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Animal Disease Emergencies Local Response Preparedness and Planning

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Title: Animal Disease Emergencies Local Response Preparedness and Planning


1
Animal Disease EmergenciesLocal
ResponsePreparedness and Planning
  • Local Government Officials

2
Note to Presenter
  • The following presentation provides an overview
    of animal disease emergency preparedness,
    prevention, response and recovery measures.
  • Supplemental PowerPoints on each topic are
    available for inclusion into this presentation or
    for stand alone presentations, depending on time
    allotted and interest of the audience.

3
Overview
  • What are animal disease emergencies
  • Who may be involved
  • What to expect
  • Importance of preparingat the local level
  • How you can prepare

4
Preparing and Responding to an Animal Disease
Emergency
Prepare Identify stakeholders and resources in community Local plan development Practice table tops, functional exercises Animal ID and Premises ID
Prevent Awareness and education Biosecurity
Respond Detection/diagnosis surveillance Contain Quarantine, isolation, stop movements biosecurity Control depopulation and disposal, vaccination, cleaning and disinfection
Recover Indemnity Business continuity
5
Animal Disease Emergencies
  • Affects large numbers of livestock
  • Most highly contagious/easily spread
  • Animal health impact
  • Economic consequences
  • Human health impact
  • Often called foreign animal diseases (FAD) or
    high consequence pathogens

6
Means of Introduction
  • Intentional or accidental introduction of foreign
    disease agents
  • Emerging or re-emerging diseases

7
Diseases of High ConsequenceInternational, U.S.
and Iowa
8
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)
  • Early Warning System
  • Disease reported within 24 hours
  • Informs countriesat risk
  • Trade shut downuntil further notice

9
Animal Disease Emergency Indicators
  • Increased illness, death rates, abortions
  • Significant drop in production
  • Ulcers or blisters on or around the animals
    mouth or feet
  • Sudden lameness
  • Any nervous system signs
  • Pox or lumpy skin conditions
  • Severe respiratory conditions
  • Any unusual or unexplained illness

10
Importance of Agriculture
11
Value of Agricultural Products
U.S. U.S. Iowa Iowa
Animal Number Value Number Value
Cattle 95 million 70.5 billion 4 million 2.5 billion
Pigs 61 million 4.5 billion 17 million 4 billion
Poultry (layers) 338 million 1 billion 55 million 407 million (eggs)
Sheep 6 million 600 million 235,000 33 million
12
Iowa Agriculture, 2006
Farms 88,600
1 Pork, eggs, corn, soybeans
2 Red meat production 6.5 billion pounds National exports 4 billion
3 Total cash receipts 14.8 billion
13
Food Production Changes
  • Number of farms decreasing
  • Animal numbers rising on some farms
  • Opportunities
  • Increasing intensity/specialization
  • Efficient food source U.S. and world
  • Challenges
  • Disease control and eradication
  • Devastating economic effects

14
Impact of Animal Disease
  • Animal Health
  • Death, illness, loss of production
  • Economics
  • Loss or disruption of trade
  • Loss of consumer confidence
  • Movement restrictions
  • Human Health
  • Zoonoses
  • Mental health

15
Vulnerabilities
  • High density husbandry
  • Mixing at auction marketsor transport by
    vehicles
  • Over 5 million cattle each year
  • Poor traceability of animals
  • No immunity to foreign animal diseases
  • Centralized feed supply and distribution

16
Vulnerabilities
  • Diseases are widespread in other countries
  • Expanded international trade and travel
  • Border penetration people, wild birds, mammals
  • Inadequate on-farm biosecurity
  • Inadequate foreign animal disease awareness

17
Prepare
  • State and Federal Agencies

18
Iowa Department of Agricultureand Land
Stewardship
  • State Veterinarian
  • Dr. David Schmitt
  • Animal health and control issues
  • Animal movement and tracking
  • State District Veterinarians (6)
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnosticians (FADD)
  • Specially trained veterinarian

