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Universal Design Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.

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Following the launch of the new website, ... (Shneiderman B 1993 Designing the user interface: strive for effective human-computer interaction. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Universal Design Universal design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.


1
Universal DesignUniversal design is the design
of products and environments to be usable by all
people, to the greatest extent possible, without
the need for adaptation or specialized design.
2
Consider
3
Steps
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Home
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Sink
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Appliance of Science?
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Operate This?
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Its all about the design?
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Universal Design
  • Principles---
  • Equitable Use
  • Flexibility of Use
  • Simple and Intuitive
  • Perceptible Information
  • Tolerance for Error
  • Low Physical Effort
  • Size and Space for Use

13
What is Universal Design
  • Universal design makes things more accessible,
    safer, and convenient for everyone.
  • Also called Design for All or Inclusive
    Design, it is a philosophy that can be applied
    to policy, design and other practices to make
    products, environments and systems function
    better for a wider range of people.

14
Origin
  • It developed in response to the diversity of
    human populations, their abilities and their
    needs.

15
Examples of universal design include
  • utensils with larger handles,
  • curb ramps,
  • automated doors,
  • kneeling buses with telescoping ramps,
  • houses with no-step entries,
  • closed captioning in televisions, and the
    accessibility features incorporated into computer
    operating systems and software.

16
Definition and overview
  • The Disability Act 2005 defines Universal Design,
    or UD, as the design and composition of an
    environment so that it may be accessed,
    understood and used
  • to the greatest possible extent,
  • in the most independent and natural manner
    possible,
  • in the widest possible range of situations, and

17
And
  • without the need for adaptation, modification,
    assistive devices or specialised solutions, by
    any persons of any age or size or having any
    particular physical, sensory, mental health or
    intellectual ability or disability,

18
History of UDSocial History
  • The 20th Century brought about major social
    changes with respect to civil and human rights.
  • Medical advances during this period meant that
    the likelihood of surviving an injury or illness
    was far greater. People were living longer and
    the average life expectancy of people with severe
    impairments was increasing.
  • Driven in part by factors such as the large
    number of Second World War soldiers returning
    home with disabling injuries, the rights and
    needs of older people and people with
    disabilities were brought to the forefront.
    Governments responded with the introduction of
    equal rights and anti-discrimination legislation.

19
The Evolving Design Industry (Disability-specific
design )
  • As new laws served to promote social inclusion
    and prevent discrimination, pressure was placed
    on the design industry to meet the demands of
    creating accessible and usable products, services
    and environments.
  • As the social movements of the 20th Century were
    gathering momentum, the design industry responded
    with targeted efforts. Concepts such as
    barrier-free design, which aspired to remove
    barriers for disabled people from the built
    environment, appeared

20
Accessible Design
  • The more generalised concept of accessible design
    emerged in the 1970s and promoted the
    incorporation of accessible solutions into the
    general design of products, services and
    environments.

21
Assistive Technology
  • At the same time that the mainstream design
    industry was evolving, the parallel field of
    assistive technology strove to provide more
    specialised solutions for people with specific
    requirements.
  • Add-on products, that could make a formerly
    inaccessible product accessible, were more
    commonly developed and became more readily
    available.

22
User-centred design and Human factors
  • Of major influence to the development of
    Universal Design were design approaches that
    considered the needs of users from the very
    beginning of the design process.

23
Multidiscipline field
  • Fields such as Human Factors, Ergonomics and
    other functional design approaches look at the
    physical anatomy and the behaviour of the person
    and use this information to create designs that
    fit.
  • These design approaches have been of particular
    interest for health and safety reasons, for
    example the layout of controls for the operation
    of potentially dangerous machinery.

24
More Recently
  • More recently the term user-centred design is
    used to describe design that identifies and
    addresses the needs, abilities and limitations of
    the user.

25
Design for All3 levels
  • Mainstream products designed according to good
    Human factors practice, incorporating
    considerations for people with disabilities, that
    can be used by a broad range of users
  • Products that are adaptable to permit the
    connection of special devices
  • Specially designed or tailored products for more
    people with significant access issues

26
Benefits for Business, Individual Society
  • People with disabilities benefit because they
    have greater access to mainstream products and
    services that meet their needs. More affordable
    products
  • Society benefits by reduced costs on very
    expensive AT products
  • Achieving a higher degree of social equality

27
Human Centred Design
  • The active involvement of users and clear
    understanding of user and task requirements
  • An appropriate allocation of functions between
    users and technology
  • The iteration of design solutions
  • Interdisciplinary design

28
ISO 13407 Standard (1999)
  • Are easier to use and understand, thus reducing
    training and support costs
  • Improve user satisfaction and reduce discomfort
    and stress
  • Improve the productivity of users and the
    operational efficiency of organisations
  • Improved product quality appeals to the users and
    can provide a competitive advantage

29
User Interface
  • Strive for Consistency
  • Enable frequent users to use short cuts
  • Offer informative feedback
  • Design dialogues to yield closure
  • Offer simple error handling
  • Permit easy reversal of actions
  • Support internal locus of support
  • Reduce short term memory load
  • (Shneiderman B 1993 Designing the user interface
    strive for effective human-computer interaction.
    Addison Wesley)

30
Merging design fields
  • Combining and drawing from developments in all of
    the above fields, the concept of Universal Design
    was introduced.

