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Remarkable Age of Renewal

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Remarkable Age of Renewal 1046-1305 * * * * * * A Need for Reform 1046 three bishops claim to be pope at the same time German emperor Henry III dismissed all ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Remarkable Age of Renewal


1
Remarkable Age of Renewal
  • 1046-1305

2
A Need for Reform
  • 1046 three bishops claim to be pope at the same
    time
  • German emperor Henry III dismissed all three and
    appointed (German pope)Leo IX (1048) who began a
    reform movement
  • Pope Gregory VII (1073) enacts the most reforms
    and the movement is named after him the
    Gregorian Reform Movement

3
Corruption Included
  • Corruption of religion by money
  • Sale of diocese and abbeys
  • Lay Investiture secular leaders (lay people)
    appointing priests, bishops and even the pope

4
The Gregorian Reform Movement lasted nearly 70
years 1054-1122
5
Concordat of Worms 1122
  • Pope Calliustus II and Emperor Henry VI (German)
  • Guaranteed the right of the Church to choose its
    own leaders without interference from emperors,
    kings and powerful lay people
  • This paved the way to a wonderful period of
    renewal in the church.

6
Excommunication
  • No longer being able to participate in the
    sacramental life of the Church
  • A serious matter

7
Successes of the Gregorian Reform
  • an increase of power and reputation of the papacy
  • People in Western Europe looked to the Church for
    moral and spiritual leadership especially through
    the application of canon law to the world at
    large
  • Canon law- body of laws of the Church
  • Soon nearly all popes were also canon lawyers

8
Pope Innocent III 1198-1216 One Important Pope
  • 37 years old when he became pope
  • Able to exercise leadership and authority in
    matters of both Church and state as few others
    have ever done
  • Controversial -Some say he wanted a theocracy
  • Theocracy a form of government in which all
    civil power is in the hands of religious
    authorities

9
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10
Pope Innocent III Controversial
  • Was he seeking to have world power or was he
    trying to give the church a role in world
    affairs?
  • Theocracy - form of government in which all civil
    power is in the hands of the pope.

11
Fourth Lateran Council
  • Met in Rome 1215
  • 1200 bishops, abbots and other Church leaders
  • Almost EVERY ASPECT of Church life was discussed
    and regulated by decree

12
Two Outcomes of the Fourth Lateran Council
  • Transubstantiation the change of the bread and
    wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at Mass.
  • Made rule that Catholics are to receive communion
    at least once a year

13
CRUSADES
  • Attempt to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • Began in 1095
  • Holy Wars

14
1st CRUSADE 1088-1099
  • Pope Urban II sought help from nobles and knights
    to liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims
  • 1000s joined
  • Bad start undisciplined soldiers massacred
    innocent Jews
  • Succeeded in taking Jerusalem back in 1099
  • Only Crusade to achieve any real success, but it
    only lasted 50 years until the Muslims regained
    control of Jerusalem in 1147

15
  • 2nd Crusade strong leadership and failure
  • 3rd Crusade Ended in defeat
  • 4th Crusade Disgrace turned against friendly
    Christian city of Constantinople which they
    captured and looted
  • Crusades continued for another 500 years with no
    success
  • Today we look back on them with embarrassment
    because we know the gospel should never be spread
    through violence
  • Jerusalem remained under Muslim control until 1917

16
CHRISTIANDOM the cultural world during the High
Middle Ages when nearly everyone was Catholic and
Catholicism influenced nearly every aspect of
peoples lives.
17
Threats to the Faith
  • Because all of society was based on the Christian
    faith, the society would fight against anything
    or anyone who threatened the faith
  • Fear of false teachings and practices became a
    concern for the Church

18
Heresy and Heretics
  • The Church tried to protect itself from false
    teachings
  • Heretics were people who taught false doctrines
  • Heresy (heresies) were what the false teachings
    were called

19
The Inquisition
  • Inquisition the official Catholic court charged
    with examining and investigating those accused of
    heresy
  • Began 1231
  • Inquisition Court was also responsible for
    punishments for those who were heretics
  • Punishments included imprisonment, fines and
    sometimes torture and death (some heretics were
    burned alive at the stake)
  • Hard to understand why the Church adopted
    punishments of the day

20
CHANGES
  • As a result of the crusades trade increased and
    people began to leave the countryside and come to
    towns and cities
  • This population shift created a new social class
    urban poor
  • Nothing existed in Church or State to meet the
    materials and spiritual needs of the urban poor

21
TWO REMARKABLE PEOPLE
  • Saint Francis of Assisi 1181-1226
  • son of wealthy Italian Merchant
  • Gave up his wealth to set out barefoot to preach
    Gods love, joy in Gods creation, repentance
  • Many followed his ways and that caused him to
    begin a new religious order
  • FRIAR means brother
  • Franciscans, Order of the Friars Minor

22
TWO REMARKABLE PEOPLE
  • Saint Dominic 1170-1221
  • Spanish priest began the Order of Preachers or
    Dominicans
  • Dominic wanted well educated and holy clergy who
    could explain the teachings of the Church and
    live by the gospel
  • This would also combat heresies
  • Dominicans would also live simple lives as the
    Franciscans

23
Other New Orders Emerge
  • Carmelites and Augustinians
  • Mendicant Orders begging orders. Called this
    because they focus on personal poverty and
    finance their charitable work from the donations
    they receive from the faithful.
  • All four orders Franciscans, Dominicans
    Carmelites and Augustinians are mendicant orders.

24
Poor Clares
  • An Italian girl named Clare started a community
    of nuns following St. Francis
  • Group was called the Poor Clares
  • Shared a life of poverty and service

25
Impact of the New Orders
  • Brought Church closer to the people
  • Added warmth through devotional life
  • Rosary
  • Stations of the Cross
  • Christmas Creche
  • Were highly regarded as preachers
  • Friars taught in universities, produces many
    scholars

26
Faith Impacts Culture Architecture
  • Church buildings and architecture develop new
    aspects to reflect the beauty of ones faith
  • Gothic architecture began around 1150 in Northern
    France, many churches still are standing today!!

27
Gothic Architecture
  • Tall buildings reaching heavenward
  • Made entirely of stone according to master plan
  • Flying Buttresses outside supports to the walls
    that supporting the wright of the walls and the
    roof
  • Large stained glass windows
  • Sermons in Glass
  • Living Catechisms
  • Bibles of the Poor

28
Education and Learning
  • Monks in monasteries copied manuscripts by hand,
    preserved fundamentals of knowledge in the
    monastic schools
  • Bishops preserved knowledge and learning in
    cathedral schools, many established as training
    centers for clergy
  • Learning and education were dominated by the
    Church

29
Universities are Established
  • 1100s - genuine centers of higher education
  • Subjects medicine, law, philosophy and theology
  • Contributors to understanding Catholicism
  • Bonaventure
  • Thomas Aquinas truth cannot contradict truth
  • Faith can take us further than reason, but they
    cannot be in opposition
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