19
STATE VETERINARIAN DISTRICTS Dr. David Schmitt,
State Veterinarian Work 515-281-8601 Cell
515-669-3527
Dr. Pamela Smith
Dr. Tim Smith
Dr. James Johnson
Dr. Gary E. Eiben
Dr. R.E. Welander
Dr. John Schiltz
February 2008
20
Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land
Stewardship (IDALS)
  • The Center for Agricultural Security
  • Iowa Veterinary Rapid Response Team (IVRRT)
  • 330 trained veterinarians and animal health
    professionals
  • NIMS and ICS trained

21
Additional State Agencies Involved
  • Iowa Homeland Security and Emergency Management
    Division (HSEMD)
  • Resource management
  • Department of Natural Resources (DNR)
  • Animal disposal issues
  • Livestock burial maps
  • Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH)
  • Human health issues
  • State Public Health Veterinarian
  • Dr. Ann Garvey

22
Additional Supporting Agencies
  • Iowa Department of Public Safety
  • Iowa Department of Transportation
  • Iowa National Guard
  • Iowa State University Extension
  • Iowa State University College of Veterinary
    Medicine

23
Iowa Emergency Response Plan
  • The State plan outlines who is responsible for
    what and when
  • Each state agency is assigned responsibilities
  • Each agency determines how to meet their
    responsibilities
  • Iowa Comprehensive Plan
  • Iowa Emergency Response Plan
  • Annex W Infectious Animal Disease
  • Iowa Hazard Mitigation Plan
  • Iowa Disaster Recovery Plan
  • Iowa Critical Asset Protection Plan

24
Annex W InfectiousAnimal Disease
  • Function
  • Address Iowas ability to respond and eliminate
    infectious animal diseases
  • Course of action for controlling and eradicating
  • To aid key state government decision-makers

25
Significant Functional Interdependencies
  • Direction, control, and coordination
  • Law enforcement
  • Logistics
  • Public information
  • Public works
  • Resource management
  • Human services
  • Terrorism incident response

26
IDALS AuthorityIowa Code 163.1(1)
  • Grants IDALS power to control an infectious
    disease affecting animals within this state
  • This may involve
  • Control and eradication of animal disease
  • Quarantine of diseased animals or premises
  • Regulation or prohibition of animal movement in,
    out and within the state
  • Entry to any premises where animals/carcassesare
    or have been in the past
  • Condemnation and depopulation of animals
  • Disinfection of farm operations

27
Animal Movement Regulations
  • State Veterinarian
  • Under authority of the Iowa Secretary of Ag
  • Embargo
  • Prohibits animal and/or product movement into
    Iowa
  • Voluntary Hold Order
  • Request that owners voluntarily cease all
    movement of animals and/or product
  • Quarantine
  • Mandatory order to cease animal and/or product
    movement

28
Iowa Premise Identification Program
  • Part of the National Animal Identification System
    (NAIS)
  • Premise
  • Any geographically unique location in which
    agricultural animals are raised, held or boarded
  • Allied agricultural and non-producer operations
    can also be assigned PINs
  • Complete the application
  • Assigned Premise Identification Number (PIN)
  • www.agriculture.state.ia.us/premiseID.htm

29
Federal Agencies
  • U.S. Department of Agriculture
  • Animal and Plant HealthInspection Service
    (APHIS)
  • Veterinary Services
  • Emergency Management and Diagnostics
  • National Center for Animal Health Emergency
    Management
  • National Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories

30
USDA Personnel in Iowa
  • Area Veterinarian In Charge (AVIC)
  • Dr. Kevin Petersburg
  • 9-Federal Veterinary Medical Officers
  • All are Foreign Animal Disease Diagnosticians
    (FADD)
  • Area Emergency Coordinator
  • Dr. Stephen Goff
  • Iowa, Nebraska

31
USDA Federal Veterinary Medical Officers
(VMO) Dr. Kevin Petersburg, Area Veterinarian In
Charge (AVIC) Work 515-284-4140
Dr. Pamela Smith
Dr. Tim Smith
Dr. Gary E. Eiben
Lyon
Dickinson
Osceola
Emmet
Kossuth
Winnebago
Worth
Winneshiek
Howard
Mitchell
Allamakee
Clay
Sioux
O'Brien
Palo Alto
Hancock
Cerro Gordo
Floyd
Chickasaw
Dr. Neil Rippke
Clayton
Fayette
Buena Vista
Pocahontas
Wright
Franklin
Bremer
Butler
Plymouth
Cherokee
Humboldt
Webster
Buchanan
Dubuque
Delaware
Black Hawk
Woodbury
Ida
Sac
Calhoun
Hamilton
Hardin
Grundy

