life
  • Homeostasis
  • Anatomical Terminology

6
Textbook/Laboratory Manual
  • Course Description
  • Lecture / discussion format
  • Lectures will follow Mariebs Human Anatomy and
    Physiology, 9th edition closely
  • Figures used for class
  • Laboratory
  • Mariebs Laboratory Manual, 10th edition
  • Reading assignments should be done BEFORE you
    come to class/lab

7
Major objectives of this course
  • In general, you will
  • Master the objectives listed in the Study Guides
  • Develop a further mastery of scientific/biomedical
    terminology
  • Further develop your ability to think logically
    and critically
  • Lets review the syllabus, policies, and handouts

8
Blueprint for Success
  • Most importantly
  • Skim your textbook BEFORE lecture and make notes
  • Take notes in your own words and become mentally
    involved during lecture review/rewrite your
    notes after lecture
  • Ask questions if you dont understand
  • Continually review previously learned material
  • Use all the study aids available to you
  • Before taking the exam, you should be able to
    take a BLANK study guide and answer all the
    questions WITHOUT YOUR NOTES!!!!
  • See the Suggested Study Method on Web
    gserianne.com Web site Please review this!!!
  • Be sure to print slides/materials if you want
    them for class/lab make a schedule for yourself

9
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy study of structure - Gross anatomy
macroscopic (types?) - Cytology
(microanatomy) cells - Histology
(microanatomy) tissues
Physiology study of function -
Specialized, e.g., neuro-, cellular-, patho-
- Comparative physiology
Structure is always related to function if
structure changes, function changes
Whats this red stuff all about, anyway?
10
How Structure Determines Function
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
11
Levels of Organization
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
12
Important Definitions of Organizational Terms
  • Cell The basic unit of biological structure and
    function (what is a basic unit of something?)
  • Tissues A group of cells working together to
    perform one or more specific functions
  • Organs Two or more tissues working in
    combination to perform several functions
  • Organ System Interaction of organs functioning
    closely together

13
Characteristics of Life
What makes something alive, or living?
Movement change in position motion
Responsiveness reaction to a change
Growth increase in size or cell number
Reproduction production of new organisms and
new cells
Respiration obtaining oxygen removing carbon
dioxide releasing energy from foods
14
Characteristics of Life (contd)
Digestion breakdown of food substances
Absorption passage of substances through
membranes and into body fluids
Assimilation changing of absorbed substances
into different substances
Excretion removal of wastes
Circulation movement of substances in body
fluids
15
Requirements of Organisms
Water - most abundant substance in body (60-80
of BW) - required for metabolic processes -
required for transport - regulates body
temperature
Food - supplies energy - supplies raw materials
to build/replace body components
16
Requirements of Organisms (contd)
Oxygen - one-fifth of air - used to release
energy from nutrients
Heat - form of energy - partly controls rate of
metabolic reactions
Pressure - atmospheric pressure important
for breathing - hydrostatic pressure keeps
blood flowing
17
General Function of Organ Systems
AP I
AP II
18
Organ Systems Integument and Skeletal
Be able to identify the organ systems of the
human body and their major components describe
the major functions of each organ system (See
Figure 1.3 in Marieb)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
19
Organ Systems Muscular and Nervous
Rapidly-acting, short-term control
(Skeletal muscle shown)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
20
Organ Systems Endocrine and Cardiovascular
Slower-acting, longer-term control (compared to
nervous system)
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
21
Organ Systems Lymphatic and Respiratory
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
22
Organ Systems Digestive and Urinary
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
23
Organ Systems Reproductive
Figure from Martini, Anatomy Physiology,
Prentice Hall, 2001
24
Homeostasis
A CRITICAL (and very testable) concept in
physiology
Bodys maintenance of a stable internal
environment Absence of homeostasis DISEASE
  • Homeostatic Mechanisms monitor aspects of the
    internal environment and corrects any changes
  • Receptors - provide information about environment
  • Control center - tells what a particular value
    should be
  • Effectors - causes responses to change internal
    environment

25
Homeostasis
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
Major goal of homeostasis is to keep this
consistent
(Interstitial fluid)
The 70 trillion cells in our bodies surround
themselves with their own environment. This is
the environment that must remain stable despite
changes outside.
26
Homeostasis
The 70 trillion cells in our bodies surround
themselves with their own environment. This is
the environment that must remain stable despite
changes outside.
Major goal of homeostasis is to keep the
interstitial fluid consistent
(Interstitial fluid)
27
Homeostasis
Negative feedback deviation from set point
progressively lessens
Positive feedback deviation from set point gets
progressively greater
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
28
Homeostasis
  • Remember that homeostasis does NOT mean constant!
  • Continual variations occur in body systems
  • Gives rise to normal ranges (See Appendix B)
  • Examples of negative feedback (most things)
  • Temperature regulation, blood pressure, blood
    glucose levels
  • Examples of positive feedback
  • Blood clotting, milk production, uterine
    contraction

29
Homeostatic Mechanisms
Notice that this occurs in a ONE-WAY circuit.
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
30
Homeostatic Mechanisms (contd)
Notice that this occurs in a ONE-WAY circuit.
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
31
Serous Membranes
Visceral layer covers an organ Parietal layer
lines a cavity or body wall
  • Thoracic Membranes
  • Visceral pleura
  • Parietal pleura
  • Visceral pericardium
  • Parietal pericardium
  • Abdominopelvic Membranes
  • Visceral peritoneum
  • Parietal peritoneum

Serous fluid thin, watery, slippery fluid
typically separating serous membranes
32
Serous Membranes
Be able to label ALL parts of this diagram (What
system is each organ a part of?)
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
33
Serous Membranes
Be able to label ALL parts of this diagram (What
system is each organ a part of?)
Figure from Holes Human AP, 12th edition, 2010
34
Review
  • Anatomy structure physiology function
  • Structure determines function
  • The human body (multicellular organisms) can be
    organized in increasing levels of complexity
  • Atom, molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system
  • The eleven organ systems of the body function to
    maintain homeostasis

35
Review
  • Homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable (NOT
    CONSTANT!) internal environment
  • Requires receptor(s), control center, and
    effector(s)
  • Typically uses a negative feedback mechanism
  • Body cavities are lined by serous membranes
  • Visceral
  • Parietal
  • Cross (transverse) sections through the thorax or
    abdomen can provide lots of information about the
    relative position of organs within the body
    cavities.

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