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HUMAN FACTORS CANADIAN COAST GUARD AUXILIARY - PACIFIC Why Human Factors? Since search and rescue units often have to perform their duties in adverse conditions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Why Human Factors?
  • Since search and rescue units often have to
    perform their duties in adverse conditions,
    mishaps or errors are bound to happen.
  • These errors can sometimes have disastrous
  • Technical errors have been shown to be involved
    in less than 25 of accidents.

Human Error
  • In search and rescue terms this is when the wrong
    action or bad decision is not discovered and is
  • Inaction and indecision can also become human

Profile of a Good SAR Team
Profile of a Good SAR Team
  • Individuals that are good at teamwork
  • 1. Communicate clearly and precisely
  • 2. Accept challenges and know how to respond to
  • 3. Use appropriate short term strategies
  • 4. Have the right balance between authority and
  • 5. Know how to control their workload

Profile of a Good SAR Team
  • 6. Manage to find a balance between performance
    and people orientated styles
  • 7. Can maintain an adequate level of alertness
  • 8. Have sound judgement and, usually, good
    decision-making skills

  • This is a key factor, since misunderstandings are
    so common.
  • What may be a clear message transmitted by the
    one end, is not what is heard by the receivers.
  • Sometimes what is heard, is not what was said.

  • Communication has to be open in that everyones
    opinions are welcome.
  • They also need to be interactive which means
    everyone is participating in the communication

  • The next step is closed loop communication.
  • 1. The sender sends the message.
  • 2. The recipient acknowledges by repeating all
    the important information.
  • 3. Finally the sender confirms the accuracy of
    what the recipient said.

  • Briefings can minimize the risk of confusion and
    should be used when planning anything requiring
    active participation by another member of the
  • The rules for briefing are
  • 1. Make the time
  • 2. Be open and friendly
  • 3. Anyone can conduct the briefing
  • 4. The briefing must be interactive

  • 5. Define responsibilities
  • 6. Use closed loop communications
  • 7. Keep focused
  • 8. Ensure that no question remains unanswered

  • A debriefing should conducted as soon after a
    mission as possible
  • 1. The coxswain should conduct the debriefing and
    should indicate his mistakes first
  • 2. Everybody should remain objective
  • 3. Evaluate positive and negative aspects of your
  • 4. Try to learn from your mistakes

  • 5. Avoid finger-pointing. Talk about team
  • 6. Keep the briefing interesting
  • 7. Prepare plans for the next time you encounter
    a situation like this one
  • 8. Keep a cordial, informal atmosphere

Challenge and Response
Challenge and Response
  • People who challenge can be seen as a problem in
    a team.
  • However some challenges can be useful, and it has
    been shown that a lack of challenges is involved
    in more than 30 of marine accidents.

Steps in a Challenge
  • Challenging a concept usually involves the
    following steps
  • 1. A concept is stated and limits are set
  • 2. The situation progresses and moves outside the
    limits that were set
  • 3. A challenge is issued
  • 4. A proper response is formulated

Example of a Challenge
  • Coxswain We will turn to port at the fourth red
  • Crew Port at the fourth red buoy.
  • Coxswain Thats right!
  • Coxswain OK - lets turn to port now.
  • Crew But dont we have to another buoy to pass
    before we turn?!
  • Coxswain Oops, youre right. One more buoy.

Example of a Challenge
  • Another example of where a challenge would be if
    your depth sounder showed 2 metres and the
    plotter showed 20 metres.

Taking Advantage of Challenges
  • Challenges should be allowed and welcomed in a
  • Always challenge when you feel you are moving
    outside the original concept.
  • Be diplomatic when you formulate a challenge.

Answering Challenges
  • Always check the validity of the challenge. Use a
    third source of information if necessary.
  • Be cautious, especially in emergency situations.
    The challenge may be valid.
  • Be diplomatic when you formulate a response to a
    challenge. Never laugh at or belittle or get
    angry with someone who has issued an invalid
    challenge - if you do so, the person may no
    longer challenge when you need it.

Obstacles to Challenges
  • The challenger
  • is a quiet person or lacks confidence
  • is not assertive.
  • puts the coxswain on a pedestal
  • does not understand something.
  • does not like responsibilities.
  • is involved with interpersonal conflicts.
  • has had bad experiences with inappropriate
    responses to previous challenges.

