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Title: Enhancing Your Instructional Skills Through Differentiated Instruction Differentiated Instruction Academy Day 1 Presented by: Dr. Mark W. Kandel


1
Enhancing Your Instructional Skills Through
Differentiated InstructionDifferentiated
Instruction Academy Day 1Presented byDr.
Mark W. Kandel
2
If a teacher isnt clear about what all
students should understand and be able to do when
the learning experience ends, he or she lacks the
vital organizer around which to develop a
powerful (differentiated) lesson.- Thomlinson,
The Differentiated Classroom
3
Learning must be guided by generalized
principles in order to be widely applicable.
Knowledge learned at the level of rote memory
rarely transfers transfer most likely occurs
when the learner knows and understands underlying
concepts and principles that can be applied to
problems in new contexts. Learning with
understanding is more likely to promote transfer
than simply memorizing information from a text or
a lecture.Bransford, et. al., How People Learn
4
Objectives
  • Participants will
  • gain an overview (review) of differentiated
    instruction
  • gain an overview of planning for effective
    instruction
  • Develop standards-based lessons and
  • Identify strategies for managing large and small
    groups of students.

5
New Vocabulary from Vegas
  • Crack Kids
  • CEO
  • PORK
  • Helicopter Parents
  • BMW
  • We may all arrived on different ships, but were
    in the same boat now

6
Why Differentiate?
  • All kids are different.
  • One size does not fit all.
  • Differentiation provides all students with access
    to all curriculum.

7
What Is Differentiation?
  • A teachers response to learner needs
  • The recognition of students varying background
    knowledge and preferences
  • Instruction that appeals to students differences

8
Teachers Can Differentiate
Content
Process
Product
According to Students
Interest
Learning Profile
Readiness
Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom
Responding to the Needs of All Learners
(Tomlinson, 1999).
9
Comparing Traditional and Differentiated
Classrooms
  • Consideration of student differences
  • Use of assessment
  • Use of student interest and learning style

10
Comparing Traditional and Differentiated
Classrooms (continued)
  • Instructional format
  • Assignment options
  • Factors guiding instruction

11
Instructional Continuum
  • One size
    Total
  • Fits all_________________Individualization
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
    10

12
Discussion Question
13
Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction
Your Classroom
  • Start slowly.
  • Organize your classroom space.

14
Inboxes
15
Tips for Implementing Differentiated Instruction
Your Classroom (continued)
  • Start student files.
  • Start student portfolios.
  • Use a clipboard.
  • Use technology.

16
Implementing Differentiated Instruction Your
District or School
  • Start with committed staff.
  • Look for existing resources/infrastructure.
  • Start with one or two strategies.
  • Try it and be willing to alter and extend.

17
Implementing Differentiated Instruction
Additional Considerations
  • Teacher support
  • Professional development
  • Adequate planning time

18
Where Do I Go From Here?Resources
  • Online discussion forum
  • http//www.k8accesscenter.org/discuss
  • Effective classroom strategies
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Middle school Listservs
  • mstorm_at_air.org
  • Collaboration

19
Resources (continued)
  • Assessment
  • Curriculum-based measurement
  • www.studentprogress.org
  • National Center on Accessing the General
    Curriculum (NCAC)
  • www.cast.org/ncac/
  • Access Center
  • www.k8accesscenter.org

The Access Center, a project of the American
Institutes for Research, is funded by the U.S.
Department of Education, Office of Special
Education Programs Cooperative Agreement
H326K020003
20
Differentiation Strategies
  • All strategies are aligned with instructional
    goals and objectives.
  • Specific strategy selection based on
  • Focus of instruction
  • Focus of differentiation

21
Teaching in a Standards-Based World
  • Using Bloom Taxonomy

22
Think About This
  • In the Age of Standards, teaching to the
    test is not only the job, but the obligation of
    each teacher. By teaching to the test, we are
    following the standards and putting the building
    blocks in place so students can be successful
    year after year in their educational careers.

23
Standards
  • Remember the definition of standards Standards
    are open and public statements about what
    students should know and be able to do to achieve
    at the highest levels in all academic areas.

24
Getting to Know the Standards
  • There is some essential information we should
    know about the standards
  • Am I the first teacher to introduce this standard
    to students?
  • Is the standard being repeated from another
    grade?
  • Is this standard being combined with another
    standard that was previously taught or mastered?
  • Am I the only teacher responsible for teaching
    this standard to this group of students?

