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The Implementation of Academic Ethics as a Background for Ethical Approach to the Research Activities: the Lithuanian Experience

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Title: The Implementation of Academic Ethics as a Background for Ethical Approach to the Research Activities: the Lithuanian Experience


1
The Implementation of Academic Ethics as a
Background for Ethical Approach to the Research
Activities the Lithuanian Experience
  • Aleksandras Vasiljevas
  • Lithuania
  • Center for Business/Applied ethics, Vilnius
    University
  • E-mail verslo_etika_at_vukhf.lt

2
The Implementation of Academic Ethics as a
Background for Ethical Approach to the Research
Activities the Lithuanian Experience
  • Academic ethics and the process of ethics
    institutionalization
  • Individual and organization ethics different
    approaches and different results
  • Academic ethics - the paradigm of organization
    ethics
  • Ethics Infrastructure as a tool for constructing
    academic integrity
  • Ethics problems in academic practice
  • Lithuanian experience common features and
    peculiarities
  • University and the prospects of academic ethics

3
Academic ethics and the process of ethics
institutionalization
  • universities expression of their engagement in
    ethics
  • mission,
  • vision,
  • codes of conduct or related documents,
  • ethics committees

4
Academic ethics as a field of science requires
scientific methodological background and
analytical level of researches
  • The theme of scientific researches The
    processes of ethics institutionalization on meso
    and macro levels in Vilnius university covers
    the issues of academic ethics
  • Journal of academic ethics (Kluwer Academic
    Publishers)
  • It is a forum for discussion of original research
    on a broad range of ethical considerations in
    research, teaching, administration and
    governance.
  • Focuses the need for sustained inquiry into the
    values, purposes and functions of academic
    institutions responsible for the creation and
    dissemination of knowledge

5
Academic ethics - the paradigm of organization
ethics
  • Organization (business) ethics as
    inter-disciplinary science from philosophy to
    management.
  • Responsibility for ethical practice is not only
    the concern of separate persons, but the
    corporate responsibility of organization
    (academic institution).
  • Promotion of ethical professional activity by
    organizing Workplace Ethics.
  • Corporate ethics standards become the integral
    component of organizations management.
  • Managing ethics standards in universities.

6
  • Responsibility for ethical practice is not only
    the concern of separate persons, but the
    corporate responsibility of academic institution.
    It creates the work environment that motivate its
    staff to behave ethically or vice versa

7
  • Academic ethics is a commitment, observed without
    fail, to its fundamental values. These values
    determine principles of behaviour that enable
    academic communities to incarnate the ideals into
    action. That is to construct academic integrity.

8
Distinction Between Values and Reality in
Individual and Organization ethics
Values ought to (what I should be)
What is the standard for being a professional
What organization) should be (university values)
INTEGRITY
What professional I am
What organization is (university action)
Reality is (what I am)
Individual ethics
Organization ethics
9
Ethics Infrastructureas a tool for
constructing academic integrity
  • Ethics codes
  • Ethics committees
  • Ethics officers, counsellors
  • Ethics training
  • Ethical auditing
  • Ethics hotlines
  • Roundtable meetings and discussion circles
  • Legal acts correlating with ethics codes
  • Applied (professional, business) ethics centres

10
The Fundamental Values of academic ethics
  • Integrity
  • Responsibility
  • Honesty
  • Compliance
  • Fairness
  • Trust
  • New Professionalism

11
Typical violations of academic ethics
  • Fabrication
  • Plagiarism
  • Forgery
  • Cheating
  • Unauthorized Assistance
  • Multiple submission
  • Imposed co-authorship
  • Mobbing (Bullying)
  • Conflict of interests
  • Corruption and Nepotism
  • Discrimination

12
One pattern of violations Mobbing
  • Stipulated by the absence of organizational
    ethics, lack of objective indicators , clear-cut
    rules, criteria of performance and the validity
    of principle of universalism or their ignorance.
  • The latter obviously indicate the gap between
    declared values and real academic life, which is
    the challenge to academic integrity
  • And organisation ethics on meso-level can solve
    most part of these problems it must be done as
    ethical decision making and essential
    transformation of organisation managerial
    structure.

13
The pattern Women discrimination in science.
European actualities EC- FP-6 Call Women in
science.
  • Elimination of the shortcoming
  • To deepen public understanding and increase
    social sensitivity to ethical aspects in women
    discrimination in science
  • To highlight the importance of universalism
    principle in diminishing gender discrimination
  • To conduct analysis of typical and unique cases
    of womens status and identify the ethical
    aspects to be specially accentuated in gender
    strategies in science, especially on the state
    level
  • To establish ethical measures for remodelling and
    reconstructing social attitudes and unfavourable
    conditions in particular academic structures
    which sustain discrimination in the field.

14
Students academic dishonesty and its attendant
circumstances
  • Advertisements and proposals in mass media
  • Internet WEB-site www.tingiu.lt (I am lazy)
  • the student essay (term paper, exam paper)
    Ethics and social responsibility from
    24/04/2004 downloaded 1390 times the essay
    Ethics code of X company from 04/04.2004
    downloaded 1415 times

15
The process of ethics infrastructure formation in
Lithuanian universities
  • ethics codes
  • ethics committees (commissions)
  • ethics courses for students (only)
  • Non-uniform process In Kaunas University of
    Technology Ethics code was formally introduced in
    1999. ltgt The Vilnius University code of conduct
    is to be introduced in 2004 (its draft is under
    the discussion)

16
Shortcomings of ethics codes
  • pretentiousness (declarativeness)
  • paternalistic attitude to students
  • prescriptive character (in the spirit of moral
    sermon)
  • transfer of the norm of traditional normative
    ethics to organisation life (unawareness of
    organisation ethics paradigm)
  • not regarded as a tool for self-regulation in
    organisation, but as one more instrument of
    administrative pressure.

17
Ethical paradigms
Traditional Ethics
Contemporary Ethics
Paradigm of professional, organizational ethics
Paradigm of individual ethics
18
  • The ethics in researches can be practically
    realised only if the more general issues of
    academic ethics are solved. That is why it is
    important to regenerate or to form high standard
    of university life in all its aspects as a
    response to the society expectation and in
    accordance with declared mission of a university.
  • Contemporary ethics possess the whole
    infrastructure, required techniques to assist in
    realization of this mission in practice.
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