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Elements Of an Effective Safety Program


Elements Of an Effective Safety Program Debra Sharpe Session 5 Elements Of an Effective Safety Program The actions of foreman, middle managers, and top managers that ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Elements Of an Effective Safety Program

Elements Of an Effective Safety Program
  • Debra Sharpe
  • Session 5

Elements Of an Effective Safety Program
  • The actions of foreman, middle managers, and top
    managers that affect safety must have a
    foundation - the company safety program provides
    that foundation.
  • The essence of the safety program is the company
    philosophy and commitment that top management has.

Elements Of an Effective Safety Program
  • Some aspects can be applied to every project
  • Some components of the safety program must be
    specifically tailored to the unique needs of
    individual projects.

Establishing A Safety Philosophy
  • First upper management must decide what is the
    primary safety objective of the firm
  • No OSHA citations?
  • Minimize health care/insurance costs?
  • Reduce injury rates
  • Avoid litigation?

Establishing A Safety Philosophy
  • What is best? Creating a workplace where injuries
    are reduced and hazards are addressed. All the
    other benefits will follow if this is done.
  • Focusing on complying with alone OSHA will not
    necessarily do this.

Statement of a Policy or Mission Statement
  • Begin with a safety mission statement
  • Generalized but powerful statement of the
    companies view of worker safety.
  • It is the driving force behind the safety program
    (see pg 100).
  • AU's SEH mission statement

Site Safety Plan
  • Who does to apply to ? Should apply to all
    employees, and crafts, including management, and
    on all jobsites.
  • Should address off-hours as well.
  • Are contractors included?

  • Responsibilities should be clearly stated
  • Upper management they bear the most
    responsibility for the safety of all employees.
  • CEOs play an important part! Safety starts at
    the top. Companies where the CEOs demonstrate
    concern for safety have the better safety records
    than those that dont How?

  • Communicate their goals of Zero Accidents to
    all employees.
  • Place primary responsibility on supervisors,
  • Provide resources, require measuring, and
    accountability, make it a part of the employee
    evaluation process.

  • Safety Director Responsible for implementation
    of the program, should have the authority,
    backing and resources from the upper management.
    Should not be a part time person or given to
    someone with other job responsibilities.
  • Supervisors They are the most critical link in
    an effective safety program. They are responsible
    for ensuring employees are trained, they follow
    the safety program and disciplining if necessary
    if they do not. They must be able to evaluate
    site safety hazards if necessary, working with
    the site safety person.

  • Workers Responsible for following the
    requirements of the safety manual.

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Policy regarding drug use and employee assistance
    programs should be identified. It should include
    at a minimum pre-employment and post-accident
    drug testing. Drug use among construction
    workers is estimated at 17. Can cause a large
    majority of the on-the-job accidents.

Annual Averages Based on 2000 and 2001 NHSDAs
  18 - 24 18 - 24 25 or Older 25 or Older
Past Month Use of Substance Percentage Standard Error Percentage Standard Error
Any Illicit Drug1 23.4 1.59 11.4 1.12
Marijuana and Hashish 20.6 1.54 9.3 0.98
Cocaine 2.9 0.59 1.7 0.45
Crack 0.4 0.18 0.2 0.15
Heroin 0.3 0.15 0.2 0.15
Hallucinogens 3.1 0.63 0.1 0.06
Inhalants 0.9 0.34 0.0 0.01
Nonmedical Use of Any Psychotherapeutic2 5.4 0.82 2.0 0.50
Pain Relievers 4.5 0.72 1.7 0.48
Tranquilizers 1.2 0.35 0.8 0.36
Stimulants 0.9 0.38 0.6 0.33
Sedatives 0.2 0.14 0.3 0.25
Any Illicit Drug Other Than Marijuana1 9.1 1.03 3.4 0.62
Alcohol 67.3 1.77 62.6 1.59
"Binge" Alcohol Use3 54.3 1.89 41.3 1.70
Heavy Alcohol Use3 22.4 1.54 13.4 1.05
Drug Abuse in Construction
  • The data shows substance abusers have accidents
    at a rate 3.6 times normal. This leads to higher
    indirect costs through damaged equipment, rework,
    material replacement, and medical costs. In
    addition, substance abusers strain the benefit
    system. Research has shown that drug users are 5
    times more likely to file workers compensation
    claims, 3 times more likely to file health
    claims, and use sick leave at a rate 3 times
    higher than the average worker. The indirect
    effects of these costs on the ability of
    companies to be able to continue to operate
    competitively can only be estimated.
  • International Risk Management Institute

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Subcontractor Compliance should be an important
    element of any companys safety program and
    should begin in the selection process of the sub.

The Safety Procedures
  • A comprehensive set of general requirements
    should be written to cover all aspects of
    construction safety. This can be done in-house,
    purchased, or contracted to a procedure or
    technical writer.
  • Employer must be able edit it to fit their needs
    if is purchased.

Site Safety Plan
  • A site specific safety plan should be developed
    for all new worksites. Many owners are requiring
    this along with the bid documents. The details of
    which will be discussed at the preconstruction
    conference meeting.

Site Safety Plan
  • Should include the following
  • Job numbers or project designation.
  • Responsible parties and their functions re
    safety issues.
  • Identifies a fast-track command for resolution of
    hazards (stop work authority).
  • Safety committee members.

