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The evolution of Chinese: a case study of newspaper headlines ISFC 37, The University of British Columbia 21 July 2010 Chang Chenguang Sun Yat-sen University flsccg@mail.sysu.edu.cn

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Title: The evolution of Chinese: a case study of newspaper headlines ISFC 37, The University of British Columbia 21 July 2010 Chang Chenguang Sun Yat-sen University flsccg@mail.sysu.edu.cn


1
The evolution of Chinese a case study of
newspaper headlines ISFC 37, The University
of British Columbia21 July 2010Chang
ChenguangSun Yat-sen Universityflsccg_at_mail.sysu.
edu.cn
2
Introduction
  • As a semiotic system, a living language is
    constantly evolving.
  • The changes are most readily reflected in the
    lexis, but can also be seen in other linguistic
    forms in a language.
  • Halliday Not only expression evolves, but also
    content (meaning).

3
Introduction
  • This paper aims to trace the changes that have
    taken place in the Chinese language in the past
    fifty years, using as data newspaper headlines
    from Guangzhou Daily, a local newspaper in
    Guangzhou, China.
  • to analyse the changes that have taken place over
    the years, focusing on the stratum of
    lexicogrammar
  • to look beyond lexicogrammar, considering the
    changes in the stratal environment in language in
    context.
  • The evolution of the Chinese language as
    reflected in our data can be better understood
    and explained in the history of the changing
    cultural contexts of China in the past fifty
    years. 

4
Introduction
  • Halliday Matthiessen (1999 18) three major
    process of semohistory, by which meanings are
    continually created, transmitted, recreated,
    extended and changed.

5
  • semogenic processes (Halliday Matthiessen
    1999 18)
  • phylogenetic
  • (evolution of the system
    providing environment for
  • in the species)

  • ontogenetic

  • (development of the system
  • in
    the individual)

  • logogenetic
  • providing material for
    (instantiation of the system

  • in the text)

6
  • semogenic processes (Halliday Matthiessen
    1999 18)
  • phylogenetic
  • (evolution of the
  • system)
    providing environment for

  • ontogenetic

  • (development of the system
  • in
    the individual)

  • logogenetic
  • providing material for
    (instantiation of the system

  • in the text)

7
Data
  • Guangzhou Daily ????
  • Founded in 1952, broadsheet in orientation
  • Stopped in 1970, restarted as Guangzhou Bao (???)
    Guangzhou Newspaper on Feb. 26, 1972, no longer a
    daily paper

8
  • Guangzhou Daily
  • On August 1, 1972
  • Published daily again as Guangzhou Daily
  • Jan. 1 1987 from 4 to 8 pages
  • 1992 increased to 12 pages
  • 2000 200-page millennium special edition
  • 2010 100pages on weekdays, 30-60 pages on
    weekends and holidays

9
  • Guangzhou Daily
  • Circulation
  • 2006 1.6-1.8 million
  • 2 million (October 2009)
  • readers of different age groups, social and
    educational backgrounds
  • Topics
  • International and national news, local current
    events in Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta
  • Politics, society, economics, education, justice,
    finance, sports, fashion, entertainment,
    technology, advertisements, etc
  • Both highbrow and lowbrow

10
  • Guangzhou Daily
  • January 1-7, 1960, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2010
  • February 26 - March 10 1972
  • 1960 2010

11
  • Data
  • Year 1960 1972 1980 1990
    2000 2010 Total
  • --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------------
  • No. 192 116 182 346
    1289 1842 3967

12
Changes in lexis
  • The changes in a language are most obvious in the
    lexis.
  • Coinage
  • Loan words
  • Existing words or phrases taking on new meanings
  • Code-mixing

13
Changes in lexis
  • Coinage new characters in the new century
  • Halliday McDonald (2004) The (writing) system
    (of Chinese) is a charactery. The character is
    tied to a unit of wording, overwhelmingly a
    single morpheme.
  • Influence from Computer-mediated Communication
    (CMC)
  • ? mei "very silly or very stupid".
  • The character is made up of two ? (dai) stupid.
  • ?(yín), ?(jiao), ?(biao), ?(jiao), ?(jiong)
  • ? (beng)

14
Changes in lexis
  • ?? ?????
  • yajiang hen jiong hen ciji
  • cliff dropping very embarrassing very exciting
  • ???????
  • hejiahuan bian hejiajiong
  • whole family happy become whole family
    embarrassed
  • Newly coined characters more often in
    entertainment, sports and other sections for
    young people

15
Changes in lexis
  • Loan words
  • ? (ku) cool
  • ? (xiu) show
  • out (??) (additional syllable outa)
  • Code-mixing
  • More loan words in the new century, very few in
    60s and 70s.