25
ExampleMeasurement Evaluation
  • 2.3.3.A. (Grade 3) Compare measurable
    characteristics of different objects on the same
    dimension (e.g. time, temperature, area, length)
  • 2.3.5.A. (Grade 5) Select and use appropriate
    instruments and units for measuring quantities
    (e.g. perimeter, volume, area, weight, time)
  • 2.3.8.A. (Grade 8) Develop formulas and
    procedures for determining measurements (e.g.
    area, volume, distance)
  • 2.3.11.A. (Grade 11) Select and use appropriate
    units and tools to measure to the degree of
    accuracy required in particular measurement
    situations.

26
Blooms Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain
  • It is important to understand that the standard
    is a building block upon which future content
    rests.
  • The Taxonomy helps arrange what we want students
    to know in a hierarchy from less to more complex.
  • IDENTIFY THE KEY WORD(S) WITHIN THE STANDARD AND
    MATCH TO THE LEVEL OF BLOOM

27
ExampleMeasurement Evaluation
  • 2.3.3.A. (Grade 3) Compare measurable
    characteristics of different objects on the same
    dimension (e.g. time, temperature, area, length)
  • 2.3.5.A. (Grade 5) Select and use appropriate
    instruments and units for measuring quantities
    (e.g. perimeter, volume, area, weight, time)
  • 2.3.8.A. (Grade 8) Develop formulas and
    procedures for determining measurements (e.g.
    area, volume, distance)
  • 2.3.11.A. (Grade 11) Select and use appropriate
    units and tools to measure to the degree of
    accuracy required in particular measurement
    situations.

28
What if you do not teach a lesson from the
objectives in the standards at the correct level?
  • If we don not teach to the level of the standard,
    the student is not learning at the correct level
    and we are not creating the necessary building
    blocks needed for later lessons.

29
Final Thoughts
  • Prioritize content.
  • Not every essential question will necessarily be
    addressed in each unit, nor will every essential
    question have only one unit question.
  • Formulating essential questions and unit
    questions gives you the framework in which to
    differentiate activities.

30
Assessment is todays means of
understanding how to modify tomorrows
instruction. - Carol Tomlinson
31
On-going AssessmentA Diagnostic Continuum
Feedback and Goal Setting
Pre-test Graphing for Greatness Inventory KWL Chec
klist Observation Self-evaluation Questioning
Conference Exit Card Peer evaluation Portfolio
Check 3-minute pause Quiz Observation Journal
Entry Talkaround Self-evaluation Questioning
Unit Test Performance Task Product/Exhibit Demonst
ration Portfolio Review
32
Pre-assessment Is
  • Pre-test
  • Inventory
  • Checklist
  • KWL
  • Observation
  • Self-evaluation
  • determining a students current level of
    readiness or interest in order to plan
    appropriate instruction

33
Pre-Assessment
  • Cover the entire unit
  • Recall facts
  • Ask students to use information
  • Ask students to interpret info
  • Ask open-ended questions

34
What Now????
  • Use information for flexible grouping to
  • establish your timeline for your unit of study
  • determine the number of students at different
    levels of mastery

35
Formative Assessment Is
  • Conferences
  • Peer evaluation
  • Journal entry
  • Portfolio check
  • Quiz
  • Exit card
  • monitoring students progress to help make
    instructional decisions that will improve
    his/her understanding and achievement.

36
Exit Cards
  • Today you learned about hyperbole. List three
    things you learned. Write a least one question
    you have about the topic.
  • Students are asked to respond to a predetermined
    prompt on an index card at the end of a class
    period.