Obstacles to Challenges
  • The receiver
  • feels that their authority is threatened by
  • lacks confidence.
  • responds emotionally
  • has poor communication skills.
  • has poor management skills.

Short Term Strategies
Short Term Strategies
  • Short term strategies are defined as plans that
    are developed to solve a particular problem,
  • They should be used where time permits to solve
    any problem that is not covered by standard
    operating procedures.

Short Term Strategies
  • They require
  • 1. Identify the problem.
  • 2. Develop plans to deal with the problem.
  • 3. Check the plans with the team in a briefing.
  • 4. Explain the plan and get commitment.
  • 5. Monitor the correct use of the plan.
  • 6. Modify the plan if the conditions change or
    further information becomes available.

Authority and Assertiveness
Authority and Assertiveness
  • The right level of authority needs to be found
    for each team.
  • To much authority can be a too little.
  • There two kinds of authority
  • 1. Formal authority - coxswain or captain s
  • 2. Personal authority - is that which makes
    people to listen to ones suggestions - wisdom,
    professionalism, integrity, honesty and diplomacy

Authority and Assertiveness
  • Using formal authority to command attention
    should be avoided
  • Assertiveness - someone who is assertive is able
    to voice their concerns. Too much or too little
    assertiveness can be bad.

Authority and Assertiveness 1
  • Situation Coxswain with strong authority and
    crew with weak assertiveness.
  • The strong authority of the coxswain will
    intimidate the crew.
  • This is a one person team.

Authority and Assertiveness 1
  • Coxswain Lets go this way and take a shortcut
  • Crew But to express concern regarding shallow
    depth in this area.
  • Coxswain I said we are going this way. Whats
    your problem?
  • Crew Nothing sorry.

Authority and Assertiveness 2
  • Situation Coxswain with weak authority and crew
    with strong assertiveness.
  • This is probably the least dangerous of the four
    situations where the strong assertiveness of the
    crew compensates for the coxswains lack of

Authority and Assertiveness 2
  • Coxswain You are leaving the channel if you go
    this way.
  • Crew It doesnt matter. The water is deep
  • Coxswain But I would prefer if we could
    remain in the channel
  • Crew I said its deep enough. Its not the
    first time Ive been this way.
  • Coxswain OK, OK, if you are so sure

Authority and Assertiveness 3
  • Situation Coxswain with strong authority and
    crew with strong assertiveness.
  • This can cause serious conflicts amongst the
  • The coxswain and crew will argue constantly.
  • The coxswain may have to use his formal authority
    to end the altercation.
  • This situation is dangerous and stressful.

Authority and Assertiveness 3
  • Coxswain You are leaving the channel if you go
    this way.
  • Crew It doesnt matter.The water is deep
  • Coxswain I dont want you to leave the channel
    - is that clear?
  • Crew Read my lips IT IS DEEP ENOUGH FOR US TO
  • Coxswain I am in command here, so do as I say.

Authority and Assertiveness 4
  • Situation Coxswain with weak authority and crew
    with weak assertiveness.
  • This is the probably the most dangerous
    situation, as no one is willing to take the
    necessary decisions or actions.

Authority and Assertiveness
  • Coxswain Im not sure, but I think we just left
    the channel.
  • Crew Should I slow down?
  • Coxswain I dont know Wait I cant find our
  • Crew You got it?
  • Coxswain Not yet .. Lets wait a bit .. We
    should see something that will help us.
  • Crew OK,

CRUNCH!The boat runs up on a submerged rock and
is damaged
Authority and Assertiveness
  • None of the 4 situations are ideal, so be
    vigilant for the situation forming.
  • If you want someone to become assertive, the
    appropriate working environment needs to be
    created - it may be necessary to lower the level
    of authority.
  • If you want someone to be less assertive, you may
    want to increase authority (increasing personal
    authority is better than formal authority).

