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High Consequence Plant Pathogens for Montana

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Title: High Consequence Plant Pathogens for Montana


1
High Consequence Plant Pathogens for Montana
  • Nina Zidack
  • Plant Disease Diagnostics
  • Montana State University

2
High Consequence Pest List for the Great Plains
  • Corn cyst nematode
  • Philippine downy mildew
  • Late Wilt
  • Curvularia leaf spot
  •  
  • Soybean rust
  • Soybean cyst nematode
  • Soybean scab
  • Red leaf blotch
  • Soybean aphid
  • Soybean Dwarf Virus
  •  
  • Ergot
  •  
  • Plum pox
  •  
  • Sudden oak death
  • White Pine blister rust
  • Pine Wilt Nematode

Karnal bunt
Blast
Dwarf bunt
Seed gall nematode
Head Scab
Cereal Cyst Nematode (Riesselman)
Flag smut (Riesselman added)
 
Potato wart
Late Blight
Golden nematode
Columbia root knot nematode
Potato rot nematode
Potato mop top
Potato virus Y
Phytoplasma Diseases
Potato Wilt
 
3
Potato Cyst Nematode
Pale cyst nematode Globodera pallida
Golden Cyst Nematode Globodera rostochiensis
4
Pale Cyst Nematode
  • Present on the island of New Foundland, Canada
  • Found in Idaho in April, 2006
  • 1/9000 samples since 2003
  • Idaho farm quarantined
  • Japan Cut off all potato imports from US
  • Canada, Korea and Mexico
  • Cut off all potato imports from Idaho

5
Pale Cyst Nematode
  • Yield losses up to 80
  • Affects tomatoes, eggplants, and solanaceous
    weeds
  • Poor growth, yellowing, wilting, death of foliage

6
Potato Wart
7
Spread of Potato Wart
  • Infected seed potatoes
  • Contaminated soil attached to tools and machinery
  • Soil attached to plants and potatoes grown in
    infested fields
  • Manure from animals fed on infected potatoes
  • Spores resist digestion by animals.

8
Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera avenae
9
Cereal Cyst Nematode
  • Columbia River Basin
  • Causes up to 50 losses

10
First Detectors
  • First Detector
  • Anyone who is likely to encounter an act or
    suspected act of crop bioterrorism
  • Producer, Agric. Consultants, County Agents,
    State Dept. Agric.
  • What can we do for First Detectors?
  • Training and certification
  • Surveillance
  • Registry

11
How does a sample progress through the system?
  • First detector encounters unusual
    symptoms/activity
  • Sample submitted to networked clinic at
    land-grant institution
  • Clinic diagnoses problem using standardized
    methods
  • If positive for one of select agents, response
    system activated
  • Proper channels of communication maintained

12
Search and Survey for Exotic Pests
  • Search Mode
  • - Normal awareness
  • Survey Mode
  • - High risk pest reported
  • - Local detection
  • - Distribution and spread
  • Alerts posted on the NPDN, and through Regional
    PDNs.

13
Spatial Distribution and Scouting
o o o
Factors Time Pest Species Cost Ability
o
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o
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o
o
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o
o
o
o
o
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o
o
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o o
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Uniform
Random
Contagious
14
Exotic Pests Where will they come from?
  • Examples
  • Mid West - Ralstonia solanacearum came in on
    infected geranium cuttings from Nigeria and
    Guatemala.
  • Michigan Emerald Ash Borer
  • Mid West Soybean Aphid
  • Illinois, New York Asian Longhorn Beetle
  • Florida, California-Pink Hibiscus Mealybug
  • Florida Soybean Rust

15
Monitoring for Exotics
  • Be familiar with
  • Common pests
  • Seasonal pest patterns
  • Typical weather patterns

16
Monitoring for Exotics
  • Be familiar with
  • Common pests
  • Seasonal pest patterns
  • Typical weather patterns

17
Karnal Bunt
  • Quarantine Issues
  • 71 of Montana grain exported to World Market
  • 700 Million Total Crop

18
Potential Sabotage Point
19
Information Flow
Regional NPDN Diagnostic Laboratory
USDA NAPIS APHIS
Land Grant University Plant Diagnostic Laboratory
State Department of Agriculture
Containment and Eradication
Alerts
County Extension Farm Advisors
First Detectors What is it?
20
Wheat Lesion Nematode Pratylenchus neglectus
and thornei
  • Dr. Alan Dyer and Wendy Lewis
  • Recrop production trend increasing severity
  • Observations in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Utah,
    Colorado

21
Nematology 101
  • Root lesion nematodes- Pratylenchus spp.
  • Wide host range
  • Extremely persistent
  • Migratory endoparasites
  • Symptoms in cereals
  • cortical necrosis of roots
  • stunting
  • chlorosis of lower leaves
  • increased susceptibility to secondary infection

