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CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION

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Title: CHAPTER 3: THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION


1
CHAPTER 3 THE GROWTH OF A YOUNG NATION
  • AMERICA EXPANDS IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE 19TH
    CENTURY

2
THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA SECTION 1
  • Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his
    Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and
    his Federalist Party
  • While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral
    votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr
  • For six days the House of Reps took vote after
    vote until 36 votes later Jefferson prevailed
    (Led to 12th Amendment)

3rd President of the U.S. 1800-1808
3
SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT
  • Jeffersons theory of government, known as
    Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple,
    limited government was the best for the people
  • Jefferson decentralized the government, cut
    costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes

Jefferson Memorial
4
JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT
  • Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd
    President), attempts to pack the Federal courts
    with Federalists Judges
  • Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional
  • Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in
    Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the
    Judicial Act was unconstitutional
  • Established principle of Judicial Review the
    ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law
    unconstitutional

5
THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE
  • By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his
    dreams of an American Empire
  • He needed money to fight European wars, so he
    accepted Jeffersons offered of 15,000,000
  • More than doubled the size of our country
  • Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new
    territory

6
MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT
  • After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James
    Madison
  • Madison was two-term President 1808-1816
  • Known as the Father of the Constitution, Madison
    also is known for his leadership during the War
    of 1812

4th President 1808-1816
7
WAR OF 1812 U.S. vs. BRITAIN
  • Causes British impressment (seizing Americans
    at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset
    Americans
  • The War 1814 British sack D.C. Burn White
    house
  • Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans
  • Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814

British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset
Americans
8
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9
RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812
  • Results of the war included
  • End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)
  • Encouraged industries in U.S.
  • Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and
    independent nation

Despite the burning of the Presidents mansion,
the U.S. emerged strong
10
NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY
  • James Monroe was elected president in 1816
  • Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as
    key concern of administration
  • Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon
    Territory
  • Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida
    southern- most areas of SE America

11
THE MONROE DOCTRINE
  • In the early 19th Century, various European
    countries hinted at increased colonization
  • In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it
    clear to Europe Dont interfere with Western
    Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine)

12
What idea does this political cartoon convey?
13
THE AGE OF JACKSON SECTION 2
  • During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew
    Jacksons election in 1828, ushered in a new era
    of popular democracy

14
REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES
  • The Northeast continued to develop industry while
    the South and West continued to be more
    agricultural
  • The Industrial Revolution reached America by the
    early-mid 19th century
  • New England first to embrace factory system
  • Especially in textile (fabric) mills


15
SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL
  • Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an
    agricultural power
  • Eli Whitneys invention of the Cotton Gin (1793)
    made producing cotton even more profitable
  • The South became a Cotton Kingdom
  • More labor was needed 1790 700,000 slaves
  • 1820 1,500,000 slaves

Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from
seeds
16
BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM
  • Economic differences created political tension
    between North South
  • As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted
    to keep nation together
  • House Speaker Henry Clays American Plan called
    for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an
    improved infrastructure to help travel

17
THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE
  • In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for
    statehood
  • Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether
    Missouri should be admitted as a free state
  • Henry Clay organized a compromise in which
    Missouri was slave but Maine would be free
  • Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30 north
    latitude

HENRY CLAY THE GREAT COMPROMISER
18
MISSOURI COMPROMISE 1820
19
ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON
  • Jackson, hero of the common man, won election in
    1828 in part because the right to vote had been
    expanded to more citizens
  • In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams,
    350,000 white males voted
  • In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted
  • Many of the new voters supported the rugged
    westerner Jackson who also won re-election in 1832

ANDREW JACKSON IS ON THE 20 BILL
20
JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY
  • As part of his political philosophy, Jackson
    sought to grant political power to the common
    people
  • Called The Spoils System or Jacksonian Democracy,
    Jackson hired his own supporters to replace the
    previous administrations staff
  • Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and
    political allies

21
INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830
  • Congress, with Jacksons support, passed the
    Indian Removal Act in 1830
  • Under this law, the federal government funded
    treaties that forced tribes west
  • The Cherokee Tribe in Georgia refused and were
    supported by the Supreme Court
  • Jackson refused to abide by the Court decision
  • Jackson said, John Marshall (Supreme Court Chief
    Justice) has made his decision, now let him
    enforce it.
  • Trail of Tears followed the Court ruling as U.S.
    troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them
    west, mostly on foot. . .thousands died