Management Styles
Management Styles
  • The management style of the coxswain can have a
    profound effect on the behaviour , performance
    and well being of a team.
  • The following approach to analyzing this is based
    on performance and people

Management Style 1
  • Tiger Style
  • High on Performance / Low on People
  • Characteristic
    Effect on the Team
  • Believes in performance
    Silent team low level of communication
  • Often has too much authority Low
    assertiveness of team members
  • Has a high opinion of themselves No
  • Does not care about what others may think
    Performance may decline
  • Does not care about teamwork Team
    morale may get low
  • Great leader in crisis Team
    members will not take many
  • Takes full responsibility for their decisions
  • Is loyal to the team
  • Does not like challenges
  • May have a tendency to do or control everything
  • Does not delegate easily

Management Style 2
  • Penguin Style
  • Low on Performance / High on People
  • Characteristic
    Effect on the Team
  • Is a good listener
    Friendly and calm working atmosphere
  • Forgives easily, probably to avoid conflicts
    General lowering of professional standards
  • Is always positive, even when results are False
    feeling of adequacy on the team
  • unsatisfactory, and learning opportunities
  • are lost because of this lack of objectivity
  • Believe that people are more important than
    Team members that are high on
  • performance. If people are well treated,
    performance might get annoyed
  • they will necessarily do a good job.
    Little training is done with the team
  • Like to talk with everybody has a tendency
    Leader does not command respect
  • to accept lower professional standards so
    because of inability to provide objective
  • that everybody can do well and
    constructive feedback

Management Style 3
  • Snail Style
  • Low on Performance / Low on People
  • Characteristic
    Effect on the Team
  • Serious lack of motivation
    All effects are negative
  • Is not really interested in their job
    Worst management style
  • Has a tendency to to do the minimum Low team
  • Avoids conflicts Professional standards can
    get dangerously
  • Has a low opinion of their own capabilities
  • and those of the team Very little
    training is done
  • Has low professional standards, both personally
  • and for the team
  • Poor communicator and weak authority
  • Does not use short term strategies
  • Can often hide personal ineptitude by avoiding

Management Style 4
  • Sheep Style
  • Average on Performance / Average on People
  • Characteristic
    Effect on the Team
  • Adapts quite well to surroundings
    Promising management style
  • Generally accepts challenges Everyone
    feels something is missing
  • Communication is good but no excellent Team
    morale is good, but could be better
  • Concerned by performance but not enough Team
    performances are good but not
  • May compromise performance or team morale
  • to achieve personal goals Average
  • Occasionally uses short term strategies

Management Style 5
  • Dolphin Style
  • High on Performance / High on People
  • Characteristic
    Effect on the Team
  • Combines the best of tiger and penguin
    Best management style
  • Is capable of adjusting personal style to any
    Training is a priority
  • situation Excellent team morale
  • Good communications and briefings Team is
  • Accepts challenges easily All members of
    the team have good self
  • Almost always uses good short term esteem
  • strategies Professional standards
    are very high
  • No problem delegating Team members are
  • Knows strengths and weaknesses of team
  • members
  • Believes it it is always possible to do better

Management Styles
  • The ideal management style is the dolphin, but
    other styles do have some advantages.
  • In a emergency, the tiger style may be ideal for
    creating order out of chaos.
  • On the other hand, with inexperienced people it
    may be good to be more of a penguin.
  • During periods of low activity a sheep may even
    be adequate.

Management Styles
  • If you feel that your coxswain is not an ideal
    manager, you as crew can help this change.
  • If your coxswain is a tiger, try and persuade
    them that their performance would increase with
    less authority.
  • If your coxswain is penguin, emphasize that you
    would feel better if the team performance
  • A sheep will probably understand both arguments

  • To be efficient, you need to control your
  • If you get overloaded on a mission, you will be
    under stress and then your work performance will
    be adversely affected.

  • Consequences of an overload situation
  • 1. duplication of effort, without being aware of
  • 2. increase of errors.
  • 3. increase in level of authority with increasing
  • 4. tunnel vision, with individuals focusing on
    important tasks and may miss important details.
  • 5. Generalised bad mood and impatience.

  • 6. lowered attention to tasks.
  • 7. lowered attention to tasks.
  • 8. delegation decreases as workload increases.
  • 9. Short term strategies are neglected.
  • 10.decrease in communications (no one has time to

  • Ways to lighten the workload
  • 1. Decrease the number of tasks to be
  • 2. Decrease the weight of individual tasks.
  • 3. Increase the time available for accomplishing
    the tasks.

Decreasing Tasks
  • The best way to reduce the number of tasks is to
  • When you delegate a task to crew, you can both
    train, and you show that person that you trust
    their abilities.
  • However you should be careful as to how much you
    delegate, so you dont overload someone less

  • Effective delegation includes
  • 1. Decide what tasks you can delegate.
  • 2. Decide who is suited to performing those
  • 3. Plan your delegating strategy.
  • To delegate you must know the skills of your
  • Ideally those delegated tasks should become
    opportunities for learning.

