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Cells Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes and Cell Junctions

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Cells Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes and Cell Junctions Cytology = Study of Cells All cells have a plasma membrane that separates the cell s internal parts from the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cells Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes and Cell Junctions


1
CellsProkaryotes, Eukaryotesand Cell Junctions
2
Cytology Study of Cells
  • All cells have
  • a plasma membrane that separates the cells
    internal parts from the environment
  • organelles (internal structures in the
    cytoplasm)
  • cytoplasm (jelly like, mostly water)

3
Prokaryotes
  1. Bacteria and cyanobacteria
  2. Lack most organelles nucleus
  3. Single circular DNA
  4. Have a cell wall (not made of cellulose)
  5. Huge diversity in shape, colonies, habitat

4
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5
The Origin of Mitochondria and Chloroplasts
  • The endosymbiotic theory
  • Larger anaerobic eukaryotes . . .
  • engulfed aerobic prokaryotes
  • Aerobic prokaryotes became endosymbionts
  • the host cell became aerobic

6
Endosymbiotic Theory
7
Eukaryotic Cells
  • Membrane bound organelles
  • Organized, compartmentalized
  • Organized, linear chromosomes
  • True, membrane bound nucleus

8
Surface Area to Volume and Cell Survival
  • Cells exist individually or in groups, forming
    tissues/organs, organ systems, organisms.
  • Size is an important factor in survival
  • As cells grow the SA/V ratio decreases, making it
    harder to get nutrients into the cell and wastes
    out
  • This is the limiting factor in cell survival

Vol 216
Vol 438
Note how the Volume doubles here!
9
Cell Junctions
  • Allow specific types of cells to stick/stay
    together to perform special jobs
  • Layers of these types of cells
  • Line body cavities
  • Cover body surfaces

10
3 Types of Cell Junctions
  • Tight Junctions
  • Desmosomes
  • Gap Junctions

11
Tight Junctions
  • Seal tissues and prevent leaks
  • Link epithelial cells together
  • Prevent things from moving through the
    intercellular space
  • Restrict migration of proteins and phospholipids

12
Desmosomes
  • Like spot welds!
  • Regions of tight adhesion between neighboring
    cells
  • These cells withstand lots of abuse and function
    as a unit
  • Important in skin (epithelial tissue

13
Gap Junctions
  • Cell to cell communication.
  • Protein channels form a bridge between cells
  • Chemical and electrical communication occurs
    between the gaps

14
Put Them All Together
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