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CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER 5 CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN SCHOOLS OHI and Research Findings OHI (Organizational Health Index) can measure health of a school. Administered to professional staff. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN SCHOOLS


1
CHAPTER 5
  • CULTURE AND CLIMATE IN SCHOOLS

2
The behavior of a group cannot be predicted
solely from an understanding of the personality
of each member. Various social processes
intervenethe group develops a mood, and
atmosphere. In the context of the organization,
we talk a bout a style, a culture, a
character. Mintzberg
I wish Jake would get his hand off me!
3
Culture
  • Definition A system of shared orientations that
    hold the unit together and give it a distinctive
    identity
  • Created by a groups or organizations norms,
    shared values and basic assumptions
  • The significance of an event is more about what
    the event means than the actual event

4
Levels of Culture
5
Norms
  • Usually unwritten and informal expectations of a
    group or organization
  • Can be communicated by stories and ceremonies
  • People are usually rewarded when they conform to
    norms and punished when they do not conform
  • Examples wearing a tie to work, respecting the
    administration

6
Values
  • Beliefs of what is desirable
  • Often define what members should do to be
    successful and what standards to uphold in the
    organization
  • Define basic character and give an organization a
    sense of identity
  • Core Values dominate values shared and accepted
    by the majority of organizational members
  • Example an organization giving retirement
    benefits to reward long term employment

7
Strong Cultures
  • Beliefs and values held intensity, shared widely
    and guide organizational behavior
  • Can be a positive or negative aspect in time of
    change. If a culture is so set in their ways and
    resistant to change, change is unlikely to occur
  • Example A department who has taught their way
    for years refusing to teach to the standards.

8
Tacit Assumptions
  • Definition abstract premises about the nature
    of human relationships, human nature, truth,
    reality and environment
  • Deepest level of culture
  • Members share a view of the world, their place in
    it and their way to cope with external factors
  • These ideas are valued and passed on to new
    members
  • Highly resistant to change
  • Example A school who believes their teachers
    are motivated, responsible and capable of
    governing themselves

9
Functions of Culture
  • Culture has boundary-defining function it
    creates distinctions among organizations
  • Culture provides the organization with a sense of
    identity
  • Culture facilitates the development of commitment
    to the group
  • Culture enhances stability of the social system
  • Culture is the social glue that binds the
    organization together it provides the
    appropriate standards for behavior.

10
Primary Elements that Shape Culture
  • Innovation the degree to which employees are
    expected to be creative and take risks.
  • Stability the degree to which activities focus
    on the status quo rather than change.
  • Attention to detail the degree to which there is
    a concern for precision and detail.
  • Outcome orientation the degree to which
    management emphasizes results.
  • People orientation the degree to which
    management decisions are sensitive to
    individuals.
  • Team orientation the degree of emphasis on
    collaboration and teamwork.
  • Aggressiveness the degree to which employees are
    expected to be competitive rather than easygoing.

11
Symbolshelp indentify cultural themes
  • Stories narrative truth with some fiction
  • Myths Belief demonstrated through fiction
  • Legends Stories retold again and again with
    fictional details
  • Icon Physical artifact (mottos, trophies)
  • Rituals Routine ceremonies (faculty meeting)

12
Analysis of School Culture
  • Schools with strong cultures of efficacy, trust
    and academic optimism provide higher levels of
    student achievement

13
A Culture of Efficacy
  • Collective Teacher Efficacy the shared
    perception of teachers in a school that the
    efforts of the faculty as a whole will have a
    positive effect on students
  • At the cultural level, this is a set of beliefs
    or social perceptions that are strengthened
    through their use and give a school a distinctive
    identity

14
Sources of Collective Efficacy
15
Analysis of the Teaching Task Assessment of
Teaching Competence
  • Sources of Efficacy
  • Mastery of Experience
  • Social Persuasion
  • Affective Status

Analyses, Attributions, and Interpretations
Estimation of Collective Teacher Efficacy
  • Consequences of Collective Efficacy
  • Effort
  • Persistence
  • Success

Performance
16
Formation of Collective Efficacy
17
Collective Efficacy
  • Research Findings
  • Strong school culture of efficacy leads to the
    acceptance of challenging goals, strong
    organizational effort, and persistence that leads
    to better performance.

18
A Culture of Trust
  • Trust is a little like air No one thinks much
    about it until it is needed and is not there.
  • Important in that
  • Facilitates Cooperation
  • Enhances Openness
  • Promotes Group Cohesiveness
  • Improves Student Achievement

19
Faculty Trust
  • This is a teachers willingness to be vulnerable
    to another party based on the confidence that the
    latter party is benevolent , reliable, competent,
    honest and open.
  • Culture of trust can be measured based on degree
    of faculty trust in
  • a.) parents students b.) principal
  • c.) principal

20
Faculty Trust Cont.
High Student Parent Trust
21
Measuring Faculty Trust
  • Administer the Omnibus T-Scale to all Faculty
  • Use following fomulas to calculate score
  • Standard Score for Trust in Clients (TCl)
    100(TCl-3.53)/.621500
  • Standard Score for Trust in the Principal (TP)
    100(TP-4.42)/.725500
  • Standard Score for Trust in Colleagues (TCo)
    100(TCo-4.46)/.443500
  • Add all 3 and compare against standard
    performance index of other schools

22
Academic Optimism
  • The beliefs about the strengths and capabilities
    in schools that helps promote optimism. This in
    turn promotes both effectiveness and trust with
    an academic emphasis

23
Academic Emphasis
  • Faculty Trust

Collective Efficacy
24
Culture of Control
25
Pupil Control Findings
Custodial School Climate
  • Greater Teacher Disengagement
  • Lower Levels of Moral
  • More Close Supervision by the Principal
  • More Alienated Students
  • Greater Student Vandalism
  • More Violent Incidents
  • More Suspensions