  • Choose the person for the task you wish to
  • Inform other team members that this task has been
  • Be prepared to give all necessary support to the
    person who has taken on the delegated task, but
    not too much so that they become discouraged.
  • Show appreciation

  • Show appreciation when someone does a great job,
    by a reward or by giving more responsibilities.

Combating Reasons Not to Delegate
  • If you want something to be done properly, do it
  • True - it takes time to learn a new job but you
    had to learn - remember?

Combating Reasons Not to Delegate
  • By the time I showed him, I could have done it
  • Again speed with quality wont come right away.

Combating Reasons Not to Delegate
  • I like doing this job, and Im good at it, so
    why should I delegate?
  • With practice, you will also get to like the job
    of delegating.
  • How did you learn to do this job?

Combating Reasons Not to Delegate
  • What if he makes mistakes?
  • Sometime you need to let people make mistakes.
    Mistakes are not usually critical.

Combating Reasons Not to Delegate
  • I will lose control.
  • You will actually increase your control because
    you will be able to get more done within the same
    amount of time.

Decrease the Weight of Individual Tasks
  • The best way to achieve this is training, as
    difficult tasks may become easier to perform.
  • Checklists may be useful for tasks involving many

Increase Time Available for Accomplishing the
  • When you are on the vessel, the best way to
    increase time is slow down.
  • By reducing the number of tasks you directly
    increase the time available for the other tasks.

State of a Team
State of a Team
  • If your team gets bored or inattentive,
    performance will suffer markedly.
  • Stress and Panic will affect your team the same

State of a Team
  • There are six states in which a team can find
  • 1. Optimum state 1
  • 2. Concerned state 2
  • 3. Alarmed state 3
  • 4. Bored state -1
  • 5. Inattentive state -2
  • 6. Inattentive at a critical phase -3

State of a Team
  • In emergency situations, the state of your team
    might have a tendency to rise.
  • You need to try to keep your team in a 1 state,
    by using techniques previously described
  • Use short term strategies, make time, ensure good
    communications and use briefings.
  • These measures may help you to relieve pressure.

State of a Team
  • 1. Optimum state
  • In this state your workload and stress are
    appropriate. You do not have to fight to stay
    awake. You are motivated and efficient.
  • 2. Concerned state
  • Both your workload and stress levels are going
    up. You are starting to wonder whether you can do
    everything in a timely manner. Your worries begin
    to affect your productivity.

State of a Team
  • 3. Alarmed state
  • You are overloaded. There is no doubt that you
    cannot complete everything on time, and you are
    looking for ways to rectify this.
  • It is hard to think about all this while you
    still have to work.
  • You need to concentrate to control your extreme
    stress level and panic

State of a Team
  • 4. Bored state
  • Workload is low and you have nothing to do.
  • Things have been this way for a while, and your
    level of attention and motivation is getting
    quite low.
  • Fatigue begins to take its toll.

State of a Team
  • 5. Inattentive state
  • This is where boredom and carelessness combine to
    produce a dangerous mix.
  • You are making mistakes and really feel the
    necessity to correct them.
  • If you dont do something quickly, the next
    mistake could lead you into a critical situation
  • What is worse you may not even notice that you
    are in trouble.

State of a Team
  • 6. Inattentive at a Critical Phase
  • You are now in trouble and you dont know it.
  • Eventually you will wake up and understand what
    is going on, and if you are lucky there will be
    time to do something.
  • If you are not, you will have to face the
    consequences of your lack of attention.
  • Usually there will be a period of confusion.

Judgement and Decision Making
Judgement and Decision Making
  • To develop judgement, you need a good decision
    making process.
  • 1. Vigilance
  • This be aware that things may not go as planned.
    Vigilance therefore can minimize the risk of
    being caught unaware.
  • 2. Problem discovery
  • This needs to be dome quickly otherwise there may
    be no chance to use judgement.

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 3. Problem diagnosis
  • On discovery, understanding how and why the
    problem happened.
  • 4. Alternative generation
  • Find a solution, and solution is good. Find as
    many solutions as possible.
  • 5. Risk analysis
  • Analyze the risk associated with each solution
    and pick the best.