16
  • ??! ?????
  • hao ku ziji zuo zhujue
  • very cool self act main role
  • ???? ?????
  • yingwen mianshi gan xiu cai hui ying
  • English interview dare show only will win
  • ???, ????????!
  • shijiebei jiushi yichang haowan de xiu
  • World cup just be one MEAS good fun SUB show

17
Calquing
  • Halliday McDonald (2004)
  • It is impossible for Chinese to borrow at the
    phonemic level the smallest unit to which a
    foreign word can be assimilated is the syllable.
  • Preferred strategy calquing
  • ???? (air marshal)
  • ?????????
  • yin tuiguang kongzhong yuanshuai jihua
  • India promote air marshal project

18
Changes in lexis
  • Calquing
  • English morpheme -gate (? men)
  • ??? (vaccine-gate)
  • ??? (plagiarism-gate)
  • ??? (recall-gate)
  • ??? (diary-gate)
  • ???(marriage-seeking-gate)
  • ??? (PhD degree-gate)

19
  • Existing words or phrases taking on new meanings
  • ? (lei) thunder ? shock (v.)
  • ?? lei ci (shocking words)
  • ???? leiren yulu (shocking quotations)
  • ????????????
  • xiguan meishi zheng chu yi chuan leiren yiming
  • xiguan delicatessens solicit out one MEAS
    shocking translations

20
Changes in lexis
  • Existing words or phrases taking on new meanings
  • ?? (wocao)
  • from Chinese chess, now meaning stay on the job
  • ?? (tiaocao) job hop
  • ?? (beiju)
  • Homophone of ?? (tragedy)
  • ?? (xiju)
  • Homophone of ?? (comedy)
  • ? (yun)
  • faint (I cant stand it)

21
  • Existing words or phrases taking on new meanings
  • ?? (shanzhai) mountain fortress imitation,
    copy
  • ???? shanzhai shouji (imitation mobile phone)
  • ???? shanzhai chunwan (imitation spring festival
    gala)
  • ? (zu) race, class, group
  • ??? zhuixing zu chase star group (star chasers)
  • ??? yueguang zu Moonlight / month finish group
    (people who spend all their monthly salaries)
  • ??? kenlao zu bite old group (Parent-dependent
    adults)

22
Changes in lexis
  • Play on words
  • 60s and 70s more rigid
  • 90s onwards more creative punning and wordplay
  • ??? bai gu jing
  • Origin white bone demon
  • (??? Journey to the West)
  • ?? ?? ??
  • bailing gugan jingying
  • white-collar back-bone elite

23
Changes in lexis
  • Play on words homonyms
  • Advertisement from a bank (ICBC)
  • ???? ? ?
  • dengdai buru qidai
  • wait not as period loan
  • qidai
  • ?? expect
  • ? ? period loan
  • (a loan that allows one to pay
  • for something in installments)

24
Changes in lexis
  • Play on words homonyms
  • ????????
  • ????????
  • erzi meiri zhenqing hualiao
  • zhu mu kangji sanzhong aizheng
  • (son each day true feelings talk treatment, help
    mother fight three kind cancer)
  • hualiao homophones
  • ?? chemical treatment (chemotherapy)
  • ?? talk treatment

25
  • Play on words homonyms
  • ????????? suan ni hen dou ni wan diaojia le
    (garlic and mung beans drop price ASPpf)
  • suan ni hen ??? (???! Alright you win! )
  • dou ni wan ??? (??? just kidding you)
  • ???? bu cloth / NEG not
  • buke siyi ???? cloth artworks imaginative
  • ????incredible

26
  • Play on words
  • zhibenjia ??? (zibenjia ??? capitalist)
  • you ni haokan ???? (youll get your punishment)
  • ????, ???? guanggao huilai you ni haokan
  • Advertisement back come EXIST you good see
  • Forecast to sports programs on TV

27
  • ????(shengnan shengnv)
  • leftover men and women
  • ????(zhainan zhainv)
  • house men and house women
  • ?? (shanhun)
  • quick marry
  • ??(nenmo)
  • young model
  • ???(fuerdai)
  • rich second generation
  • ??(luokao)
  • naked exam

28
  • Punning and play on words
  • Reflecting new social phenomena
  • Interpersonal membershipping device
  • Building bonds and affiliation