Dr. Sharon Fairchild
Jones
Linn
Benton
Tama
Jackson
Dr. John Schiltz
Monona
Crawford
Carroll
Greene
Boone
Marshall
Story
Clinton
Cedar
Harrison
Shelby
Jasper
Audubon
Guthrie
Polk
Poweshiek
Iowa
Johnson
Dallas
Scott
Muscatine
Pottawattamie
Cass
Adair
Madison
Warren
Marion
Mahaska
Keokuk
Washington
Louisa

Montgomery
Mills
Henry
Jefferson
Wapello
Monroe
Lucas
Clarke
Union
Adams
Dr. R.E. Welander
Des
Moines
Dr. James Johnson
Fremont
Page
Taylor
Ringgold
Decatur
Wayne
Appanoose
Davis
Van Buren
Lee

Dr. Don Otto
February. 2008
32
USDA-APHIS-VSDiagnostic Laboratories
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory
  • Plum Island, NY
  • Provide diagnosticservices and training
  • National VeterinaryServices Laboratories
  • Ames, IA
  • National Animal Health Laboratory Network

33
National Animal Identification System (NAIS)
  • Voluntary
  • Created to identify and trace livestock
  • State-to-state consistency
  • Goal 48 hour trace of animals in disease
    outbreak
  • Maintain contact information that can be accessed
    in case of an animal health emergency to speed
    notification
  • Premises ID, animal ID, animal movement

34
U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
  • Customs and Border Protection
  • 317 ports of entry into US
  • Imported animal and plant material
  • Over 40,000 employees3,000 agriculture
    specialists
  • 1 million conveyances
  • 83 million passengers
  • 3.6 million cargo inspections
  • Beagle Brigade
  • 75,000 interceptions annually

35
Veterinary Response Teams
  • National Veterinary Response Teams (NVRT)
  • Veterinary Medical Assistance Teams (VMAT)
  • National Animal Health Emergency Response Corps
    (NAHERC)

36
HSPD-9
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive 9
    Management of Domestic Incidents
  • January 30, 2004
  • National policy to defend the nations
    agriculture and food system against terrorist
    attacks, major disasters and other emergencies
  • Develop a National Veterinary Stockpile

37
National Veterinary Stockpile
  • HSPD-9 (Jan 30, 2004)
  • National repository of critical veterinary
    supplies
  • Vaccine, antiviral, drugs
  • PPE kits
  • Deploy within 24 hours
  • Support response efforts for 40 days

38
Other Federal Agencies
  • Department of Homeland Security
  • FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency
  • Department of Justice
  • Law enforcement activities
  • Department of State
  • International response activities
  • Department of Defense
  • Authorizes Defense Support of Civil Authorities

39
National Response Framework
  • Animal Disease Emergencies

40
National Response Framework
  • Released January 2008
  • Successor of NRP
  • Effective March 22, 2008
  • All-hazards approach
  • Unified All-discipline
  • Flexible and scalable
  • Best practices and procedures
  • Allows Federal, State, local and tribal
    governments and the private sector to work
    together

41
National Response Framework
  • A basic premise
  • Incidents are handled at the lowest
    jurisdictional level possible
  • Emphasis on local response and identifying
    personnel responsible for incident management at
    the local level
  • E.g., police, fire, public health,medical or
    emergency management
  • Private sector is key partner