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 6. External influences
  • When choosing a solution, you are likely to be
    influenced by external factors. These influences
    may push you toward a less than ideal solution.

Judgement and Decision Making
  • These external factors may include
  • 1. Economic factors (e.g. its too expensive)
  • 2. Responsibilities (e.g. I promised.. I have
  • 3. Peer pressures (e.g. everybody is doing it I
    have to be like the others)
  • 4. Physical status (e.g. fatigue, illness )

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 5. General attitude
  • These can seriously affect a persons judgement,
    and some are considered dangerous
  • a. anti-authority (e.g. Dont tell me what to do
    I dont have to follow the rules )
  • b. impulsiveness (e.g. Do something QUICK!)
  • c. invulnerability (e.g. It wont happen to me)

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 5. General attitude
  • d. excess confidence (e.g. I can easily do it!)
  • e. resignation (e.g. Whats the point it wont
    change anything..)
  • f. narrow mindedness (e.g. Ive been doing
    things this way for the past 3 years and Im not
    about to change.)
  • g. lack of initiative (e.g. Its not my job to
    so this.

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 5. General attitude
  • h. laziness (e.g. That should be enough Nobody
    will notice )

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 6. Hidden pressures
  • These are simply pressures that you are not
    aware of, from past experiences, fears and
  • You need to identify hidden pressures, and a
    good way of doing this, is to ask yourself,Why
    am I doing this?

Judgement and Decision Making
  • 7. Decision
  • You have decided what is the best solution and
    you are ready to act. Conduct a briefing.
  • 8. Action
  • Translate plans into actions.
  • 9. Monitoring
  • Monitor the effectiveness of the solution, and
    apply any corrective measures if necessary.

Image and Attitude
Image and Attitude
  • The image you project and attitude you have when
    doing search and rescue can have a profound
    impact on the efficacy and safety of your unit.
  • How you present yourself with appearance and
    actions to others around you is important.

Heroism A Dangerous Attitude
  • A heroic attitude is not needed in a rescue
    situation, and is no help to anyone.
  • Anyone willing to risk their life on a SAR
    mission should stay home, as the last thing a SAR
    team needs is the risk of another victim on its

  • The strangers who you go out and assist, need to
    feel that they can put their trust in you.
  • Therefore you need to act and look like a
    professional. Part of that is your image.
  • Professional If something that someone does is
    professional, it is done well, and is of a very
    high standard.

  • To be professional you need to have the skills
    that are necessary to translate the knowledge
    into action.

  • People involved in SAR must work with
  • Other people (crew, RCC coordinators, etc)
  • Boats and outfit (engines, GPS, radios, etc)
  • Equipment (SAR equipment)
  • Aids to navigation, charts etc.
  • People requiring assistance or in distress

  • As a result SAR personnel need to
  • work in teams
  • use the available equipment
  • navigate
  • provide first aid
  • perform related tasks

  • To identify skills, a list of the situations that
    may be encountered by SAR personnel is the most
    appropriate tool. These will include
  • cold water, rain, fog, winds
  • currents, shallow water, deep water, heavy seas,
  • fire and explosions
  • lack of sleep / fatigue, stress
  • hypothermia

  • SAR personnel must be skilled enough to handle
    combination of the above items, such as
  • Vessel in fog, strong currents, and provide
    skilled first aid when under stress.

  • There are many ways of acquiring knowledge.
  • Experienced personnel can pass on their
  • Taking courses, station training.
  • Skills are usually acquired through practice.
    People who practice a lot will usually be more
    more skilled.
  • Reading will provide the knowledge, but practice
    will forge the skill.

Acting in a Professional Manner
  • Skill and knowledge cannot be readily assessed by
    an observer.
  • Evaluating level of knowledge and skill usually
    requires observing someone for a while.
  • This cannot assessed on first impression.

Acting in a Professional Manner
  • No matter how knowledgable, skilled and
    experienced a crew may be, if image and attitude
    are no professional, the first impression will be

  • The image of the SAR crew and vessel will have a
    profound impact on first impression.

  • Person and Clothing
  • Any stains
  • Appropriate? (no swimsuits)
  • Properly worn (avoid unbuttoned shirts etc)
  • Personal grooming

  • Vessel
  • Is it clean?
  • Is it in good repair?
  • Is it properly maintained?
  • Equipment
  • Is it properly stowed?
  • Is it in good condition and reliable?