29
Top Ten Most Popular Chinese Words (2010)
  • ?(lei) to shock
  • ??(shanzhai) imitation, pirate copy
  • ???(kenlaozu) Parent-dependent adults
  • ??(caogen) grass roots
  • ??(duanbei) Brokeback (gay)
  • ???(yueguangzu) Moonlight group
  • ?(zhai) to stay at home all day
  • ??(fangnu) mortgage slave
  • ??(kanu), ??(cainu)
  • ?(shan) to act quickly
  • ?? (shanhun), ??(shanli)
  • ?(xiu) show

30
Popular Daily Chinese Expressions 2010
  • 1. wo de shen a (????!) My god!
  • 2 zuodong (??) to act as a host
  • 3. didiao (??) to keep a low profile
  • 4. chao youyu (???) to fire somebody
  • 5. taigang (??) to argue for the sake of arguing
  • 6. paimapi (???) to kiss up to someone
  • 7. wuzhi (??) materialistic
  • 8. kaopu (??) (to be) reliable can be trusted
  • 9. chicu (??) to be jealous
  • 10. houdao (??) honest, kind and decent

31
Popular expressions
  • da jiangyou (???) get soy sauce
  • When a man in Guangzhou was asked to give his
    opinion of the sex scandal involving Hong Kong
    pop star Edison Chen, the man answered, "It is
    none of my business. I am on my way to get some
    soy sauce." People have since begun using the
    expression to mean "it's none of my business, I
    have nothing to do with this.

32
Code-mixing
  • ??fans???????
  • wangwo fans jian ouxiang you ku you jiao
  • (devoted fans see idol both cry and scream)
  • ??HIGH????
  • qiumi HIGH ying kuanghuanyue
  • (football fans HIGH welcome crazy happy month)
  • ????Designed in China
  • guangrong mengxiang Designed in China
  • (glory dream Designed in China )
  • Team First ????
  • Team First jiti weixian
  • (Team First)
  • OUT???
  • OUT de taikuai
  • (OUT too quickly)
  • ???out??
  • fei zhuliu out ma
  • (non-mainstream out MOD int)
  • ????????Top 10

33
  • ???? GDP ??? 9.5
  • qunian guangdong GDP yuji zeng 9.5
  • (last year Guangdong GDP expect increase 9.5)
  • ??????A-Z
  • nanfei shijiebei de A-Z
  • (South Africa World cup SUB A-Z)
  • Feel ??????
  • Feel yixia junlv weidao
  • (Feel one MEAS army taste)
  • ????????UFO
  • diaochazu jinzhu hangzhou zhui UFO
  • (investigation group enter Hangzhou chase UFO)
  • hope ???, ??????????
  • hope shijiebei dingqi feizhou xiwang de yipian
    tian
  • (hope World Cup support Africa hope SUB one MEAS
    sky)
  • ??spa???
  • reshi spa rong bingji
  • (hot rock spa thaw ice skin)
  • Backstreet Boys ?????Britney Spears

34
Code-mixing
  • Newspaper becoming more informal
  • More tolerance?
  • Recent attempt to ban English initialisms on CCTV
  • NBA ????????
  • CBA ??????????
  • GDP, WTO, CPI
  • CCTV?

35
The use of Cantonese dialect
  • ?????????
  • zhongguo jiao shi shijie yong zhibi
  • (China teach see world use paper money)
  • ?????????
  • qingting mengmeng dongdong rang xianggang
  • (Qing dynasty muddle-headed lease Hong Kong)
  • ?????????
  • wuyang gucheng guta guzai duo
  • (Five goat old city old pagoda old story many)
  • ?????? ??!
  • sailou liushou oukei yayin
  • (small children stay home dangerous!)

36
The use of Cantonese dialect
  • ????????????
  • mingqing liang dai guangzhou xushi duo guo mipu
  • (Ming Qing two periods Guangzhou markets more
    than rice stores)
  • ?????????
  • ying qiannian wan de gulingjingguai
  • (Welcome millennium play quaint and strange)
  • ???????????
  • laogong hua bangezhong hui aomen shangban
  • (Husband spend half MEAS clock back Macau work)
  • ????????????
  • weishi guangzhouren lubian yehua ye gan cai
  • (Gourmet Guangzhou people road side flower also
    dare pick)