42
The 15 ESFs
1 Transportation Dept. ofTransportation 6 Mass Care,Emergency Assistance,Housing and HumanServices American Red Cross 11 Agriculture and Natural Resource US Dept. of Agriculture/ Dept. of the Interior
2 CommunicationsNational Communications System 7 Resource Support General ServicesAdministration 12 Energy Dept. of Energy
3 Public Works and Engineering Dept. of Defense/Army Corps of Engineers 8 Public Health and Medical Services Dept. of Health andHuman Services 13 Public Safety and Security Dept. of Homeland Security/Justice
4 Firefighting Dept. of Agriculture/ Forest Service 9 Urban Search and Rescue Federal EmergencyManagement Agency 14 Long TermCommunity Recovery US Small Business Administration
5 EmergencyManagement Federal Emergency Management Agency 10 Oil and Hazardous Materials Response Environmental Protection Agency 15 External Affairs Federal Emergency Management Agency
Slide used with permission from Dr. Dahna Batts,
CDC/COCA.
43
Local Roles and Responsibilities
  • Chief Elected or Appointed Official
  • Ensure public safety and welfare
  • Provide strategic guidance and resources
  • Coordinate resources within jurisdictions, among
    adjacent jurisdictions, with private sector
  • Emergency Manager
  • Oversees emergency programs and activities
  • Coordinate jurisdiction capabilities
  • Department and Agency Heads
  • Perform emergency management functions
  • Local emergency plans, provide response resources

44
Prevent
  • Managing Disease Risk

45
Routes of Transmission
  • Spread of disease agents
  • Animal animal
  • Animal human
  • zoonotic
  • Different modes of transmission
  • Oral
  • Vector-borne
  • Zoonotic
  • Aerosol
  • Direct contact
  • Fomite

46
Disease Transmission
  • Animals may not exhibit obvious clinical signsof
    disease
  • Essential
  • Disease prevention
  • Awareness of how disease is transmitted
  • Develop strategy to minimize disease risk for
    livestock operation

47
Response to an Animal Disease Emergency
48
Detection Unusual sign noted by Producer, animal handler or processor, local vet Diagnostic laboratory Processing plant
Initial Response Local DVM contacts State Veterinarian or AVIC FADD sent to investigate (within 24 hours) Samples submitted to Federal Lab
Risk and Response Assessment Response action levels determined based on disease suspected or diagnosed Activation of State Response Plan and/or National Response Framework
Response Actions Quarantine Stop Movements Surveillance Depopulation and Disposal Vaccination (?) Cleaning and Disinfection
Recovery Indemnity Business Continuity
Local
State
State or Federal
Local
49
FADD Investigation
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostician
  • Visits premise within 24 hours
  • Inspects animals
  • Consults with State Veterinarian/AVIC on case
    priority and actions needed
  • Sample collection
  • Sample handling (priority level)
  • Control measures movement restrictions,
    quarantine

50
Animal Health Laboratory Submissions
  • Routine (daily) testing
  • ISU CVM Diagnostic Laboratory
  • Other Private Laboratory Facilities
  • National Animal Health Laboratory Network
  • When a foreign animal disease is suspected
  • Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory,
    Plum Island, NY (cloven hoofed)
  • National Veterinary ServicesLaboratory Ames
    (poultry, equine, fish)

51
Containment
  • Of an Animal Disease Emergency

52
Prevention State Level
  • Movement restrictions
  • Animals
  • Live animals and their products
  • Not allowed to go to market, processing
  • People
  • Essential personnel only
  • No deliveries

53
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54
Single Premises Response
  • One location
  • FADD investigates
  • Diagnosis
  • Quarantine premises
  • Most coordination at State level
  • Treat or depopulate
  • Federal authorities manage international issues

55
Multiple Premises, Confined Area Response
  • Everything for single premise
  • Increased quarantine Area
  • REGIONAL Involvement
  • State, federal and industry agricultural
    authorities handle situation with or without
    State Declared Emergency
  • USDA Secretary of Agriculture may issue
    Declaration of Emergency

56
Multiple Premises, Multi-State Response
  • Everything previous plus
  • National movement controls
  • State level emergency declared
  • U.S. Secretary of Agriculturerequests assistance
    from DHS
  • National Response Framework and ESF 11 activated
  • APHIS is lead agency

57
Prevention On the Farm
  • Restrict access to farm
  • Clean vehicles only
  • Record ALL traffic, visitors
  • Monitor animals frequently
  • Contact your herd veterinarian