22
INDIAN REMOVAL - 1830
23
TARIFF OF ABOMINATION
  • In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the
    Import Tariff of 1816
  • Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, a Tariff of
    Abominations, and blamed it for economic
    problems in the South

THE NORTH
TARIFFS
THE SOUTH
24
NULLIFICATION THREAT
  • In an attempt to free South Carolina from the
    tariff, John Calhoun (Jacksons VP from S.C.),
    developed the Theory of Nullification
  • He believed if a state found an act of Congress
    to be unconstitutional, it could declare the law
    void within its borders
  • Tensions only relieved by a Clay Compromise
    Tariff in 1833

25
JACKSONS BANK WAR
  • Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet
    Banks so called because they were favored by
    Jacksons Democrats
  • Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King
    than a president
  • In 1832, his opponents formed a new party the
    Whigs

26
PANIC OF 1837
  • In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the
    Presidency
  • He inherited problems from the Bank Wars
  • Jacksons Pet Banks printed money without Gold
    backing
  • In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed,
    accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared

MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
27
HARRISON TYLER
  • Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van
    Buren in the election of 1840
  • Harrison, known as Tippecanoe for a battle he
    won against natives, died a month into his term
  • His VP, John Tyler became president

TYLER 1841-1845
HARRISON 1841
28
MANIFEST DESTINY SECTION 3
  • In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with
    expansion
  • Many believed that their movement westward was
    predestined by God
  • Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S.
    would expand from sea to shining sea

29
UNITED STATES EXPANSION BY 1853 - MANIFEST DESTINY
30
FAMOUS TRAILS WEST
  • No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as
    the roads to the West
  • Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to
    Santa Fe, New Mexico
  • Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to
    Oregon City, Oregon
  • Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on
    their way to Salt Lake City

31
MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS
  • After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers
    felt at home in Texas territory
  • Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821
    and Texas was theirs
  • Mexican officials offered land to Americans to
    make the area more stable
  • Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas
    trouble started

32
TEXAS INDEPENDENCE
  • Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans
    in Texas
  • Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and
    Americans in Texas
  • One issue was the slaves many Americans had
    brought with them
  • Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829

33
REMEMBER THE ALAMO
  • Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to
    force Texans to obey Mexican law
  • Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio
    at the same time Austin issued a call to arms
    for all American Texans
  • American forces moved into a mission known as the
    Alamo in 1836
  • After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls
    and slaughtered all 187 Americans

THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO
34
MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR
  • 1844 presidential election winner, James Polk,
    eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S.
  • Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into
    Mexican territory in 1845
  • America victories soon followed, and in 1848
    Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed U.S.
    gets (larger) Texas, New Mexico California

MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA
35
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36
CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH
  • After gold was discovered at Sutters Mill,
    migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to
    44,000 in 1850
  • Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became
    known as Forty-niners
  • By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in
    California topped 2,000,000,000

37
THE MARKET REVOLUTION SECTION 4
  • The first half of the 19th century in America,
    brought vast changes to technology,
    transportation, and production
  • Known as the Market Revolution, people
    increasingly bought and sold goods rather than
    make them for themselves

A 19th century market
38
NEW INVENTIONS HELP ECONOMY
  • 1837 Samuel Morse invented the Telegraph
  • Railroads were becoming faster and more numerous
    by 1830 surpassing canals as 1 means of
    transport
  • Robert Fulton invented the Steamboat and by 1830,
    200 were on the Mississippi
  • John Deeres Plow and Cyrus McCormicks Reaper
    improved agriculture

By 1854, 23,000 miles of telegraph wire crossed
the country
39
WORKERS SEEK BETTER CONDITIONS
  • In 1834, Lowell, Massachusetts textile workers
    went on strike after their wages were lowered
    one example of the dozens of strikes in the U.S.
    in the 1830s and 1840s
  • Several industries formed the National Trade
    Union in 1834 in hopes of bettering their
    conditions