37
EXIT CARDS
  • Today you began to
  • learn about decimal
  • fractions
  • List three things you learned
  • Write at least one question you have about this
    topic

38
EXIT CARDS
We have been learning about The Greenhouse
Effect. Explain or depict your understanding of
this important environmental issue. What
questions do you have about this topic?
39
EXIT CARDS
We have begun a study of authors craft. List
and identify three examples of figurative
language used in the novel Morning Girl by
Michael Dorris.
40
EXIT CARDS
On your Exit Card--- Explain the
difference between prime and composite
numbers. You may wish to give some examples of
each as part of your explanation.
41
EXIT CARDS
On your exit card--- Explain the
difference between simile and metaphor. Give
some examples of each as part of your
explanation.
42
Summative Assessment Is
  • A means to determine a students mastery and
    understanding of information, skills, concepts,
    or processes.
  • Product/exhibit
  • Demonstration
  • Portfolio review
  • Unit Test
  • Performance task

43
Based on pre- and ongoing assessments, what and
how will you differentiate??
44
Planning Instruction
  • Do You Know Your Learners and What They Need to
    Know, Understand and Do?

45
K.U.D.
  • What students will Know (e.g., key knowledge and
    skills)
  • What students will Understand (e.g., big ideas,
    specific understandings, misconceptions)
  • What students will be able to Do (e.g., what they
    should be able to do as a result of knowledge and
    skills)

46
Modifying Curriculum Instruction
  • Curriculum Ladder

47
Enhancing Your Instructional Skills Through
Differentiated InstructionDifferentiated
Instruction Academy Day 2Presented byDr.
Mark W. Kandel
48
Differentiating Content
  • Vary the presentation to reflex learning
    styles/strengths
  • Adjust the degree of complexity of the skills and
    concepts and principles
  • Use varied materials
  • Use varied teaching methods/strategies
  • Target instruction to readiness level

49
Differentiating Content cont
  • Provide scaffolded support
  • Examples
  • Visual Strategies to Support Reading (Graphic
    Organizers)
  • Curriculum Compacting
  • Concept Mastery Routine
  • Concept Comparison Routine

50
Visual Strategies to Support Reading
  • Text Structure and Graphic Organizers

51
The Interactive Elements of Reading
52
Three Interactive Elements of Reading
  • Reader (What the reader brings to the
    learning experience)
  • Climate (The learning context or environment)
  • Text Features (The characteristics of the written
    text)

53
Text Features
  • Reader Aids
  • Vocabulary
  • Text Structure

54
Reader Aids/Text Features
  • Typographical visual elements (how the text
    looks on the page)
  • Headings
  • Boldfaced words
  • Graphic aids

55
Vocabulary
  • Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important
    factor contributing to reading comprehension
    (Laflamme, 1997)
  • Content area vocabulary is different from
    vocabulary in literature-based lessons
  • A. Content area vocabulary often consists of
  • major concepts
  • B. Content area vocabulary terms are rarely
  • associated with concepts students
  • already know
  • C. Content area terms are often semantically
  • related.

56
Text Structure
  • Organization of a piece of writing
  • 1. Descriptive or listing
  • 2. Sequence or time order
  • 3. Compare and contrast
  • 4. Cause and effect
  • 5. Problem and solution
  • 6. Concept/definition
  • 7. Generalization/principle
  • 8. Episode

57
Strategies for Vocabulary Development
  • 1. Concept definition Mapping
  • 2. Frayer Model
  • 3. Semantic Feature Analysis
  • 4. Semantic Mapping
  • 5. Student VOC Strategy
  • 6. Word Sorts

58
Strategies for Narrative Text
  • 1. Character Map
  • 2. Directed Reading/Thinking Activity
  • (DR/TA)
  • 3. Story Grammar/maps
  • 4. Venn Diagram

59
Strategies for Informational Text
  • 1. Anticipation Guide/Prediction Guide
  • 2. Graphic Organizers
  • 3. Group Summarizing
  • 4. Informational Paragraph Frames
  • 5. K-W-L
  • 6. Pairs Read
  • 7. Prereading Plan (PreP)
  • 8. Semantic Mapping
  • 9. Structured Note-taking

60
Curriculum Compacting
  • Curriculum compacting is an instructional
    technique designed to make curriculum
    modifications that allow for both acceleration
    and enrichment. (Dr. Joseph Renzulli).
  • Allows students to finish in less time and
    progress at their own pace.
  • Students are only taught concepts that they do
    not already know.

61
Curriculum Compacting Phase 1
  • Exploratory Stage
  • Pre-assessment
  • - Test, conference, portfolio conference
  • To find out what the learner
  • - Knows, needs to know, wants to know

62
Curriculum Compacting Phase 2
  • Analyze data
  • Mastery Skills, concepts
  • What have they mastered?
  • Needs to Master
  • What else do they need to know?
  • How will they learn it?
  • Whole class, independent study, homework,
    mentor/buddy in or out of school, online?