31
Two Level Approach
  • Universal Design should incorporate a two level
    approach
  • User-aware design pushing the boundaries of
    'mainstream' products, services and environments
    to include as many people as possible.
  • Customisable design design to minimise the
    difficulties of adaptation to particular users.

32
Benefits and Outcomes
  • One immediate result of applying a more
    accessible, usable, and user-friendly design was
    a reduction in the time it takes for pages to
    load, with the pages on the new site taking one
    quarter of the time.
  • Following the launch of the new website, Legal
    General saw an increase of 13,000 visitors to
    their site each month. Online sales of insurance
    products increased by 90. They saved 200,000
    each year on website maintenance. And the entire
    project delivered 100 return-on-investment
    within just 12 months.

33
Principle 1 Equitable Use
  • The design of a device should be useful and
    marketable to people with diverse abilities.
  • Provide the same means of use for all users
    identical whenever possible equivalent when not.
  • Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users.
  • Provisions for privacy, security, and safety
    should be equally available to all users.
  • Make the design appealing to all users

34
Principle 2 Flexibility of Use
  • The design accommodates a wide range of
    individual preferences and abilities.
  • Provide choice in methods of use.
  • Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use.
  • Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision.
  • Provide adaptability to the user's pace.

35
Principle 3 Simple and Intuitive
  • Use of the design is easy to understand,
    regardless of the user's experience, knowledge,
    language skills, or current concentration level.
  • Eliminate unnecessary complexity.
  • Be consistent with user expectations and
    intuition.
  • Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language
    skills.
  • Arrange information consistent with its
    importance.
  • Provide effective prompting and feedback during
    and after task completion.

36
Principle 4 Perceptible Information
  • The design communicates necessary information
    effectively to the user, regardless of ambient
    conditions or the user's sensory abilities.
  • Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile)
    for redundant presentation of essential
    information.
  • Provide adequate contrast between essential
    information and its surroundings.
  • Maximize "legibility" of essential information.
  • Differentiate elements in ways that can be
    described (i.e., make it easy to give
    instructions or directions).
  • Provide compatibility with a variety of
    techniques or devices used by people with sensory
    limitations.

37
Principle 5 Tolerance and Error
  • The design minimizes hazards and the adverse
    consequences of accidental or unintended actions.
  • Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors
    most used elements, most accessible hazardous
    elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded.
  • Provide warnings of hazards and errors.
  • Provide fail safe features.
  • Discourage unconscious action in tasks that
    require vigilance.

38
Principle 6 Low Physical Effort
  • The design can be used efficiently and
    comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue.
  • Allow user to maintain a neutral body position.
  • Use reasonable operating forces.
  • Minimize repetitive actions.
  • Minimize sustained physical effort

39
Principle 7 Size and Space for Use
  • Appropriate size and space is provided for
    approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless
    of user's body size, posture, or mobility.
  • Provide a clear line of sight to important
    elements for any seated or standing user.
  • Make reach to all components comfortable for any
    seated or standing user.
  • Accommodate variations in hand and grip size.
  • Provide adequate space for the use of assistive
    devices or personal assistance.

40
A Case Study The Legal General website
  • Legal General, a UK supplier of financial
    services, were aware that their website was not
    designed to be as accessible and usable as it
    could be and in 2005 they undertook to improve
    the entire user-experience of their website.

41
User Centred Approach
  • Taking a user-centred approach, the site design
    involved identifying the needs of customers and
    existing challenges they faced when using the old
    site.
  • They evaluated how customers use the site, using
    web analytics and relevant software.

42
Finally,
  • They carried out more general research on the
    needs of their customers, taking into
    consideration, for example that
  • 3.2 million people in Britain have difficulty
    using inaccessible websites
  • 6 million have dyslexia
  • 1 person in 3 is over the age of 50
  • 3 million people speak English as a second
    language
  • 1.5 million lack basic language skills and 5.2
    million adults have sub-GCSE level English.

43
General Benefits
  • Better User experience
  • Greater Number of Users
  • Greater Participation
  • Bigger Market
  • Better Products
  • Longer Partcipation
  • Less exclusion

44
Benefits and Outcomes
  • One immediate result of applying a more
    accessible, usable, and user-friendly design was
    a reduction in the time it takes for pages to
    load, with the pages on the new site taking one
    quarter of the time.
  • Following the launch of the new website, Legal
    General saw an increase of 13,000 visitors to
    their site each month. Online sales of insurance
    products increased by 90. They saved 200,000
    each year on website maintenance. And the entire
    project delivered 100 return-on-investment
    within just 12 months.

45
Benefits for Business, Individual Society
  • Increased potential market
  • Increased marketability- by increasing
    functionality for all users
  • Total Cost Reduction
  • Improved market share by improving customer
    loyalty
  • Reduction in hidden costs
  • Improved access to the US market
  • Potential spin offs
  • General population will benefit from more user
    friendly products and services flexibility of
    new products

46
Benefits for Business, Individual Society
  • People with disabilities benefit because they
    have greater access to mainstream products and
    services that meet their needs. More affordable
    products
  • Society benefits by reduced costs on very
    expensive AT products
  • Achieving a higher degree of social equality
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