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EXPOSITORY (Persuasive) and FICTIONAL WRITING

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Title: EXPOSITORY (Persuasive) and FICTIONAL WRITING


1
EXPOSITORY (Persuasive) and FICTIONAL WRITING
  • VPSS READING/LANGUAGE ARTS

2
Review Activity
  • Tweet
  • Write your response to the question below in 140
    characters or less (including spaces).

3
Todays Agenda
  • Basics of Reading Instruction
  • Expository Defined
  • Persuasive Writing
  • Fictional Narrative Writing

4
Reading Instruction
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Fluency Reading multisyllabic words
  • Reading Comprehension

5
Teaching Multisyllabic Words
6
Students Need to HEAR Syllables
  • Students who struggle to read multisyllabic words
    often cannot hear the syllables
  • Students should first orally segment
    multisyllabic words
  • Then orally blend multisyllabic words

7
Focus on VOWELS Rules to Know
  • EVERY syllable has a vowel sounds
  • Almost every syllable has a vowel letter
  • Most of the time, when two vowels are apart, they
    are in separate syllables
  • Exception silent e
  • Most of the time, when two vowels are together
    they spell one vowel sound in the syllable
  • Exeptions patio, riot, chaos, violet, poem

8
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • Short Vowels
  • Closed
  • These syllables end in a consonant. The vowel
    sound is generally short. (Examples rabbit,
    napkin)

9
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • R-controlled
  • Vowel r
  • The letter affects the sound of the vowel. The
    vowel and the r appear in the same syllable.
    (Examples bird, turtle)

10
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • Long Vowels
  • Open
  • These syllables end in a vowel. The vowel sound
    is generally long. (Examples tiger, pilot)

11
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • Long Vowels
  • Vowel__silent e
  • Two vowels work together
  • These generally represent long-vowel sounds.
    (Examples compete, decide)

12
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • Vowel team
  • Many vowel sounds are spelled with vowel digraphs
    such as ai, ay, ea, ee, oa, ow, oo, oi, oy, ou,
    ie, and ei.
  • The vowel digraphs appear in the same syllable.
    (Examples boat, explain)

13
Six Common Syllable Spelling Patterns
  • Consonant-le
  • Usually when le appears at the end of a word and
    is preceded by a consonant.
  • The consonant plus le form the final syllable.
    (Examples table, little)

14
Reading Multisyllabic Words Short Vowels
Compound Words Two Syllable Words Three Syllable Words
Batman Suntan Catnip Sunset Sunfish Bathtub Shellfish nutshell Napkin Admit Cactus Public Index Panic Comic Publish Fantastic Penmanship Establish Wisconsin Athletic Cosmetic Investment Admonish Accomplish
15
Reading Multisyllabic Words
  • How many vowels do you see?
  • Are the vowels together or apart?
  • Record the number of syllables
  • Divide the word into syllable
  • Practice reading each syllable, out of order and
    in order
  • Practice blending the word

16
Admonish
  • Admonish
  • Ad mon ish

17
Silent e and Diphthongs
  • When students notice the number of vowels, ask
    them if they think there might be a silent e or a
    dipthong (vowel team) to consider
  • Words to try
  • Valentine
  • Confiscate
  • Leadership
  • Prevail

18
Other Rules
  • Break between two consonants that are the same.
  • Pronounce the consonant once
  • Rab bit, ten nis, ad dress, slug gish
  • Keep digraphs together
  • Ac com plish ment, graph ic

19
Point of Difficulty - Schwa
  • Lazy or reduced vowel with no energy
  • Only occurs in words with more than one syllable
  • Does NOT sound the way it is spelled
  • Ribbon
  • Seven
  • Therefore, causes problems with spelling

20
Spelling Multisyllabic Words
  • Say the word
  • Ask students how many syllables they hear.
  • Draw a line for each syllable
  • Spell each syllable
  • Consider diphthongs, schwa, silent e

21
Expository - Defined
  • Expository text
  • Includes essays, speeches, lab procedures,
    journals, government documents, newspaper and
    magazine articles, and directions are some
    examples
  • Explains something by definition, sequence,
    categorization, comparison-contrast, enumeration,
    process, problem-solution, description, or
    cause-effect.
  • Uses facts and details, opinions and examples.

22
Expository Writing
  • Expository Writing
  • reports of information
  • essays
  • book reports
  • biographies
  • news paper articles
  • Expository writing is meant to inform the reader!

23
Before Writing
  • Students need to understand the assignment or
    prompt. Read it with them!
  • Help them understand the subject of the
    assignment.
  • They must know the purpose of the assignment.
  • Informing
  • Reporting
  • Persuading
  • Who is the intended audience?

24
Verb It Name
25
Look for Key Assignment Words
Explicitly teach this academic vocabulary
  • Analyze
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Define
  • Discuss
  • Evaluate
  • Infer
  • Explain
  • Illustrate
  • Prove
  • State

Something to consider
26
Lets Try Together
  • Many Americans are in disagreement concerning the
    effectiveness of the death penalty. Research the
    subject and present both sides of the argument
    demonstrating understanding of the issues.
    Explain key positions for both sides of the
    argument. Differentiate between fact and opinion
    regarding the effectiveness of the death penalty.

