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THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

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Title: THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


1
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
2
Introduction
  • Would start in Britain, but would become world
    wide. When it got to America it would have been
    confined to the north eastern area for a while,
    but would eventually spread across the nation.
    Specific dates were to when the Industrial
    revolution began are up for discrepancy. (1780s
    to the 1840)
  • -Massive change from manual labor to
    manufacturing.
  • -Hand made to mass production. More people could
    afford more items.
  • -New lifestyle for Americans, no longer
    craftsmen, but employees.

3
Major Inventions during the Industrial Revolution
  • During the Industrial Revolution some
    inventions were created that revolutionized and
    helped in forming modern America.

4
Cotton Gin
  • Invented in April 1793 by Eli Whitney.
  • Eli Whitney was born in Westboro, Massachusetts
    on 12/8/1765 and died 01/08/1825.
  • His machine could generate up to fifty pounds of
    cleaned cotton daily, making cotton production
    profitable for the southern states.

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6
Light Bulb
  • Invented in 1880 by Thomas Edison
  • Thomas Edison was born on February 11, 1847 in
    Milan, Ohio.
  • It took him many years to perfect it so it could
    last a long time.
  • He died on October 18, 1931

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8
Telegraph
  • Invented in 1849 By Samuel F.B. Morse.
  • Samuel was born on April 27, 1791 in Charlestown,
    Massachusetts.
  • They built lines from Washington reaching to
    Boston.
  • He died on April 2, 1872.

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10
Sugar Evaporation System
  • Invented in 1843 by Norbert Rillieux
  • Norbert was born on March 17, 1806 in New
    Orleans, Louisiana.
  • Converted Cane Juice into Sugar due to
    evaporation.
  • This invention was an important development in
    the growth of the sugar industry.

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12
Steam Engine
  • Invented in 1698 by Thomas Savery.
  • Later improved in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen.
  • Later improved in 1769 by James Watt.
  • Steam engines were used in boats, trains, as
    agricultural tools such as water pumps when
    mining or for watering large amount of crops.

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14
Sewing Machine
  • Invented in 1843 by Isaac M. Singer
  • Isaac was born in1811 in Pittstown, New York to
    German Jewish Immigrants.
  • He earned millions with this invention.
  • He died in 1875

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16
Conclusion
  • These inventions have influenced our community by
    giving us a form of faster production and
    transportation making America a Global exporter.
    In the present we drive cars, ride in airplanes,
    use turbines to produce electricity, and even
    transport materials in a ship. If it were not for
    the steam engine and steam boat being created
    maybe we would not have these necessities and
    forms of transportation in the present day.

17
Transportation
  • Transportation during the Industrial Revolution
    and how it progressed.

18
Robert Fulton
  • In 1807 regular steamboat service on the Hudson
    River.
  • The steamboat was called the Cleremont.
  • James Watts.
  • John Fitch and William Symington.
  • Steamboat New Orleans.

19
Steamboat New Orleans
Robert Fulton
20
Erie Canal
  • Governor Dewitt Clinton of New York.
  • 1817 Construction of Erie Canal.
  • 1825 Canal was opened.
  • Erie Canal From the Atlantic Ocean to the Great
    Lakes.

21
Erie Canal Map
22
Railroads
  • Replaced highways and canals.
  • Civil War
  • 1869- Transcontinental Railroad
  • Connection of two railway lines the Union Pacific
    and Central Pacific.
  • Collins P. Huntington, Charles Cocker, Leland
    Stanford and Mark Hopkins.
  • 16,000 and 48,000 per mile of track in land
    grants and subsides.
  • Chinese Americans.

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24
Urban Development during the Industrial Revolution
25
Situation of cities and countryside prior and
during the Industrial Revolution.
  • More workers are needed in the cities to operate
    the new machines.
  • The small farmer communities were overpopulated.
  • People in the countryside were competing for few
    jobs.
  • Insuficient trade routes made long distance
    commerce difficult and unsafe
  • Laws are passed that prevent small farmers from
    operating.
  • Events such as the gold rush had created large
    cities that were the first to adopt the new
    technology.
  • Agriculture is not as profitable as before.

26
Situation of cities and countryside prior and
during the Industrial Revolution
  • The abolition of slavery forced plantation owners
    to pay for labor.
  • Rich plantation owners saw more profit in the
    developing industry than in agriculture.
  • Europeans countries had enriched by adopting new
    system
  • The U.S. economy chose to adopt new system to aid
    its ailing economy.
  • People started to view cities as a place to start
    over and improve their situation.
  • New ideas about city designing. Utopia.

