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Nervous Tissue I: Functional Organization, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves

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Nervous Tissue I: Functional Organization, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Nervous Tissue Found in brain, spinal cord and nerves Property Ability to produce action ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Nervous Tissue I: Functional Organization, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves


1
Nervous Tissue IFunctional Organization, Spinal
Cord and Spinal Nerves
  • Lecture 12

2
Nervous Tissue
  • Found in brain, spinal cord and nerves
  • Property
  • Ability to produce action potentials (electric
    signals)
  • Cells
  • Nerve cells or neurons
  • Neuroglia or support cells
  • Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells

3
The Nervous System
  • Subdivisions
  • Central nervous system (CNS)
  • Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  • Sensory receptor
  • Receptor of sensory information
  • Nerve
  • Made up of a bundle of axons
  • Ganglion
  • Collection of cell bodies of neurons
  • Plexus
  • Network of spinal nerves

4
Central Nervous System
  • Consists of
  • Brain
  • Located in cranial vault of skull
  • Spinal cord
  • Located in vertebral canal
  • Brain and spinal cord
  • Continuous with each other at foramen magnum
  • Tract

Fig. 14.1
5
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Two subcategories
  • Sensory or afferent
  • Motor or efferent
  • Divisions
  • Somatic nervous system
  • Autonomic nervous system (ANS)
  • Sympathetic
  • (fight or flight)
  • Parasympathetic
  • (rest and digest)

Fig. 14.2
6
Spinal Cord
  • Extends from foramen magnum to second lumbar
    vertebra
  • Segmented
  • Cervical
  • Thoracic
  • Lumbar
  • Sacral
  • Gives rise to 31 pairs of spinal nerves
  • Not uniform in diameter throughout length

Fig. 16.1
7
Meninges
  • Connective tissue membranes surrounding spinal
    cord and brain
  • Dura mater
  • Arachnoid mater
  • Pia mater
  • Spaces
  • Epidural Anesthesia injected
  • Subdural Serous fluid
  • Subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

Fig. 16.2
8
Cross Section of Spinal Cord
  • White matter
  • Myelinated axons forming tracts
  • Three funiculi (columns)
  • Gray matter
  • Neuron cell bodies, dendrites, axons
  • Three horns

Fig. 16.3
Fig. 16.4
9
Spinal NervesCervical Plexus
  • C1-C4
  • Phrenic nerve
  • from C3-C5 (cervical and brachial plexus)
  • innervates diaphragm

Fig. 16.8
10
Brachial Plexus
  • C5-T1
  • Major nerves
  • Radial
  • Ulnar
  • Median

Fig. 16.9
11
Lumbar Plexus
Fig. 16.10
12
Sacral Plexus
Fig. 16.11
13
Review Question
  • Compression of the ________ nerve against the
    medial epicondyle of the humerus will produce
    strong tingling sensations along the forearm and
    hand.
  • Radial
  • Median
  • Phrenic
  • Femoral
  • Ulnar

14
Points to Remember
  • Nervous system consists of central nervous system
    (brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous
    system (all nervous tissue outside of central
    nervous system)
  • Sensory (afferent) neurons carry sensory
    information to brain and spinal cord
  • Motor (efferent) neurons carry motor away from
    brain and spinal cord to spinal nerves and
    cranial nerves
  • Spinal nerves have a dorsal root (sensory
    neurons) and a ventral root (motor neurons)
  • Names of nerves in plexuses generally describe
    the body region they travel

15
Questions?
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