58
Prevention On the Farm
  • Wear clean gloves, coveralls and bootsat all
    times
  • Disinfect, properly dispose
  • Wash hands
  • Personal protective equipment
  • Eyewear, mask or respirator
  • Ear plugs (noise)
  • Vaccination, treatments
  • Subject to availability
  • Specific to disease

59
Prevention On the Farm
  • Cleaning
  • Remove all organic matter
  • Manure, dirt, feed, etc.
  • Disinfection
  • Use proper concentration
  • Allow proper contact time
  • Vehicles, equipment, footwear, housing

60
Euthanasia
  • Humane method
  • Determined by State or Federal Veterinarian
  • May include
  • Cervical dislocation
  • Carbon dioxide
  • Captive bolt
  • Anesthetic overdose

61
Disposal Options
  • Burial on-site
  • Composting
  • Incineration
  • Rendering
  • Alkaline hydrolysis
  • Landfill
  • Biosecurity concerns
  • Disease characteristics
  • Quarantine zones
  • Open burning (not allowed in Iowa)

62
IDNR Carcass Disposal Maps
  • www.iowadnr.gov
  • Site considerations of burial locations
  • Disease characteristics
  • Environmental Water tables
  • Public health
  • GIS Mapping - Interactive
  • 3 tiered approach
  • Red restricted zones
  • Multiple colors cautionary zones
  • Green No known restrictions

63
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64
Human Health Issues During a Response
65
Human Health Implications
  • Zoonotic Diseases
  • Diseases of animals spread to humans
  • Newcastle disease pink eye
  • Swine vesicular disease skin blisters
  • Avian influenza respiratory, pneumonia
  • Anthrax skin lesions, respiratory, death

66
Safety On the Farm
  • Injuries
  • Slips, trips and falls
  • Mental health
  • Producers loss of herd/flocks, livelihood
  • Responders stress
  • Environmental stress
  • Heat, cold, rain
  • Physical stress

67
Response Coordination
  • NIMS and ICS

68
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
  • February 2003
  • Draft revision Aug 2007
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive5
  • Nationwide template
  • Enables all government, private-sector, and NGOs
    to work together during domestic incidents

69
NIMS Key Concepts
  • Standardizes incident management for all
    responders
  • A core set of principles, terminology and
    organizational processes
  • Flexible, adaptable
  • Applicable regardless of incident cause, size,
    location, or complexity
  • Enables government and private entities work
    together

70
National Response Framework Application of
integratedFederal resources
71
Incident Command System (ICS)
  • Standardized on-scene emergency management tool
  • To coordinate and combine independent efforts
  • Integrated organizational structure
  • Can have officials and responders from Federal,
    State, local and tribal agencies, private sector
    and non-governmental organizations
  • Not hindered by jurisdictional boundaries

72
Incident Command Post
  • Modular Format
  • Top down structure
  • Five key functional areas

73
Command Post (CP)
  • On-scene command and management
  • Incident Commander in chargeof all functions
  • By legal, agency, or delegated authority
  • A Safety Officer, Information Officer, and
    Liaison Officer may be appointed

74
Unified Command
  • Multi jurisdictional authoritiesor agencies
  • Manage under appropriate law, ordinance or
    agreement
  • Goals
  • Develop objectives for incident
  • Improve information flow and interaction among
    all agencies involved
  • Reduce or eliminate duplicate efforts

75
Area Command
  • Management of multiple incidents being handled by
    separate Incident Command Posts
  • -or-
  • Management of very large or complex incident with
    multiple incident management teams

76
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77
Incident Command
Local Emergency Ops Center (EOC)
Coordination of information and resources to
support local incident management activities
Area Command
Management of multiple incidents - each handled
by an ICS organization
Incident Command Post
Incident Command Post
Incident Command Post
Primary tactical-level, on-scene incident command
functions
78
Animal Health Incident Command System Organization
79
Each Location Will be a LOCAL Incident
  • Requires local planning
  • Initial response will be a local one
  • After State and Federal agencies leave it is
    still a local incident
  • Address long term recovery
  • Producers
  • Local jurisdiction
  • Economic effects