27
Effects of the industrial revolution on the urban
development
  • Great numbers of people started to move from the
    U.S. countryside toward the cities.
  • The cities not adequated for such great numbers
    of people were unable to provide basic human
    needs such as running water, proper sewage and
    effective trash disposal system.
  • New ideas on city design started to appear
  • Architects starting applying some of this new
    ideas in the currently exicting cities.
  • Some bold architects toyed with the idea of
    creating cities from scratch using this new ideas

28
House of a factory woker during the Industrial
Revolution. Poor living conditions. Oftentimes
many member as shown in picture live in a single
communal room. This setting made diseases such as
cholera common.
29
Construction of new cities
  • City planners decided to create new cities.
  • They thought that the most efficient way to do
    this would be to build a factory in the
    countryside and develop from there a city of
    workers.
  • The financing of this ventures was the
    responsibility of the owner of the factory.
  • The more pragamatic owners only focused on making
    profits. Provided insufficient funding and soon
    the same problems as in the preestablished cities
    started to arise.
  • Urban development happened in a massive manner,
    but few if any of it resulted in good living
    conditions for the people and often only the
    wealthy sections of the city benefited from the
    improved city development systems

30
Problems with new developments
  • Lack of funds.
  • Overpopulation
  • No or insufficient sewage system
  • Trash piled up in the streets.
  • Massive epidemics though to bad hygiene in the
    city.
  • Roads and streets in poor condition.
  • Only the rich could afford to live in the nice
    parts of the city.
  • The new developments were not Utopian Cities as
    the city planners had named them
  • Often times the poor sections of the city lacked
    such basic human neccesities as running water

31
Small city in California during the
1884 Rockindale,California. The lack
infrastructure is quite apparent.
32
Conclusion
  • During the Industrial Revolution there was ample
    urban development, but it was done in a careless
    manner. This development came mostly because the
    cities had to grow to allocate the immigrating
    populations of the countryside that came to the
    city looking for a better way of life. The
    Utopian Cities that are discussed are never to
    exist. It is years before a more calculated and
    plan development starts.

33
Child Labor in the Industrial Revolution
  • During the Industrial Revolution, families
    needed each member to contribute financially.
    This even included children due to the high
    demand for labor. However, children were
    mistreated, overworked, and accrued minimal wages
    for their work.

34
Facts
  • Children as young as six years old worked for
    little or no pay
  • Children were subject to working long hours in
    factories with terrible working conditions
  • American children worked in large numbers in
    mines, glass factories, textiles, agriculture,
    canneries, home industries, and as newsboys,
    messengers, bootblacks, and peddlers.

35
  • Children who lived in rural areas not only worked
    on their family farm, but were also hired by
    other farmers
  • In 1890, 1.5 million children under the age of 15
    were working in industrial jobs and in 1910, it
    reached to 2 million children
  • Children developed serious health problems such
    as being underweight, curvature of the spine, and
    tuberculosis

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37
  • In 1836, the first state child labor law was
    created by Massachusetts, which required children
    under the age of 15 that worked in factories to
    attend school at least 3 months out of the year
  • 1938 Federal regulation of child labor was
    achieved in Fair Labor Standards Act
  • For the first time, minimum ages of employment
    and hours of work for children are regulated by
    federal law

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39
  • In 1904, the National Child Labor Committee was
    formed by socially concerned citizens and
    politicians
  • The National Child Labor Committee was chartered
    by Congress by 1907

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41
Historical Significance
  • The child labor of the Industrial Revolution is
    historically significant to us because if people
    of America did not recognize and reform against
    child labor, we would not be able to go to
    school. We would probably have to work to
    contribute financially and economically for our
    family. In addition, children would have to work
    in conditions that would be unsuitable and be
    paid little for their hard work.

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43
Monopolies
  • With only one provider of a good or service
    consumers would have to pay top dollar for the
    item they needed and most of the time it was a
    poor quality item.

44
The Definition
  • a persistent market situation where there is only
    one provider of a product or service.
  • Monopolies are characterized by a lack of
    economic competition for the good or service that
    they provide and a lack of viable substitute
    goods.

45
De Beers
  • Founded in South Africa in 1888 and today
    comprises rough diamond exploration, mining and
    trading companies. De Beers family of companies
    are responsible for around 40 of world diamond
    production by value.
  • De Beers is active in every category of diamond
    mining open-pit, underground, large-scale
    alluvial, coastal and deep sea.

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47
Carnegie Steel Company
  • Andrew Carnegie constructed a profitable steel
    mill at Braddock, Pennsylvania in the mid-1870s.
  • The profits made by the Edgar Thomson Steel Works
    were great enough to let Mr. Carnegie and his
    associates to purchase other nearby steel mills.
  • In 1892, he formed the Carnegie Steel Company to
    manage their business

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49
Standard oil
  • In the early years, John Rockefeller dominated
    the combine, for he was the single most important
    figure in shaping the new oil industry.
  • In response to state laws attempting to limit the
    scale of companies, Rockefeller and his partners
    developed innovative ways of organizing so that
    they could effectively manage their rapidly
    expanding enterprise.
  • In 1882, they combined their companies, spread
    across dozens of states, under a single group of
    trustees.
  • State and federal laws sought to counter this
    development with "antitrust" laws.

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