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The government establishes requirements and standards to protect people from unsafe living and working conditions.

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Chapter 1 The federal government regulates its own buildings. Federal buildings have their own regulations and do not use state or model codes. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The government establishes requirements and standards to protect people from unsafe living and working conditions.


1
  • Chapter 1

2
  • The government establishes requirements and
    standards to protect people from unsafe living
    and working conditions.
  • This chapter outlines the most recognized codes,
    laws and standards organizations.

3
Keep in Mind....
  • Not all of the codes, standards and regulations
    you read about will be enforced in every code
    jurisdiction.
  • The local jurisdiction will decide which code and
    publication to use.
  • Some standards my not be required, but you might
    want to follow them to meet Health, Safety and
    Welfare concerns.
  • Federal regulations are the only regulations that
    are consistent in every jurisdiction. They are
    mandatory because they are the law.

4
  • In 1800 B.C. the Amorite king, Hammurabi,
    took the throne of the new Babylonian dynasty.
    Immediately he began to expand his new empire to
    eventually include Assyria and northern Syria.
    Hammurabi was a great military leader and
    lawgiver. In the first year of his reign
    Hammurabi fulfilled a promise to the Babylonian
    god Marduk and established an extensive law
    system which encompassed nearly every area of
    ancient life..

5
The Code of Hammurabi is a black diorite stone,
seven and a half feet in height and six feet in
circumference. It was discovered by J. De Morgan
and V. Scheil during their excavations at Susa,
the Edomite capital, in 1901-2. The fifty-one
columns of cuneiform text was written in the
Akkadian (Semitic) language. The top of the stele
has an engraved picture of Shamash, the sun god,
seated on a throne handing a scepter and ring to
Hammurabi. This is to symbolize the divine origin
of the great code of laws which king Hammurabi
received. This picture would reinforce the
motivation for keeping these laws.
6
  • The document was over 300 paragraphs long
    and included sections on social, moral,
    religious, commercial and civil law. Kings of the
    day would post large monuments listing their laws
    with an accompanying statue carving of themselves
    to identify the law with the king. Hammurabi was
    no different in this practice. There were many
    copies of this law erected throughout the
    kingdom. Usually in the temples dedicated to the
    local gods. It now resides in the Louve, in
    Paris.

7
  • The code of Hammurabi made the builder
    accountable for the houses he built. If one of
    his buildings fell down and killed someone, the
    builder would be put to death.

8
  • First on record was in 1625 in what was know as
    New Amsterdam (New York).
  • Addressed fire prevention and governed the types
    of roofing materials that could be used to
    protect from chimney sparks.
  • Chicago fire of 1871 caused many large cities to
    create their own municipal building codes.

9
  • 1905 National Building Code, helped create the
    three original model codes
  • 1973, congress passed the Consumer Product Safety
    Act and formed the Consumer Product Safety
    Commission. Its goal is to prevent the
    necessity of federal regulations by encouraging
    industry self-regulation and standardization.
    This created a number of new standards-writing
    organizations not affiliated with the federal
    government. (NFPA, ANSI)

10
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11
  • What are codes
  • A collection of regulations, ordinances, and
    other statutory requirements put together by
    various organizations. Once adopted by each
    jurisdiction, they become law. They are enforced
    on a local level and sometimes state level.
  • They provide for a minimum level of performance,
    adequate standards of practice and uniformity of
    workmanship.

12
  • Ensure public health and safety throughout a
    building.
  • Most have come into play after-the-fact as a
    learning experience from a major tragedy.
  • They are primarily concerned with
  • Construction requirements
  • Hazardous materials or equipment used in the
    building
  • 75 of all codes and standards deal with fire
  • Energy conservation
  • Accessibility

13
  • National Building Code (NBC) published by BOCA
    (Building Officials Code Administration
  • Standard Building Code (SBC) published by
    Southern Building Code Congress International
    (SBCCI)
  • Uniform Building Code (UBC) published by the
    International Conference of Building Officials
    (ICBO)

14
  • Published by the International Code Council
  • First established in 1994 and published in 2000.
  • Most current edition is 2009 with a new edition
    expected in 2012.
  • Legacy codes are no longer being updated. IBC is
    updated every 3 years.
  • Some MS Jurisdictions adopted the code in 2003.
  • This code has now replaced the three model codes.