STRIKES AND UNIONS BECAME MORE NUMEROUS AFTER 1830
40
REFORMING AMERICAN SOCIETY SECTION 5
  • The Second Great Awakening spread Christianity
    through revival meetings
  • Another growing religious group was the
    Unitarians who emphasized reason as path to
    perfection
  • Ralph Waldo Emerson was a Unitarian preacher who
    developed Transcendentalism
  • These and other religions became the impetus for
    reforming society

RALPH WALDO EMERSON
41
THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT
  • 1820s Abolitionist movement to free African
    Americans from slavery arose
  • Leader was a white radical named William Lloyd
    Garrison
  • Abolitionist called for immediate emancipation of
    all slaves

42
FREDERICK DOUGLASS AFRICAN AMERICAN LEADER
  • Freed slave, Frederick Douglass escaped from
    bandage and became an eloquent abolitionist
    (critic of slavery) leader
  • He began an anti-slavery newspaper called,
    Northstar named after the star that guided
    runaway slaves to freedom

43
TURNERS REBELLION
  • The vast majority of African-Americans were
    enslaved in the South and were subjected to
    constant degradation
  • Some rebelled against their condition
  • Most famous revolt was led by Virginia slave Nat
    Turner
  • Turner led 50 followers in a revolt killing 60
    whites he was caught and executed

Turner plans his rebellion
44
WOMEN AND REFORM
  • From abolition to education, women worked
    actively in all reform movements
  • Throughout the 1800s opportunity for women to
    become educated increased
  • 1833 Oberlin College became first coed
    institution

45
WOMENS RIGHTS MOVEMENT EMERGES
  • Reform movements of the 19th century spurred the
    development of a Womens movement
  • For example, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia
    Mott had both been ardent abolitionists
  • In 1848, more than 300 women participated in a
    Womens Right convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.

46
THE DIVISIVE POLITICS OF SLAVERY
  • Over the centuries, the Northern and Southern
    sections of the United States developed into two
    very different cultural and economic regions
  • There were also differences in geography and
    climate, as well as religious differences

47
THE SOUTH BEFORE THE WAR
  • Rural plantation economy
  • Relied on slave labor
  • Peculiar Institution created tension
  • Southerners feared the loss of slavery would
    mean loss of culture

Family working the cotton field on a Plantation
48
THE NORTH BEFORE THE WAR
  • The North had a more diverse economy
  • Industry flourished
  • The North openly opposed slavery in the South and
    the new territories
  • The North was more urbanized than the South

BOSTON HARBOR
49
SLAVERY IN THE TERRITORIES
  • The issue of whether slavery in California and
    the West would be legal led to heated debates in
    Congress
  • Gold rush led to application for statehood for
    California

CALIFORNIA BECAME A STATE IN 1850
50
COMPROMISE OF 1850
  • Southerners threatened secession over issue
  • Henry Clay again worked a Compromise
  • For the North California would be admitted as
    free state
  • For the South A more effective fugitive slave
    law
  • Residents of New Mexico Utah would vote
    themselves-popular sovereignty

CONGRESSIONAL DEBATE
51
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52
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW
  • Under the law, runaway slaves were not entitled
    to a trial by jury
  • Anyone helping a slave escape was jailed for 6
    months and fined 1,000
  • Northerners were upset by the harshness of the
    new law and often helped hide fugitive slaves

A HARSH FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW FURTHER INCREASED
TENSIONS
53
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD
  • Escape from slavery was dangerous and meant
    traveling on foot at night
  • As time went on, African Americans and white
    abolitionists developed a secret network of
    people who would hide fugitive slaves
  • Conductors would hide runaways in tunnels and
    even kitchen cupboards

54
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55
HARRIET TUBMAN
  • One of the most famous conductors was Harriet
    Tubman
  • Tubman escaped slavery and vowed to help others
    do the same
  • She made 19 trips back to South and freed over
    300 slaves (Including her own parents)?