37
New passive construction
  • Passive construction in Chinese
  • ??(??)?
  • bei /jiao /rang (agent) transitive verb
  • ? bei (passive marker, be made to, forced to)
  • bei noun, an adjective as well as a verb
  • ??? bei zisha (bei suicide)
  • ??? bei ziyuan (bei volunteer)
  • ??? bei juankuai (bei donate)
  • ??? bei jiuye (bei find employment)
  • ??? bei xiaokang (bei moderately well-off)
  • ??? bei quanqin (bei full attendance)
  • ??? bei xuexi (bei learn)
  • ??? bei gaotie (bei high-speed train)
  • ??? bei daoshi (bei tutor)

38
Aspect marker?
  • Aspect
  • pf (yijing) v le
  • impf zheng (zai) v zhe
  • ????-ing (chlidren getting glasses)
  • ?ING (read ING
  • ??ing (update ing)
  • ????ing (mortgage slave ing)
  • ???ING (big special rate ING)
  • ??ing (recupperate ing)
  • ??ING (in fashion ING)
  • ??ing (shake head ing)
  • ??ING (group purchase ING)
  • ??ing (upgrade ing)
  • ??ing (look work ing)
  • ??ing (moved ing)
  • ??ing (heart hurt ing)
  • ??ING (excited ing)
  • ??ing (happy ing)

39
  • Xin Kuai Bao (???)
  • ????ING
  • heima bianxing ING
  • (black Mazda changing shape)
  • ????TBS??????????????,?????ing
  • liang ren tongju ing
  • (the two persons living together)
  • Yangcheng Wanbao (????)
  • ???????? ing
  • yi chang xin de jinrong zhanzheng ing
  • (a MEAS new SUB financial war ing)

40
  • Nanfang Dushi Bao (?????) Nanfang Metropolitan
    News
  • ??ing,??????????
  • aixin-ing, foshan yigong rang ta chongfan yiyuan
  • (love heart-ing foshan volunteer let her return
    hospital)
  • ????? ??ing
  • fei biaozhun daan tuiyi-ing
  • (non-standard answer retiring)
  • -ing can be added at the end of a noun, an
    adjective as well as a verb
  • ???????? ing
  • ??-ing

41
Metafunctional Analysis
  • Experiential expansion in the sets of
    experiential meanings
  • 60s and 70s (public sphere)
  • party and government policies
  • Local news (economic production, political
    movements, local events)
  • Arts and culture
  • International news
  • 80s onwards (public sphere and private
    sphere)
  • entertainment news, gossip, travel, fashion,
    information technology, crime, youth culture, ...

42
Metafunctional Analysis
  • Interpersonal MOOD
  • Halliday McDonald (2004) All major clauses
    select for MOOD, the primary selection being
    either indicative or imperative.
  • Indicative Declarative
  • ???????????? (1960)
  • qunian sulian guomin jingji quanmian gaozhang
  • (last year Soviet Union national economy
    all-round up surge)

43
  • Indicative Interrogative (Halliday McDonald
    2004)
  • Indicative Interrogative Elemental
  • ??????????????????? (1990)
  • zenyang fangzhi anchang hunru binguan jiudian
    jinxing fanzui huodong?
  • (how prevent prostitute sneak into hotels carry
    out criminal activities)
  • Indicative Interrogative Polar
  • ?????????????? (1980)
  • jiedao qiye guimo shi bu shi yue da yue hao
  • (Street enterprise scale be NEG be bigger better)
  • Declarative question
  • ????????? (2010)
  • luoti anjian shidai lai le
  • (Naked security check era come ASP pf)

44
  • Imperative Jussives (you!), Optatives
    (lets, let me) (Halliday McDonald 2004)
  • Optatives
  • ???????O?, ??????????????????????! (1960)
  • rang women zai 1960nian zai shehuizhuyi jianshe
    zongluxian de guanghui zhaoyao xia qude gengda
    shengli
  • (Let us in 1960 year at socialist construction
    general line SUB radiance under achieve more
    great victory! )
  • ????????????! (1960)
  • wei gaibian guangzhou mianmao er jixu fendou
  • ((lets) for change Guangzhou features continue
    strive)
  • ???!
  • hong daodi
  • ((lets) red reach end)

45
  • Optative (first person imperatives lets)
  • ????, ????! (1960)
  • ma bu ting ti jixu yaojin
  • (horse NEG stop hoofs continue leap forward)
  • ??????????? (1960)
  • zhengqu heping douzheng de dahao xingshi
  • (strive peaceful struggle SUB big good situation)
  • ?????, ????? (1960)
  • zhuahao diyiji baozheng kaimenhong
  • (seize well first quarter guarantee open-door
    red)
  • ?????????? (1960)
  • liji kaizhan muzhu manhuai yundong
  • (immediately launch female pig full pregnancy
    movement)