15
  • At the start of every project, what code and
    which edition of the code is being enforced in
    the jurisdiction of your project.

16
  • California earthquakes
  • Northern states freezing temperatures
  • South hurricanes, tornados
  • The IBC has incorporated these differences into
    one manual.

17
  • Common Code Format (page 13)
  • Started in 1994
  • Organizes each of the codes into a similar format
    to include (See table, page 17)
  • Chapter titles
  • Chapter content
  • Sequence of chapters
  • Life Safety Codes are organized by occupancy
    classification

18
  • New to the IBC
  • In the past, codes were typically very
    descriptive, indicating a precise requirement.
  • The code will specify the goal that should be met
    but not provide a specific description as to how
    that must be achieved. This allows for more
    creative design solutions

19
  • Tells you the precise requirements such as the
    height of a handrail
  • Most existing codes are prescriptive
  • Performance based codes will not replace
    prescriptive codes. They will only apply to a
    part of a project.

20
  • ICC and NFPA now include fire codes.
  • IFC International Fire Code
  • UFC Uniform Fire Code (NFPA 1 )
  • These address building conditions in relation to
    hazardous conditions that could cause a fire or
    explosion.
  • Designers will address chapters on
  • Means of Egress
  • Interior Finishes
  • Furnishing and Decorative Materials

21
  • One of the first codes published by NFPA.
  • Revised every 3 years
  • 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2012 versions
  • It is NOT a building code. It focuses on removal
    or evacuation of all persons from a building by
    protecting them from fire, smoke and toxic fumes.
  • Uses the Manual Style Format. First section
    concentrates on broad topics, description of
    occupancies, means of egress and fire protection
  • Second part is divided into chapters by occupancy
    type for new and existing buildings

22
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23
  • Most widely used fire code
  • 43 states adopted statewide - some jurisdictions
    in all states.
  • Some cities and states have stricter fire codes
    Boston, California, Massachusetts, New Jersey and
    New York
  • Verify with your jurisdiction which Fire Codes
    are required and the edition that is currently
    adopted.

24
  • In the past, all three codes had their own
    plumbing code
  • International Plumbing Code (IPC) is updated
    every 3 years
  • When designing interior, you may refer to this
    code to help determine the number of fixtures
    required for your project.

25
  • Now a part of the International Mechanical Code
    (IMC)
  • As a designer, you will rarely refer to this code

26
  • National Electrical Code (NEC)
  • Most widely used
  • Published by NFPA
  • Latest edition is 2005, 2008 and 2011
  • You will rarely refer to this code

27
  • Both ICC and NFPA have energy conservation codes
  • ICC International Energy Conservation Code
    (IECC) (2009)
  • NFPA NFPA 900 Building Energy Code (BEC)
  • All states must have energy codes in place that
    are at least as strict as the 2004 edition of
    IECC.

28
Sustainability Codes
  • Fairly new concept in the US
  • These codes focus on how the building affects the
    environment
  • Some energy codes address sustainability
  • Some plumbing codes address water-efficiency
  • some state require rating systems such as LEED.
  • California was the first state to develop a
    comprehensive sustainability code - California
    Green Building Standards Code (CGBSC)
  • ICC has developed the International Green
    Construction Code (IGCC)

29
  • International Residential Code (IRC)
  • First available in 1998
  • Based on the former One-and Two-Family Dwelling
    Code
  • More current editions are 2006, 2009,and 2012
  • Applies to construction of single family, duplex
    and townhouses

30
  • The building codes and the Life Safety Code (LSC)
    dedicates an entire chapter to existing
    buildings.
  • 2009, ICC published most current edition
  • Verify if the IEBC (International Existing
    Building Code) is adopted in your jurisdiction.