27
Now Practice in Table Groups
  • Americans are divided regarding the two opposing
    sides of the issue of the death penalty. Select
    one perspective and present the position. Support
    the position with evidence and examples from your
    reading in order to demonstrate understanding of
    the position you have chosen. Differentiate
    between fact and opinion.

28
What kind of essay are you being asked to write?
Persuasive
29
Standards Trace
  • At your table, take a look at the persuasive
    writing standards and how they develop over the
    years.
  • What vocabulary do YOU need to know and
    understand?
  • How does the skill advance?
  • What do we expect students to be able to produce
    at the end of each grade?

30
More Expository Reading
  • Items you will need from Day 4
  • New Jersey Abolishes the Death Penalty article
  • You will also need
  • Death Penalty Arguments essay
  • Murders Drop in New Jersey press release
  • RACE newspaper article
  • Take time to read through the expository
    information. Mark up the text as needed.

31
Why do we need to teach expository writing to all
students at all grade levels?
  • Most school writing will be expository writing.
  • Expository writing teaches clear and logical
    thinking.
  • Expository writing helps students learn content.
  • Expository writing prepares students
  • for the business world.

32
How Can We Help Students?
  • We built good, elaborate
  • highways for students to follow

33
But we forgot
  • They dont know how to drive!

34
What does it take to learn something new?
  • 4-14 repetitions to learn something new
  • Students with disabilities need 250-350
    repetitions over the years

(1.2)
35
The keys to an effective paragraph
  • Expository paragraphs need
  • A title
  • A topic sentence
  • Transitions
  • Good explanations and examples
  • A conclusion

36
The Five Elements of Expository Writing
  • Organization is the key.
  • Topic sentences and thesis statements are the
    heart.
  • Transitions are the glue.
  • Examples, evidence, and explanations are the
    meat.
  • Conclusions tie it all together.

37
Great Expository Paragraphs
  • Organization
  • is the
  • key.

38
Using Colors to Teach Organization
Go!
Write a topic sentence
Slow Down
Give a reason, detail, or fact. Use a transition.
Stop!
Explain. Give an example.
Go Back!
Remind the reader of your topic.
2.11
39
Topic Sentence
  • Green means go.
  • Green asks the writer to decide
  • What am I going to prove? (reason)
  • What am I going to explain? (detail)
  • What information will I share? (fact)

40
Reasons/Details/Facts
  • Yellow means slow down.
  • Introduce key concepts to support the topic
    sentence.
  • The main supporting ideas (reasons, details or
    facts) for the topic sentence.
  • Look for common patterns or categories in the
    brainstorming.

2.11
41
Explain
  • Red means stop and explain.
  • Present evidence.
  • Provide explanation and examples.

2.11
42
Conclusion
  • Green means go back to your topic.
  • Restate the topic and the position.
  • Do not introduce new information.
  • Use synonyms and leave your reader with something
    to remember.

2.11
43
Prewriting
  • Brainstorming
  • Clustering/Webbing
  • Discussing
  • Outlining
  • Circle Map

44
Respond to the Prompt
  • Americans are divided regarding the two opposing
    sides of the issue of the death penalty. Select
    one perspective and present the position. Support
    the position with evidence and examples from your
    reading in order to demonstrate understanding of
    the position you have chosen. Differentiate
    between fact and opinion.

45
THOUGHTS
PROS
FACTS
TOPIC
DISCOVERIES
ARGUMENTS
CONS
QUOTES
IDEAS
46
Steps to Organize Thinking
  • Cluster like topics (may color code)
  • Create a tree map without naming the categories.
  • After seeing the categories decide on a heading
    for each.

47
Step 1
  • Write a topic sentence using the three part topic
    sentence method.
  • IDENTIFY THE ITEM
  • SELECT A VERB
  • FINISH YOUR THOUGHT
  • High school students can be challenging.
  • Teaching writing requires a lot of planning.
  • The death penalty should be used more often.

48
For introductions
  • If
  • After
  • Since
  • Before
  • So that
  • Whenever
  • As long as
  • In order that (to)
  • Even though
  • Although
  • Unless
  • While
  • When
  • Even
  • As if
  • As
  • Until
  • Where
  • Though
  • Even if
  • Because
  • Wherever
  • As soon as

49
Support and Elaboration can be
  • Examples
  • Explanations
  • Evidence
  • Events
  • Experiences
  • Expert opinions
  • Effective illustrations

50
Add in transitions, the glue that holds it all
together.
  • in fact
  • obviously
  • clearly
  • certainly
  • in conclusion
  • truly
  • definitely
  • surely
  • to sum up

51
Write the Introduction
  • The introduction should be designed to attract
    the reader's attention and give an idea of the
    essay's focus.
  • Include any background information that the
    reader may need.
  • Include the thesis statement as well as how you
    plan to develop the essay.

52
Begin the introduction with an attention
grabber.
  • Startling information
  • Anecdote
  • Dialogue
  • Summary Information
  • Use the Persuasive Essay planner to help guide
    your writing.