Crew Attitude
  • The attitude of a SAR crew in how they act or
    respond is as important as their image
  • Be polite and treat people with respect
  • Be positive - smile
  • Stay calm and look confident
  • Be careful with gestures, stand straight, look
    people in the eye, and avoid using sunglasses
    when talking to them.
  • Treat others as equals

Knowledge and Skills
  • Your knowledge level will be revealed by the way
    you answer questions.
  • Your skill level will be revealed by the way you
    carry out the various evolutions when you and
    your crew go into action.
  • People will judge your competency based on their
    own level of knowledge and skills.

Vessel Operation
  • The way the vessel is operated out on the water
    whether on a mission or during training will
    reflect on the publics view of the auxiliary.
  • If you navigate in a reckless manner, all your
    efforts trying to be professional are wasted.

Vessel Operation
  • Navigating in a professional manner means
  • Observing the collision and other regulations
  • Avoiding passing to close to other vessels
  • Manoeuvring in a way that will clearly show your
  • Avoiding riding the wake of other vessels and
    intentionally jumping waves
  • Manoeuvring at a safe and reasonable speed
  • Showing courtesy

Vessel Operation
  • Courtesy should be shown to other people on the
    water by
  • Slowing down when passing close to other vessels
  • Manoeuvring at slow speed in marina or near docks
  • Avoiding excessive noise in marinas at night
  • Do not overtake less manoeuvrable vessels in
    narrow areas

Critical-Incident Stress Management
Critical-Incident Stress Management
  • Critical Incident Stress can result from SAR
    personnels exposure to extremely difficult
  • Pacific region has a counseling service to our
    SAR crews who are exposed to critical incidents.
  • This will normally be activated by Joint Rescue
    Coordination Centre.

Critical-Incident Stress
  • This is the reaction of a human being to a
    critical incident. These can include
  • death or severe injury
  • suicide or sudden death of a co-worker
  • multiple casualty incidents
  • incidents where victims seriously injured
  • prolonged rescue or recovery operation,
    especially involving children or where the victim
    is known to the rescuer

Critical-Incident Stress
  • situations with intense media coverage and
  • situations of violence in the workplace

Critical-Incident Stress
  • The following situations are specific to
    maritime SAR operations
  • recovery of bodies
  • witness of a suicide
  • operating in full view of public and/ or media
  • failing to succeed in a rescue attempt
  • failing at CPR in a case where the victim still
    had vital signs when recovered.

Critical-Incident Stress
  • Other situations can be stressful
  • exposure for long periods to the mtion of a
    rescue vessel in violent weather
  • failing to assist in cases of damage or property
  • being unfairly criticized for response to an

Reacting According to Experience
  • Individuals will react according their own
    experiences, age.
  • Younger crew members can forget that loss of life
    may occur in SAR operations.
  • A short debriefing is a good way of reducing or
    avoiding stress.

Reacting According to Experience
  • An affirmative answer to any of the following
    questions after a critical incident may indicate
    that the job related stress has reached a danger
    point and a debriefing is needed
  • 1. Do I have trouble putting the incident out of
    my mind?
  • 2. Do I experience persistent, jittery feelings?
  • 3. Am I forgetful, short tempered or fearful?

Reacting According to Experience
  • 4. Do I have nightmares, sleep disturbances, or a
    preoccupation with death?
  • 5. Am I withdrawn from friends or family and less
    interested in sex or other activities that I used
    to find enjoyable?
  • 6. Do I find myself drinking too much or
    depending on drugs to calm my nerves, or get me
    through the day?
  • 7. Am I simply feeling out of sorts?

Countering the Effects of Stress
  • Many things can be done to counter the effects of
  • 1. Rest
  • 2. Rotate jobs on board
  • 3. Keep everyone informed and updated frequently
  • 4. Avoid excessive coffee and sugar, since both
    tend to increase stress reactions in the body

Countering the Effects of Stress
  • 5. Cover bodies
  • Refusing to recognise a stressful situation may
    have a serious impact on you and your colleagues.
  • The coxswain must create a climate of open
    discussion where feelings and reactions can be
  • It is a weakness to deny the problem exists.

This is an extract from the CCG SAR Seamanship
Reference Manual