22
Root-lesion Nematodes Pratylenchus
neglectus P. thornei
23
Spring Wheat in Soil Infested by P.
thornei at Pendleton
Machete aldicarb 27.8 bu/acre
Machete control 14.3 bu/acre
24
  • Control
  • No chemical control
  • No biological control
  • Rotations are limited due to wide host range
  • Species specific resistances are available
  • Increasing populations
  • No-till cropping
  • Increase in soil-moisture
  • Increase in recrop acerage
  • Optimum nematode environment

25
  • Montana Nematode Survey
  • Assess the prevalence and impacts of RLN on
    Montanas production system
  • Determine the possible resistances of Montanas
    popular and historical wheat varieties to
    Pratylenchus spp.

26
  • Extracting Nematodes

Nematodes/ kg soil
27
get counts
processing of samples
180 statewide samples
  • Compare counts to damage thresholds.
  • Are nematodes important?
  • Identify problem areas for future study and
    determine predominate species.

28
Preliminary Results
  • Analyzed 20 samples so far (Liberty and Choteau)
  • 6 samples above damage threshhold (Australian
    data)
  • P. neglectus 2500/kg soil
  • P. thornei 2000/kg soil

29
  • Resistance Screening

making inoculum
open pot culturing
  • Determine if resistances are available in
    current wheat varieties.
  • Determine whether nematode resistances were
    present in historic wheat lines.

30
Sample Submission Review
  • Accurate Diagnosis depends on good sample

31
Samples must contain the right material an
entire plant or several plants if practical.
Diseases may show up on any part of the plant.
Foliage diseases
Keep most roots and soil intact if possible
Check for injuries, disease on the main stem/trunk
32
Dead Plants Tell no Tales
  • Avoid dead plants
  • Choose plants which show a range of symptoms
    moderate to severe

33
Packaging Shipping
Good Intentions
34
Actual Results
35
Packaging and Shipping blunders
Soil on foliage during shipping creates
diseases that were not there when the sample
was collected.
36
Packaging and Shipping blunders
Sample Soup
Dont add water or wrap in wet paper towels
37
Good Packaging
  • Plastic bag to keep soil on roots
  • Dry paper towels to protect leaves from contact
    with plastic bag

38
Whats New at the Clinic?
  • Stripe Rust
  • Cephalosporium Stripe
  • Nitrogen Deficiency
  • Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus
  • Tan Spot
  • Physiological leaf spot

39
Stripe Rust - 2006
40
Rust Biology Puccinia striiformis
  • Overwinters on grasses and winter wheat
  • Overwintered in 2006
  • Infection caused by wind blown spores
  • Cool wet conditions (50-60ºF)
  • New isolates grow at higher temperatures
  • Winter Wheat and Spring Wheat (irrigated)
  • Control Resistance and/or Fungicides

41
Resistance
  • Winter Wheat and Spring Wheat
  • Barley- Usually susceptible. May escape
    infection due to early maturity

2005 Stripe Rust Evaluations Creston, Bozeman
Winter Wheat
http//plantsciences.montana.edu/Crops/
42
Fungicides
Winter Wheat and Irrigated Spring Wheat
  • If you didnt plant a resistant variety, may have
    to apply fungicide probably have to gain 4-5 bu
    to pay for the cost
  • If present Spray between the period of stem
    elongation and heading need to protect the flag
    leaf. Check the preharvest interval on the label
  • Dryland S. Wheat? Barley?

43
Head Diseases
  • Fusarium scab Has caused huge yield losses and
    reduced grain quality on the northern great
    plains since the early 1990s
  • Favored by
  • rotations with corn Yellowstone valley
  • High levels of infested residue
  • Sprinkler irrigation at flowering

44
Cephalosporium Stripe
  • Winter Wheat Disease
  • Residue Borne
  • Infects wounded roots
  • Frost Heave
  • Rotate out of Winter Wheat for 3 years, reduce
    inoculum by 2/3
  • WW-Fallow-SW-Fallow-WW

45
Sugar Beet Rhizomania Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein
Virus
  • First detected 3 yrs ago
  • 2005 All sugarbeet producing areas
  • Fungal vector Polymyxa betae
  • Tare soils, contaminated equipment
  • 30-40 of field require rhizomania resistance

46
Mary Burrows Small Grains Diseases Specialist
  • Born in Fargo, ND
  • B.S. Moorhead State
  • Ph.D. Univ. of Wisconsin Madison
  • Epidemiology of viruses and phytoplasmas in
    soybeans
  • Master Gardener
  • Post Doc USDA/ARS Cornell
  • Aphid genetics in barley yellow dwarf transmission
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