HARRIET TUBMAN 1820-1913
56
UNCLE TOMS CABIN
Instant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857
  • In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her
    influential novel, Uncle Toms Cabin
  • The book stressed the moral evil of slavery
  • Abolitionist protests increased

Author Harriet Beecher Stowe
57
TENSION BUILDS IN KANSAS
  • After Stephen Douglas worked to pass the
    Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, Kansas would vote to
    decide on whether slavery would be legal or
    outlawed
  • This contradicted the 36 30 of the Missouri
    Compromise

vs.
58
BLEEDING KANSAS
  • The race for Kansas was on. Both supporters and
    opponents attempted to populate Kansas to win the
    vote over slavery
  • As the election neared, a group of pro-slavery
    border ruffians from Missouri attempted to
    cross into Kansas
  • Violence erupted Blooding Kansas is the legacy

Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas is
admitted as a free state in 1861
59
THE FREE-SOILERS
  • Another party that emerged in the mid-19th
    century was the Free-Soilers
  • They were northerners who opposed slavery in the
    territories
  • Free-Soilers objections to slavery were based on
    economics not moral objection to slavery
  • They believed slavery drove down wages for white
    workers

Soil
60
REPUBLICANS EMERGE AS LEADING PARTY
  • In 1854, opponents of slavery in the territories
    formed a new political party, the Republican
    Party
  • As the party grew it took on Free-Soilers, some
    anti-slavery Democrats and Whigs, and
    Know-Nothings

Republicans won all but 3 presidential elections
from 1861-1933
61
THE DRED SCOTT DECISION
  • A major Supreme Court decision occurred when
    slave Dred Scott was taken by his owner to free
    states Illinois Wisconsin
  • Scott argued that that made him a free man
  • Finally in 1857, the Court ruled against Dred
    Scott citing the Constitutions protection of
    property
  • The decision increased tensions over slavery

DRED SCOTT LOST HIS CHANCE AT FREEDOM
62
LINCOLN DOUGLAS DEBATES
  • The 1858 race for U.S. Senate in Illinois was
    hotly contested between Republican Lincoln and
    Democratic Douglas
  • One of the most celebrated debates in history
    ensued as the topic was slavery in the
    territories
  • Douglas favored popular sovereignty while Lincoln
    wanted a Constitutional Amendment

THE LITTLE GIANT VS. HONEST ABE
63
HARPERS FERRY
  • While politicians debated the slavery issue, John
    Brown plotted a major slave revolt
  • On October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men,
    black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
  • He hoped to seize a large federal arsenal, but
    troops put down the rebellion
  • Brown was tried and executed

ARSENAL
BROWN
64
1860 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION
  • Republicans nominated Abe Lincoln while the
    Democrats split
  • Lincoln won the 1860 election with less than half
    the popular vote and no Southern electoral votes
  • The Southern states were not happy

LINCOLN MEMORIAL
65
1860 ELECTION RESULTS
66
SOUTHERN SUCESSION
  • Lincolns victory in 1860 election convinced
    Southerners that they had to act quickly
  • South Carolina led the way, seceding from the
    union in December of 1860
  • Mississippi was next, then Florida, Alabama,
    Georgia, Louisiana, Texas
  • Southern delegates met in February, 1861 and
    formed the Confederate States with Jefferson
    Davis as President

67
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68
THE CIVIL WAR BEGINS
  • The first battle of the Civil War (1861-1865) was
    fought at Fort Sumter, South Carolina on
    April 12, 1861
  • Soon after, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina
    and Tennessee seceded (Confederate states 11)?
  • Virginia split on whether to leave Union (West
    Virginia formed)

69
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70
NORTH HAD ADVANTAGES
  • The North and South were not evenly matched
  • The North had many advantages including
  • More people
  • More factories
  • More food production
  • More railroads
  • Better communication

71
SOUTH HAD ADVANTAGES
  • The South had some advantages over the Northern
    forces
  • First rate military leadership
  • Highly motivated soldiers
  • Only had to defend their land not attack North

72
STRATEGIES
  • The Northern strategy going into the war included
    a naval blockade, a plan to split the Confederacy
    by going down the Mississippi river, and
    capturing the Confederate capital city of
    Richmond, Virginia
  • The South was content to have a defensive strategy

U.S.S. St. Louis, First Eads Ironclad Gunboat
73
THE BATTLE OF BULL RUN
  • First major bloodshed of the war occurred at Bull
    Run near Washington, D.C. Summer 1861
  • This battle made Confederate General Thomas
    Jackson famous
  • Nicknamed Stonewall Jackson he inspired the
    Confederates to hold firm
  • Confederate victory boosted moral