63
Curriculum Compacting Phase 3
  • Advanced Level Challenges
  • Investigations, service learning, projects,
    contracts
  • Opportunities to be analytical, practical,
    creative
  • Assessment

64
Concept Mastery Routine
  • Research-based Strategies
  • University of Kansas
  • SIM

65
Concept Comparison Routine
  • Research-based Strategies
  • University of Kansas
  • SIM

66
Differentiating Process
  • Modifying the sense-making of the lesson
  • Teachers can offer more than one way to process
    the ideas and concepts.
  • Examples
  • Learning Centers
  • Role-playing
  • Hands-on activities
  • Parallel tasks
  • Tiered/Adjusted assignments
  • Learning contracts
  • Choice boards

67
Differentiating Process cont
  • Use flexible groupings
  • Use varied teaching methods/strategies
  • Create learning stations
  • Establish learning contracts
  • Allow student self assessments and goal setting

68
Creating a Layered LessonJohn Lester
  1. Identify the grade level for the lesson.
  2. Introduce the standard to the students (objective
    of your lesson)
  3. Teach either an initial lesson or a partial
    lesson.
  4. Diagnose students in order to create
    instructional groups and layers (pre-assessment)
  5. Create the instructional layers based on
    instructional need from the pre-assessment.

69
Creating a Layered Lesson (cont)
  • Engage each student in instructional layers
    according to instructional need.
  • Provide instructional assistance to each group
    based on need.
  • Share student products either individually or in
    groups.
  • Provide teacher feedback and facilitate student
    reflection.
  • Provide assessment methods for mastery of the
    objective in the lesson.

70
Tiered Lesson/Assignment
  • Examples

71
Diner Menu Photosynthesis
  • Appetizer (Everyone Shares)
  • Write the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
  • Entrée (Select One)
  • Draw a picture that shows what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Write two paragraphs about what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Create a rap that explains what happens during
    photosynthesis.
  • Side Dishes (Select at Least Two)
  • Define respiration, in writing.
  • Compare photosynthesis to respiration using a
    Venn Diagram.
  • Write a journal entry from the point of view of a
    green plant.
  • With a partner, create and perform a skit that
    shows the differences between photosynthesis and
    respiration.
  • Dessert (Optional)
  • Create a test to assess the teachers knowledge
    of photosynthesis.

72
THINK-TAC-TOE Book Report
Draw a picture of the main character. Perform a play that shows the conclusion of a story. Write a song about one of the main events.
Write a poem about two main events in the story. Make a poster that shows the order of events in the story. Dress up as your favorite character and perform a speech telling who you are.
Create a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the introduction to the closing. Write two paragraphs about the main character. Write two paragraphs about the setting.
73
Tiered Activity Writing a Persuasive
Essay 4th6th Grade Classroom
Beginning Intermediate Advanced
Outcome/Objective Students will determine a topic and will write a five-sentence paragraph with a main idea, three supporting sentences, and a concluding sentence. Students will determine a topic, state a point of view, and write two paragraphs defending that point of view. Students will determine a topic, state a point of view, and write an essay of at least five paragraphs that uses multiple sources to defend that point of view.
Instruction/Activity Students will receive a model of a five-sentence paragraph and explicit instruction in constructing the paragraph. As a prewriting activity, students will list their topic and develop a list of at least three things that support their topic. Students will receive a model of a persuasive essay and a graphic organizer that explains the construction of a persuasive essay. Students will also receive explicit instruction in writing a persuasive essay. As a prewriting activity, students will use the graphic organizer to plan their writing. Students will review the graphic organizer for a persuasive essay. Students will be given explicit instruction in locating sources and quotes for their essays. As a prewriting activity, students will use the graphic organizer to organize their essay. Students will also compile a list of five sources that defend their main point.
Assessment Students will be able to write a five-sentence paragraph that successfully states and supports a main idea. The paragraph will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric. Students will be able to state a point of view and successfully defend the idea using two paragraphs that defend the point of view using main ideas and supporting details. The paragraphs will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric. Students will be able to write a five-paragraph essay that states a point of view, defends the point of view, and uses resources to support the point of view. The essay will meet the criteria on the state writing rubric.
74
Anchor Activities
  • What Do I Do When I am Finished??