53
Your thesis statement will have two parts.
  • The first part states the topic.
  • Kenya's Culture
  • Building a Model Train Set
  • Public Transportation
  • The second part states the point of the essay.
    (Open thesis)
  • has a rich and varied history
  • takes time and patience
  • can solve some of our city's most persistent and
    pressing problems

54
Closed Thesis Statements
  • Or in the second part you could simply list the
    three main ideas you will discuss.
  • has a long history, blends traditions from
    several other cultures, and provides a rich
    heritage.
  • requires an investment in time, patience, and
    materials.
  • helps with traffic congestion, resource
    management, and the city budget.

55
Each body paragraph will have the same basic
structure.
  • Start by writing down one of your main ideas, in
    sentence form.
  • If your main idea is "reduces freeway
    congestion," you might say this
  • Public transportation reduces freeway congestion.
  • Next, write down each of your supporting points
    for that main idea, but leave four or five lines
    in between each point.
  • In the space under each point, write down some
    elaboration for that point.

56
Support and Elaboration can be
  • Examples
  • Explanations
  • Evidence
  • Events
  • Experiences
  • Expert opinions
  • Effective illustrations

57
Scaffolding with Sentence Frames
  • Students often lack the academic vocabulary to
    express themselves clearly and effectively during
    expository writing. This is especially the case
    when a student must present concepts, facts,
    ideas and opinions from other writers and keep
    the voices straight.
  • Ask students to look at professional articles and
    identify phrases that signal relationships
    between and among different ideas and perspectives

58
Examples of Sentence Frames
  • The issue of ____ has several different
    perspectives.
  • Experts disagree about _______.
  • Noted researcher _____ argues that_____, while
    ______ proposes _______.
  • In his most famous article, ______ states ____.
  • According to ______, _________.
  • While some argue _____, others argue _____.
  • Even though there is disagreement on _____, it is
    clear that ________.

59
The Conclusion
  • The conclusion brings closure to the reader,
    summing up your points or providing a final
    perspective on your topic.
  • All the conclusion needs is three or four strong
    sentences which do not need to follow any set
    formula. Simply review the main points (being
    careful not to restate them exactly) or briefly
    describe your feelings about the topic. Even an
    anecdote can end your essay in a useful way.
  • Make sure that the thesis statement is supported
    once again and indicate the significance (so
    what).

60
Sentence Patterning Chart
  • Marsha Brechtel GLAD
  • Adapted from McCracken
  • Skill building
  • Patterning
  • Parts of speech

61
15 minute grammar Silly Sentences
  • Use the sentence patterning chart to create your
    own silly sentence
  • Illustrate your sentence
  • Reinforce parts of speech and sentence structure
  • Encourage students to play with the pattern
  • Create a display board or class book

62
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande
Jatte Georges Seurat
63
Dialogue
  • Steve said  good morning
  • good morning said Steve.
  • Steve said good morning then sat down.
  • ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.

64
Dialogue
  • Steve said, Good morning.
  • good morning said Steve.
  • Steve said good morning then sat down.
  • ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.

65
Dialogue
  • Steve said, Good morning.
  • Good morning, said Steve.
  • Steve said good morning then sat down.
  • ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.

66
Dialogue
  • Steve said, Good morning.
  • Good morning, said Steve.
  • Steve said, Good morning, then sat down.
  • ladies and gentlemen said Steve good morning.

67
Dialogue
  • Steve said, Good morning.
  • Good morning, said Steve.
  • Steve said, Good morning, then sat down.
  • Ladies and gentlemen, said Steve, good
    morning.

68
Fictional Narrative Writing Assignment
  • Select ONE of the characters from the painting
  • Pretend you ARE that person.
  • Create a story about the character imagine his
    or her occupation, family, and daily life in the
    late 19th century (1880-1900) France.

69
Requirements
  • Look at rubric
  • Be sure to
  • Effectively use dialogue in your narrative.
  • Include a clear plot line.
  • Describe the setting
  • Maintain a consistent point of view

70
Power Writing
  • Easy editing
  • Students can do their own paper
  • Students can edit anothers paper
  • Model first

71
Using Rubrics to Assess Writing
  • Help categorize student work
  • Provide a starting point for forming a lesson
  • Offer students a mechanism for planning
  • Can be blind
  • Save time

72
Writing a Rubric
  • Go back to your goal
  • Revisit the standard
  • Rubistar

73
The art of teaching is the art of assisting
discovery. Learning and Leading with Habits of
Mind Edited by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick
74
Resources
  • Beers, K. When Kids Cant Read What Teachers Can
    Do
  • Pilgreen, J. The SSR Handbook How to Organize
    and Manage a Sustained Silent Reading Program
  • Schoenbach, R. et. al., Reading for
    Understanding A Guide to Improving Reading in
    Middle and High School Classrooms
  • Tomlinson, C. Fulfilling the Promise of the
    Differentiated Classroom
  • http//www.greece.k12.ny.us/instruction/ela/Index.
    htm
  • http//www.ascd.org/publications/books/108008/chap
    ters/Learning_Through_Reflection.aspx
  • http//www.readwritethink.org
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