80
Recovery
81
Recovery
  • Restore confidence
  • Requires time, money, effort
  • Cleaning and disinfection
  • Indemnity for livestock owners
  • Restocking
  • Business continuity

82
Prior to Disaster
  • It will never happen to me
  • It wont be that bad
  • I have insurance
  • The government will take care of me
  • Preparation and planning are essential for
    businesses to survive a disaster

83
Local Local support may include Road barricades Quarantine enforcement Checkpoint personnel Decon stations and personnel Transportation Additional communications capacity GPS equipment Base of operations Training/orientation facility Staging area for equipment Food, lodging Supplies, resources as needed for task management
Federal Local support may include Road barricades Quarantine enforcement Checkpoint personnel Decon stations and personnel Transportation Additional communications capacity GPS equipment Base of operations Training/orientation facility Staging area for equipment Food, lodging Supplies, resources as needed for task management
State Local support may include Road barricades Quarantine enforcement Checkpoint personnel Decon stations and personnel Transportation Additional communications capacity GPS equipment Base of operations Training/orientation facility Staging area for equipment Food, lodging Supplies, resources as needed for task management
84
Planning for YOYO Phase
  • Protect your family, employees
  • Protect pets and livestock
  • Protect your property, business
  • Critical community resources for
  • Those with special needs
  • Most severely impacted
  • Be part of the solution
  • Not part of the problem

85
Business Continuity Plan
  • Direction and control
  • Communications
  • Life safety
  • Property protection
  • Community involvement
  • Administration and logistics

86
Business Continuity Plan
  • Recovery and restoration
  • Planning considerations
  • Continuity of management
  • Insurance
  • Employee support
  • Resuming operations

87
Planning Pays Off
  • No or poor plan can result in losses
  • In the event of a major disaster
  • 43 never reopen
  • 16.5 reopen but close in 2 years
  • 60 attrition due to a disaster
  • For every 1 spent on planning,7 saved from
    disaster loss (FEMA)

88
Animal Disease Emergency Example
  • Foot and Mouth Disease

89
Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
  • Highly contagious virus
  • Considered to be the most important livestock
    diseasein the world
  • Not in U.S. since 1929
  • Affects cloven-hoofed animals
  • Spread between animals, by contaminated
    objectsor aerosol

90
Foot and Mouth Disease Outbreaks Jan to Mar 2008
91
U.K. FMD Outbreak, 2001
  • Total costs over 10 billion
  • Ag industry, compensation, tourism,
    sports
  • 6 million animals slaughtered
  • FMD free in less than 1 year
  • Public perception
  • Animal welfare
  • Smoke pollution

92
Conclusion
93
What Have We Learned?
  • Threats need to be taken seriously
  • Framework for response and coordination
  • Local resources needed
  • Prevent disease spread
  • Prevent any public health implications

94
Why is Local Planning needed?
  • Early detection and response are critical to
    limit impact
  • Know what to look for and who to call for
    assistance
  • Cooperation with local, state, and federal
    authorities is essential
  • Everyone plays an important role in protecting
    U.S. agriculture

95
What can you do?
  • Training in NIMS and ICS
  • Awareness of steps in an outbreak and where you
    fit in
  • Be involved in local response plan development
    process
  • Work with State officials to improve your
    communities preparedness
  • Encourage prevention and vigilance among members
    of your community

96
Contacts
  • Phone numbers to know
  • State Veterinarian
  • 515-281-8601
  • APHIS Area-Veterinarian-in-Charge (AVIC)
  • 515-284-4140
  • State Public Health Veterinarian
  • 515-281-4933

97
Acknowledgments
  • Development of this presentationwas funded by a
    grant from theIowa Homeland Securityand
    Emergency Management andthe Iowa Department of
    Agriculture and Land Stewardship to theCenter
    for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State
    University.
  • Contributing Authors Glenda Dvorak, DVM, MPH,
    DACVPM Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH, DACVPM
    Gayle Brown, DVM, PhD Reviewer Tegwin Taylor,
    DVM, MPH
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