75
R.A.F.T.
  • Role, Audience, Format, Topic

76
Cubing
  • A technique that will assist students to consider
    a concept from six
  • points of view, by giving students suggestions on
    how to conceptualize a particular concept

77
Blooms Taxonomy
Knowledge Comprehension Application
Analysis Synthesis Evaluation
78
Now Its YOUR Turn!
79
Learning Contracts
  • Strategy for DI

80
Learning Contract 1
Name _______________________
My question or topic is
To find out about my question or topic
I will read
I will look at and listen to
I will write
I will draw
I will need
Heres how I will share what I know
I will finish by this date
81
Learning Contract 2
To demonstrate what I have learned about
____________________, I want to
_ Write a report _ Put on a demonstration _ Set
up an experiment _ Develop a computer
presentation _ Build a model
_ Design a mural _ Write a song _ Make a movie _
Create a graphic organizer or diagram _ Other
This will be a good way to demonstrate
understanding of this concept because ____________
__________________________________________________
To do this project, I will need help
with _____________________________________________
_________________ My Action Plan
is________________________________________________
The criteria/rubric which will be used to
assess my final product is _________ _____________
_________________________________________________
My project will be completed by this date
_____________________________ Student signature
________________________________ Date
___/___/___ Teacher signature ___________________
_____________ Date ___/___/___
82
Learning Centers
  • Strategy for DI

83
Definition
A classroom area that contains a collection of
activities or materials designed to teach,
reinforce or extend a particular skill or
concept. Kaplan, et al. 1980
84
Suggested Learning Center
  1. Transitional Center for those students who have
    not met the necessary knowledge and skill levels
    ltre-teach or remediategt
  2. Essential Center for those students who are
    about to meet the levels ltinstructionalgt
  3. Exploration Center for those students who are
    ready for independent work

85
Critical Reminders!
  1. Based on ongoing formative assessments, students
    are placed in the appropriate center.
  2. Students may need to be reassigned based on
    ongoing assessment.
  3. Students are allowed to test out of each group.

86
Benefits
  1. Allows the teacher to better understand each
    student as a learner
  2. Reduces time between instruction and assessment
  3. Students may self - assess work
  4. Students may peer assess work

87
Bloom and Learning Centers
  • Transitional Level
  • Knowledge and Comprehension
  • Essential Level
  • Application and Analysis
  • Exploration Level
  • Synthesis and Evaluation

88
Potential Challenges
  1. Creating formative and exit assessments
  2. Preparation needed to create learning centers
  3. Physical space available in the room

89
Differentiated Product
  • The product assignments must match the essential
    learning and include expectations for quality.
  • Examples
  • Cubing
  • Exit Cards
  • Assessments

90
Assessment in the Differentiated Classroom
  • Ongoing
  • Instruction-dependent
  • Student-dependent
  • Informative for continuedinstruction

91
Differentiation Practice
  • Differentiation Scenario

92
Differentiation Activity Reading Your task is
to take the following instructional objective and
identify two differentiation strategies that
might be used to teach the objective. Objective
Students will complete a report on the book
Charlottes Web. Identify the pros and cons of
using both strategies in a class of 25 students
that includes these 5 students Sherry likes to
be asked to do things by the teacher. She is
interested in fitting in and speaks out often in
class. She has a wild imagination and loves to
read, but her comprehension skills are below
grade level. Jimmy is hyperactive and likes to
dance around the room when class is near the end.
He is an audio/visual learner, is a solid reader,
and enjoys excelling and being the best. He
gets very excited to start new books, but they
dont hold his attention for long. Terrance does
not feel a connection to school. He is a very
intelligent student, but he follows. He seems
to do well in every type of activity when he
applies himself. He has exhibited strong reading
skills, but does not always complete work. Jack
failed reading three times. He is an expert
hunter and fisherman and knows more about the
outdoors than anyone. He seems to learn best with
hands-on activities. His reading and writing
skills have only slightly improved over the last
2 years. Marie is a very quick learner. She seems
to get things just by listening. She likes to
excel. She is very concerned about rules and
right vs. wrong. She is a natural leader. Her
reading and writing skills are both above grade
level.
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