31
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32
  • A number of federal agencies and departments
    work with trade associations, private companies
    and the general public to develop federal laws
    for building construction

33
  • These regulations are published in the Federal
    Register (FR) and the Code of Federal Regulations
    (CFR)
  • Published daily, but not all rules are
    enforceable laws
  • Once they have been passed into law, they are
    published in the CFR annually.

34
  • The federal government regulates its own
    buildings.
  • Federal buildings have their own regulations and
    do not use state or model codes. (VA hospitals,
    military bases, etc)
  • They can pass federal legislation creating a law
    that supersedes all other state and local codes
    and standards. The ADA is an example.

35
  • Developed by the Dept. of Justice
  • 4-part federal legislation become law on July
    26th, 1990.
  • Enforceable in 1992 and 1993.

36
  • Is a comprehensive civil rights law that protects
    individuals with disabilities in the area of
  • Employment (Title 1)
  • State and Local govt services and transportation
    (Title II)
  • Public accommodations and commercial facilities
    (Title III)
  • Telecommunications (Title IV)

37
  • Any facility that offers public accommodation
    such as commercial facilities as well as business
    that offer food, merchandise or services to the
    public must follow this regulation
  • It is published in the Americans with
    Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG)
  • ANSI A117.1 is another accessibility guideline
    (see page 32) ADA may not be the only
    accessibility guidelines you have to follow.

38
  • Federal legislation enforced by the Dept. of
    Housing and Urban Development (HUD)
  • Protects the consumer from discrimination in
    housing when buying or renting
  • Pertains to housing with four or more dwelling
    units
  • As of 1991, these buildings must have accessible
    public and common areas and ground floor units
    must be accessible and meet specific construction
    requirements.
  • The FHA is often considered the residential
    version of the ADA.

39
  • OSHA
  • Passed in 1970 to protect the American employee
    in the work place.
  • It regulates the design of buildings and interior
    projects where people are employed.
  • Employer must furnish a safe working environment
    or can be fined.
  • It also stresses the safe installation of
    materials and equipment to ensure the safety of
    construction workers.

40
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41
  • A standard is a definition, a recommended
    practice, a test method, a classification, or a
    required specification that must be met.
  • They have no legal standing until they become
    referenced in a code which is adopted by a
    jurisdiction.

42
  • Many are developed by independent
    standards-writing organizations
  • Some are developed by government agencies
  • Trade associations

43
  • National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
  • American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
  • Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
  • Business and Institutional Furniture
    Manufacturers Association (BIFMA)

44
  • American National Standards Institute is a
    private corporation founded in 1918.
  • Coordinates voluntary standards.
  • Does not develop standards, but rather approves
    the standards developed by other organizations
  • Most common standard for designers is ANSI A117.1

45
  • One of the largest standards organizations
  • Develops a wide variety of standards for fire
    protection.
  • They test textiles to fire fighting equipment to
    means of egress design
  • Many of the standards are referenced in the LSC
    and the NEC

46
  • American Society for Testing and Materials was
    formed in 1898 as a nonprofit corporation
  • In 2002 became know as ASTM International
  • Oversees the development of standards but does
    not actually perform the tests.
  • These standards are used to help specify
    materials and assure quality
  • ASTM E-84 (Steiner Tunnel Test)

47
  • A testing agency that approves products such as
    building materials, upholstered furniture
    (systems furniture), electrical products
  • Approved products will carry the UL mark

48
  • Codes set the minimum criteria. You can follow
    stricter requirements at any time.
  • They are not always perfectly clear. When two
    requirements are similar, go with the strictest
    requirement
  • Not all of them will apply to every design
    situation.
  • Work with the code official to resolve
    discrepancies.
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