ACTUAL PHOTOS OF BULL RUN AND GENERAL JACKSON
74
THE CLASH AT ANTIETAM
  • Union General George McClellan confronted
    Confederate General Robert E. Lee in Antietam,
    Maryland
  • The single bloodiest day in American history ---
    26,000 died
  • Lee and the Confederates retreated, McClellan did
    not follow- Lincoln fires him

BLOODIEST DAY IN AMERICAN HISTORY 9/17/1862
75
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION
  • As the war progressed, Lincoln used his powers to
    end slavery
  • Just as Union troops could seize Confederate
    supplies, Lincoln authorized the army to seize
    and emancipate slaves
  • Emancipation was not just a moral issue it
    became a weapon of war

76
JANUARY 1, 1863
77
CONSCRIPTION ISSUES
  • Both sides dealt with social unrest during the
    Civil War
  • Both President Lincoln and Confederate leader
    Davis suspended Writ of Habeas Corpus
  • Draft riots occurred in New York City as some
    thought draft process was unfair to the poor and
    immigrants

DEPICTION OF NEW YORK CITY DRAFT RIOTS
78
AFRICAN AMERICANS FIGHT FOR FREEDOM
  • Although only 1 of the Norths population, by
    the end of the war 180,000 African Americans
    fought for the Union (10 of Union Army)?
  • However, they were segregated and earned lower
    wages
  • See Glory

79
SOLDIERS SUFFERED ON BOTH SIDES
  • Heavy casualties on both sides were worsened by
    conditions on the field
  • Disease, poor nutrition, and inadequate medical
    care were common features of the war

GETTYSBURG
80
DISEASE ACCOUNTED FOR 76 OF DEATHS IN CIVIL WAR
81
WOMEN WORK TO IMPROVE CONDITIONS
  • While women were not in combat, 3,000 women
    served as Union nurses
  • Carla Barton was a famous Union nurse
  • Known as the Angel on the Battlefield she went
    on to form the American Red Cross after the war

82
THE NORTH TAKES CHARGE
  • In a small town in Pennsylvania, the most
    decisive battle of the war was fought
  • Gettysburg was a three-day battle fought in early
    July of 1863
  • The Union had 90,000 troops under George Meade
    and the Confederates had 75,000 troops under
    General Lee

GETTYSBURG JULY, 1863
83
GETTYSBURG
  • The three-day battle produced staggering losses
    23,000 Union soldiers and 28,000 Confederate
    soldiers were wounded or killed
  • After the Confederate retreat, Lee gave up any
    hope of invaded the North and retreated

ROBERT E. LEE
84
GETTYSBURG ADDRESS
  • In November 1863, a ceremony was held to dedicate
    a cemetery in Gettysburg
  • Abe Lincoln spoke for less than two minutes, but
    inspired a nation with his address
  • Some say his Gettysburg Address remade America

85
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86
GRANT WINS AT VICKSBURG
  • In the Spring of 1863 Union General Ulysses S.
    Grant fought to take Vicksburg, Mississippi
  • Grant ordered two frontal attacks on Vicksburg
  • He succeeded in splitting Confederate forces

U.S. GRANT MEMORIAL
87
CONFEDERACY WEARS DOWN
  • After the twin defeats at Gettysburg and
    Vicksburg, the Confederate morale was destroyed
  • Many Southern soldiers had deserted
  • Grant and General Tecumseh Sherman were now in
    control of the Union Army
  • They aimed to destroy the will of the Confederates

UNION GENERAL SHERMAN
88
SHERMANS MARCH
  • In the spring of 1864, Sherman began his march
    southeast through Georgia to the coast
  • His troops created a path of destruction as they
    burned homes, destroyed livestock and railroads
  • After reaching the sea, his troops (included
    25,000 former slaves) turned Northward

89
ELECTION OF 1864
  • Despite the war, politics continued as the North
    held a presidential election in 1864
  • While some Northerners were dismayed as to the
    length of the war and Lincoln was pessimistic
    about his re-election, he defeated General
    McClellan easily