Site Safety Plan
  • Must conform to OSHA, ANSI, NFPA, other consensus
    standards applicable to the work.
  • Identify specific high risk hazard procedures
    found on the site identified by the architect ,
    owner, engineers, i.e. power lines, excavations,
    confined space, etc.
  • Outlines the type of employee orientation and
    training required for the type of work and how
    this will be documented.
  • Identify the days and times of safety meetings.
  • Location of all safety equipment required on the
    work site. Including ppe, extinguisher, gas

Site Safety Plan
  • List the types of PPE required and the
    location(s) where it must be worn.
  • List the current certificates of inspection
    required for each piece of equipment used prior
    to work begins, i.e. cranes, heavy equip,
  • List the make and model of equipment used and
    ensure the operating manuals are available. List
    inherent safety hazards with the use of specific
    equipment as identified by the manufacturer.

Site Safety Plan
  • Which equipment requires a specific operators
    license and who will check .
  • Outline any safety issues with each phase of work
    especially those associated with the critical
    path, such as deenergizing, removing or
    relocating power lines before cranes are brought
    in, trenches are shored, safety lines are in
    place for fall protection as steel work proceeds.

Site Safety Plan
  • Plans to cope with possible emergency situations,
    severe weather, blizzards, floods, fire,
    cave-ins, explosions, power outages, violence in
    the workplace etc.
  • Plan to obtain emergency medical assistance
  • Insisting on immediate reporting of all accidents
    and incidents and the procedures for an accident
    investigation by unbiased personnel.

Site Safety Plan
  • Identify when the worksite will be inspected and
  • Identify what will occur if an OSHA inspector
    shows up
  • Plans for speed limits, traffic control, road
    closings and barricades keeping in mind access
    requirements for emergency response teams.

Site Safety Plan
  • Written hazard communication program
  • Identify where safety correspondence shall be
  • General company requirements should be included
    re drug, alcohol use, smoking etc.
  • Ensure any owners issues or requirements are
    covered in the site safety plan.

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Avoiding liability hold harmless agreements in
    contracts are often included in the owners
    contract language. This is done to try make the
    contractor totally responsible for site safety.
    This does not always work but - read the fine

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Selection of an insurance carrier, selecting one
    with the lowest premiums is not always best. Ask
  • How will claims be filed?
  • Will there be an insurance rep on site, if so how
  • Will reports be made each visit?
  • Are they on your side?

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Fostering good employee relations with
  • Good communication between managers and workers.
    Be sensitive to workers needs.
  • Senior staff should make regular job site visits
    and talk to staff.
  • Employee wellness programs
  • Smoking cessation
  • Exercise
  • Flu shots, free medical screening

Other Safety Program Elements
  • Master planning of the organization.
  • Document all safety efforts

Job site Safety Assessments
  • Job Hazard Analysis
  • Planning the work should always be the first
  • Consider the work identify any potential risks or
  • What is the likelihood of its occurrence
  • What is the severity should it occur

Job Hazard Analysis
  • Document the hazard and try to eliminate it using
    the order of precedence.
  • Order of Precedence
  • Design to eliminate the hazard - render it fail
    safe, provide redundancy through back-up
    components. Double wall tanks

Job Hazard Analysis
  1. Guard the hazard- if it can not be totally
    eliminated by design it must be reduced to an
    acceptable level of risk by
  2. Guarding
  3. Insulating
  4. Making inaccessible

Job Hazard Analysis
  • Order of Precedence Cont.
  • Give a warning
  • Bells, lights,
  • signs (can be too passive use them rarely if
    possible) be descriptive and explain the hazard
    Danger is not good enough.
  • Provide special procedures and training
  • Provide personal protective equipment and

Job Hazard Analysis
  • Use OSHA consultants, OSHA web sites
  • Insurance inspections
  • Conduct mock OSHA inspections
  • Safety Committees
  • See check lists pp. 125-132

Safety Meetings
  • Several reasons for Safety Meetings
  • Educate and
  • Persuade
  • Communicate important information to your
    employees about the organizations commitment to

Safety Meetings
  • Several types
  • Toolbox or tailgate, more informal
  • Formal training
  • When should they be held?
  • Mondays
  • How often?
  • Weekly

Safety Meetings
  • Prepare for the meeting do an agenda.
  • What topics are you going to cover?
  • Who should be in attendance?
  • All workers, do it by craft, too many people will
    cause difficulty in hearing and getting questions
  • Keep it relevant.
  • The managers, foremen.

Safety Meetings
  • Document the meeting attendance.
  • Safety meeting for foreman and supervisors
  • discuss accident incident rates.
  • Types of accident and their root causes.
  • Safety issues brought up by the workers.
  • Make it enjoyable.

Safety Incentives
  • Do they work?
  • At best they can improve safety marginally
  • At worst they can cause accidents to go

Safety Incentives
  • How do you decide?
  • If the incentive does not reinforce good safety
    practices or\alter poor behavior patterns
  • The most effective way to change behavior is
    through reinforcement. It has to be positive,
    provide feed back, immediate recognition and
    reward. Do safety incentives do this?

Safety Incentives
  • May not be positive if it is not what you want.
  • They are delayed and do not occur when the safe
    behaviors are present.
  • There is a weak association between the behavior
    and the incentive.

Safety Incentives
  • Make it a daily affair. Cant be beat up daily
    with negative reinforcement then get a positive
  • Incentive must be earned.
  • Must have personal value.
  • Should be preceded by a celebration.
  • Money is not the best incentive.
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