46
  • Jan 1, 1960
  • Declarative 16 (55.2)
  • Interrogative 0 (0)
  • Imperative 7 (24.1)
  • Minor clauses and groups/phrases 6 (20.6)
  • Total 29
  • Jan 1, 2010
  • Declarative 166 (78.6)
  • Interrogative 12 (5.6)
  • Imperative 4 (1.8)
  • Minor clauses and groups/phrases 29 (14)
  • Total 211

47
  • High percentage of imperatives in slogans and
    quotations thru the 60s and 70s
  • The line between Jussives and Optatives not
    always easy to draw
  • editorial (Renmin Ribao) with authority
  • ((lets) in struggle middle learn 16 guidelines,
    in struggle middle use 16 guidelines )
  • (You!)
  • Quotations from Chairman Mao
  • you! or Lets
  • ???, ???? (1966)
  • yong wen dou bu yong wu dou
  • (use articles struggle NEG use arms struggle)
  • ????? (1972)
  • gongye xue daqing
  • (industry learn Daqing)

48
Increased percentage of interrogatives
  • More interactiveness
  • Haizi fenshu shang buqu zenmaban (???????????)
  • Zenyang baituo fumu de bingtai jiuchan
    (????????????)
  • Zenyang caineng rang haizi ai shang yingyu
    (????????????)
  • Ruhe kandai jiaoshi you quanli piping xuesheng
    (??????????????)
  • Ruhe kandai gongche caigou xingui (???????????)
  • Zhuan jiyin weihe bu gan liang shenfen
    (?????????????)
  • Yingxin zhi ye he bu zengkai gongjiao
    (???????????)
  • Xinnian dao ai gu neng fei duo gao (???, A??????)
  • Ai zai hefang? Lu zai hefang (????? ????? )
  • Chun yun tuibao (??? ??!)
  • You ren yao diao naodai hui shi shui (??????,
    ????)
  • Jinchengwu qu le ge riben laopo (???????????)
  • Qinshu bu chaiqian ganbu bei kai (?????, ?????)
  • Tai suibian le ba (??????)
  • Guochan texiao pian yongyuan bu keneng zhuishang
    haolaiwu (?????, ???????????)

49
Increased interactiveness
  • Increased interactiveness also achieved by use of
    pronoun, projection, evaluative exclamation, etc
  • ?????,??????
  • fei jiu yi ge zi ni shi fou jieyi
  • fat is just a word. Do you mind?
  • Evaluative exclamation
  • ??????? ?!
  • Cheng gaotie you xiang e shuang
  • ?!????????????
  • Niu shunde san gaozhongsheng kao shang niujin
    daxue
  • ??!???????
  • Xiaoxin jinkou che dijia diao ke
  • Careful! Imported car low price fish customer
  • ?!????,????????
  • guai xuefei you zhang bao du renshu bu jian fan
    zeng
  • Strange! Tuition rose again, but instead of
    decreasing, the number of applicants increased.

50
  • Projection frequently used in news headlines to
    make them livelier, to present different voices,
    to give a semblance of factuality and
    authenticity.
  • ?????????????!
  • wangyou mailou ru yin chao xie nin da shihua
  • ???????????,??!
  • Feng xiaogang huiying zhiyi guanggao zhiru ting
    hao!
  • ?????????????????
  • Chuanqi yuanchang Li Jiang he Wang Fei bi chang
    gong wo yiyang zixin
  • ??????,????
  • Jianzhiren wo renshu dan bu cizhi (Naoto Kan I
    admit defeat, but I wont resign)
  • ?????????? xuesheng laoshi lai shushe tou
    dongxi
  • ?????????? xuexiao zhishi moshou weixian

  • dianqi
  • Change in formality becoming more informal and
    more conversational

51
  • Textual HyperTheme / MacroTheme

52
Textual HyperTheme / MacroTheme
  • Introduction and Index page
  • Bigger circulation, more diverse readers (2
    million in October 2009)
  • the newspaper must be accessible and of interest
    to readers with diverse backgrounds
  • Clear signals, more reader-friendly (increased
    number of pages, readers more selective)
  • Introduction and Index page itself is a
    multimodal sign