DISGRUNTED GENERAL MCCLELLAN LOST 1864 ELECTION
90
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91
SURRENDER AT APPOMATTOX
  • On April 3, 1865, Union troops conquered
    Richmond, the Confederate capital
  • On April 9, 1865 in a Virginia town called
    Appomattox, Lee and Grant met to arrange a
    Confederate surrender
  • At Lincolns request the terms were generous

LEE SURRENDERS TO GRANT
92
DEADLY WAR BRINGS CHANGES
  • The Civil War was the deadliest war in American
    history
  • Over 620,000 died -nearly as many as all other
    U.S. wars combined
  • The role of the federal government increased
  • Economically the gap between North and South
    widened

U.S. CIVIL WAR 1861-1865
93
   The Union armies had from 2,500,000 to
2,750,000 men. Their losses, by the best
estimates
        The Confederate strength, known less
accurately because of missing records, was from
750,000 to 1,250,000. Its estimated losses

94
0.03  
Deaths/ Population
American Deaths in Each War
Data from National Park Service internet web site
War
Deaths
of Total War Deaths
Year for Population Estimate
Estimated Population
Revolutionary War
4,435
0
1783
2,963,726
0.15
War of 1812
2,260
0
1815
8,439,167
0.03
Mexican War
13,283
1
1848
21,966,171
0.06
Civil War
624,511
49
1865
35,000,846
1.78
Spanish-American War
2,446
0
1898
73,565,688
0.00
World War 1
116,516
9
1918
103,262,929
0.11
World War 2
405,399
32
1945
141,745,184
0.29
Korean War
36,516
3
1953
159,725,011
0.02
Vietnam War
58,152
5
1973
210,274,081
95
THE 13TH AMENDMENT
  • Lincoln believed a Constitutional Amendment was
    needed to ensure freedom for slaves
  • The 13th Amendment outlawing slavery was ratified
    in 1865

96
LINCOLN IS ASSASSINATED
  • On April 14, 1865 Lincoln was shot in the head
    while attending a play in Washington, D.C.
  • He was the first president ever assassinated
  • His killer, John Wilkes Booth escaped, but was
    shot and killed later
  • More than 7,000,000 Americans turned out to mourn
    -1/3rd of population

The play was a British comedy called, My
American Cousin
97
RECONSTRUCTION SECTION 4
  • The Civil War had ended. Slavery and secession
    were no more. Now what?
  • How does the Union integrate the South back into
    American society?
  • How do 4 million newly freed African slaves
    integrate themselves into society?

1865-1877
98
THE POLITICS OF RECONSTRUCTION
  • The politics of Reconstruction was complicated by
    the fact that Lincoln, his VP and successor
    Andrew Johnson, and the Congress all had
    different ideas of how Reconstruction should be
    handled

ANDREW JOHNSON
99
LINCOLNS PLAN
  • Lincoln made it clear that he favored a lenient
    Reconstruction policy
  • His Ten Percent Plan called for a pardon of all
    Confederates who would swear allegiance to Union
    (oath)?
  • When 10 of the voting population of a state took
    the oath, a state would be readmitted into the
    Union

100
JOHNSONS PLAN
  • After Lincolns death, his VP successor Andrew
    Johnson announced his own plan
  • It differed only slightly from Lincolns He
    excluded high ranking Confederates and wealthy
    planters from the oath, but did pardon 13,000
    while contending that, White men alone must
    manage the South

101
CONGRESS PLAN
  • Congress worked hard to shift the focus of
    Reconstruction from the President to the Congress
  • In 1866, Congress overrode President Johnsons
    veto and passed the Civil Rights Act, the
    Freedmens Bureau Act, the 14th Amendment and
    the Reconstruction Act - 1867

Congress overrode Johnsons veto of Freedmens
Bureau
102
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT
  • One of the important acts passed by Congress was
    the Civil Rights Act -1866
  • This law gave African Americans citizenship and
    forbade states from passing laws discriminating
    against former slaves (Black Codes)?

FROM HARPERS MAGAZINE 1866 BLACKS CELEBRATE
103
FREEMENS BUREAU
  • Congress also passed the Freemens Bureau Act
    which provided much needed aid to African
    Americans
  • Included in the Act was money for education,
    hospitals, social services, churches, and help
    with labor contracts and discrimination cases

EDUCATION WAS AN IMPORTANT PART OF THE BUREAU
104
14TH AMENDMENT
  • In 1866, Congress passed the 14th Amendment which
    provided legal backing to the Civil Rights Act
  • It prevented states from denying rights to people
    based on race
  • This nullified the Dred Scott decision

105
RECONSTRUCTION ACT OF 1867
  • Congressional Republicans again joined forces to
    pass the Reconstruction Act
  • This act voided the state governments formed in
    the South under the Presidential plans and
    instead divided the south into 5 military
    districts
  • The states were required to grant black men the
    right to vote and to ratify the 14th Amendment

First Vote
This image depicts an artisan, a businessman and
a soldier standing in line to cast their first
ballot
106
JOHNSON IMPEACHED
  • Radical Republicans felt Johnson was blocking
    Reconstruction efforts
  • Thus, they looked for grounds to impeach him
  • They found grounds when he fired a cabinet member
    in violation of the Tenure of Office Act
  • He was impeached, but not convicted and served
    out his term

GALLERY TICKET FOR JOHNSON IMPEACHMENT HEARING
107
1868 ELECTION
  • Civil War hero U.S. Grant ran as a Republican
    against Democratic nominee Horatio Seymour
  • Grant won by a margin of 300,000 in the popular
    vote
  • 500,000 African Americans voted 90 for Grant

108
(No Transcript)
109
15th AMENDMENT
  • Soon after Grants election, Congress passed the
    15th Amendment
  • This amendment stated that no one could be kept
    from voting because of race, color, or previous
    servitude
  • The 15th Amendment was ratified in 1870

110
RECONSTRUCTING SOCIETY
  • The South went through significant changes after
    the war
  • The economy was in ruins and they lost hundreds
    of thousands of young men
  • Republicans now dominated politically, but often
    with conflicting goals

MANY SOUTHERN CITIES SUFFERED EXTENSIVE DAMAGE
111
SOUTHERN REPUBLICANS
  • 3 groups made up the bulk of Southern Republicans
  • 1) Scalawags White farmers (small farms)
  • 2) Carpetbaggers Northerners who came south in
    search of opportunity after the war
  • 3) African Americans Former slaves- 90 of whom
    were Republican

CARPETBAGGERS
SCALAWAGS
112
AFRICAN AMERICANS
  • African Americans took an active role in the
    political process in the South
  • They voted in record numbers and many ran for
    office
  • Hiram Revels was the first black Senator

HIRAM REVELS FIRST BLACK SENATOR
113
40 ACRES AND A MULE
  • Despite Shermans promise of 40 acres and a
    mule few former slaves received anything
  • Republicans considered property to be a sacred
    American right
  • Therefore, most plantation owners kept their land

SPIKE LEES PRODUCTION COMPANY IS CALLED 40
ACRES AND A MULE
114
SHARECROPPING AND TENANT FARMING
  • Without land of their own, Southern African
    Americans could not grow their own crops
  • Thus, many became sharecroppers a system be
    which families were given a small plot of land to
    work in exchange for some of the crops

ARKANSAS SHARECROPPERS
115
THE COLLAPSE OF RECONSTRUCTION
  • While some Southern whites participated in the
    new governments, voted in elections, and
    reluctantly accepted African Americans---others
    were very resentful and formed hate groups
  • Most famous vigilante group was the Ku Klux Klan,
    or the KKK

116
KU KLUX KLAN
  • The Klan was formed by disgruntled Confederate
    soldiers whose goals included destroying the
    Republican Party, aiding the planter class, and
    preventing blacks from integrating into society
  • Estimates range as high as 20,000 murders
    attributed to the Klan whose membership peaked at
    almost 4 million in the 1920s

117
DEMOCRATS REDEEM SOUTH
  • Lack of Republican unity in the South and an
    economic downturn that diverted attention from
    Southern issues, caused Democrats to regain
    control of the South
  • Called Redeemers these politicians were out to
    reclaim Southern culture, pride and tradition
  • The Reconstruction Era was over by 1877
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