53
  • Ideationally, different font size and font
    colour, sometimes different backgrounds,
    contribute to showing the boundaries between the
    visual units
  • Interpersonally the visual organization mediates
    the relationship between the authors, readers,
    and content
  • the familiar masthead in red font
  • reader-friendly
  • Textually the way in which it organizes the
    elements into a coherent composition
  • clear Centre-Margin structure
  • different salience for different elements on the
    page
  • (according to their size, background colour, font
    size, font colour, and use of text or image)

54
Socio-cultural context and language change
  • Context and language are interdependent.
  • Thompson (1996 10) language and context are
    inextricably linked, any stretch of language
    shouldcome trailing clouds of context with it
  • People use language in specific situations, and
    the situations can have such a constraining
    effect on language that society often develops
    clear conventions of use (Bloor Bloor
    1995/2001 3).

55
  • Malinowski
  • Apart from the immediate context of situation,
    there is also the context of culture.
  • in any description, it was necessary to provide
    information not only about what was happening at
    the time but also about the total cultural
    background, because involved in any kind of
    linguistic interaction were not only the
    immediate sights and sounds surrounding the event
    but also the whole cultural history behind the
    participants, and behind the kind of practices
    that they were engaging in, determining their
    significance for the culture.
  • In terms of the evolution of language, the
    changes can be be better understood and explained
    in the background of the changing cultural
    contexts of China in the past fifty years. 

56
Socio-cultural context and language change
  • One of the main changes is that the Chinese
    language of the newspaper is more hybrid and
    heterogeneous in that English and Cantonese
    (loans, calquing, code-mixing, etc) are included
    more often in the Mandarin news headlines in the
    new century.
  • This linguistic hybridization is related to the
    issue of language, culture, and identity in the
    society.

57
Socio-cultural context and language change
  • The increasing linguistic hybridization is linked
    with the change in political atmosphere
  • 60s and 70s closed society, tight political
    control, conformity, etc (correct political line,
    Renmin Ribao editorial)
  • 80s onwards opening to the outside world, freer
    society, rapid economic development, influence of
    the computer and Internet, etc.
  • Shih and Soong (1998) found that since the
    lifting of martial law in 1988 in Taiwan, the use
    of code-mixing has increased in newspapers
  • Material culture, globalization, marketization,
    and advances and spread of technology in the
    current society have all contributed greatly to
    the hybridization and heterogeneity

58
Changing repertoires
  • Individuation specializes meaning potential
    according to people (Martin 2009)
  • Repertoire the set of meanings accessed by an
    individual from the reservoir of meanings of the
    culture
  • The newspaper (as a collective social actor)
    seems to have different repertoires in different
    periods
  • 60s and 70s following correct political line,
    being red ?, (all the good news about socialist
    construction, great achievement of the Cultural
    Revolution, condemning the West)
  • 80s onwards emphasizing open-mindedness,
    personal development and success, crave for
    wealth (economic achievements, sports, social
    problems, personal lives of the rich and famous)

59
Changing repertoires
  • The repertoire of the newspaper is shaped by the
    dominant ideology of the different periods and is
    shaping the discourse of the readers
  • Change in formality becoming more informal and
    more conversationala rebellion against the
    rigidness and tight control of the 60s and 70s
    reflection of the emphasis of individual
    difference?
  • Identity-construction The changes can also be
    related to the issue of group membership.

60
Changing repertoires
  • Both highbrow and lowbrow different sections
    targeting different readership
  • e.g. Word-play, punning, code-mixing (incl. use
    of dialects)more often found in entertainment
    news, fashion, information technology, youth
    culture, etc., targeting young readers
  • Affiliation newspaper attempting to develop and
    maintain social bonds with the different readers

61
Changing repertoires
  • Knight (2009) affiliation cline
  • a system of bonds shared among a culture
  • systems of bonds shared by communities of varying
    members
  • bonds shared by two individuals
  • Negative meaning associated with the bei-
    passive structure fed up with distortion of
    facts, unfair treatment, corruption and
    manipulation by the authorities, etc
  • becoming part of the reservoir of meanings in the
    culture?

62
Summary
  • In this paper we have traced the changes that
    have taken place in the Chinese language in the
    past fifty years, using newspaper headlines from
    Guangzhou Daily as data. I have analysed the
    changes in the language over the years, focusing
    on the lexicogrammar. I have also tried to look
    beyond lexicogrammar, considering the changes in
    the stratal environment in language in context,
    attempting to explain the changes by putting them
    in the changing cultural contexts of China in the
    past fifty years and by deploying
    recently-developed notions of Individuation and
    Affiliation in SFL.

63
References
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