Changes towards Humanistic are slow and often
unsuccessful
26
(No Transcript)
27
Frames For Viewing School Climate
Openness
Health

Citizenship
28
A Climate of Organizational Openness
  • Halpin and Croft (1962) began mapping the domain
    of organizational climate of schools because the
    concept of morale did not provide an adequate
    explanation for schools differing markedly in
    their feel
  • Developed the Organizational Climate Description
    Questionnaire (OCDQ) to measure important aspects
    of teacher-teacher and teacher-principal
    interactions
  • There are now three contemporary versions of
    OCDQ one for elementary, one for middle schools,
    and one for high schools (see tables 5.3 and
    5.4)

29
OPEN CLIMATE
Principal Teachers
Listens and is open to teacher suggestions Gives genuine and frequent praise Respects professional competency of faculty Gives teachers freedom to perform without close scrutiny Provides leadership behavior Supports open and professional interactions among faculty (high collegial relations) Teachers know each other well and are close personal friends (high intimacy) Cooperate and are committed to their work
  • OCDQs provide valid and reliable means to map
    openness behaviors of teachers and administrators
    in schools
  • The open climate is marked by cooperation and
    respect within the faculty and between the
    faculty and principal
  • Behavior of both principal and faculty is both
    open and authentic


30
CLOSED CLIMATE
Principal Teachers
Principal stresses routine trivia and unnecessary busywork (high restrictiveness) Ineffective leadership seen as controlling and rigid (high directiveness), also unsympathetic, unconcerned, and unresponsive Non-supportive, inflexible, and hindering (low supportiveness) Faculty responds minimally, exhibits little commitment (high disengagement) Faculty that is divisive, intolerant, and apathetic Low intimacy and no collegial relations
  • Virtually the antithesis of the open climate
  • Principal and teachers simply appear to go
    through the motions
  • These misguided tactics are accompanied by
    frustration and apathy, but also by a general
    suspicion and lack of respect of teachers for
    each other as either friends or professionals

31
Discussion
  • OPEN OR CLOSED?
  • Which type of climate do you think exists at
    your school?
  • (Use the appropriate OCDQ to determine the
    openness of your school climate.)

32
OCDQ Research Findings
  • Studies demonstrated that schools with openness
  • have less sense of student alienation toward the
    school and its personnel
  • Have stronger principals who are more confident,
    self-secure, cheerful, sociable, and resourceful
  • Teachers who express greater confidence in their
    own and the schools effectiveness (are more
    loyal and satisfied)
  • Generates more organizational commitment to the
    school
  • Positively related to teacher participation in
    decision making
  • Positively related to ratings of school
    effectiveness
  • Positively related to student achievement in
    mathematics, reading, and writing in middle
    schools

33
A CLIMATE OF ORGANIZATIONAL HEALTH
  • Calls attention to conditions that facilitate
    growth and development or those that impede
    healthy org. dynamics
  • A school with a healthy org. climate copes
    successfully with its environment as it mobilizes
    its resources and efforts to achieve its goals
  • The org. health of secondary schools is defined
    by seven specific interaction patterns in
    schools. They meet the needs of the social
    system and represent the three levels of
    responsibility and control within the school.
    (Table 5.5)

34
Healthy Schools Unhealthy Schools
Protected from unreasonable community and parental pressures The board resists efforts of vested interest groups to influence policy Principal provides dynamic leadership (both task and relations oriented) Is also supportive of teachers, yet provides direction and maintains high standards. Moreover, they have influence with their superiors and the ability to exercise independent thought and action. Teachers are committed to teaching and learning, set high but achievable goals, maintain high standards, and the learning environment is orderly and serious Students work hard on academics, are highly motivated, and respect other students who achieve academically Classroom supplies and instructional materials are accessible Teachers like and trust each other, are enthusiastic about the work, and are proud of their school Vulnerable to destructive forces Teachers and administrators are bombarded with reasonable demands from parental and community groups Principal does not provide leadership, little direction, limited consideration and support for teachers, virtually no influence with superiors Morale of teachers is low Teachers do not feel good about each other or their jobs. They act aloof, suspicious, and defensive. The press for academic excellence is limited Everyone is simply putting in time
35
OHI and Research Findings
  • OHI (Organizational Health Index) can measure
    health of a school. Administered to professional
    staff.
  • Three valid and reliable contemporary versions
    available online one for each school level.
  • Consistent with many characteristics of effective
    schools
  • A correlation between the openness and health of
    schools (open schools tend to be healthy and
    healthy schools tend to be open)
  • Healthy schools have high trust, high esprit, low
    disengagement, and more committed teachers
  • Research also shows that org. health is
    positively related to student performance (higher
    achievement levels, lower dropout rates, higher
    student commitment)

36
A CLIMATE OF CITIZENSHIP
  • Another frame for viewing the climate of a school
    in terms of the citizenship behavior of its
    members
  • Organizational citizenship is behavior that goes
    beyond the formal responsibilities of the role by
    actions that occur freely to help others achieve
    the task at hand
  • Citizenship behavior has five specific aspects
    altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship,
    courtesy, and civic virtues (Table 5.6)
  • Prototype of a climate of citizenship is a school
    in which teachers help each other and new
    colleagues by giving freely of their own time
  • Measured by Org. Citizenship Behavior (OCB) scale

37
OCB Research Findings
  • OCB is another useful tool for measuring another
    important aspect of school climate.
  • Organizational citizenship is positively related
    to collegial principal behavior, teacher
    professionalism, academic press, and school
    mindfulness.
  • Schools with high degrees of citizenship are more
    effective and have higher levels of student
    achievement.

38
CHANGING THE CULTURE AND CLIMATE OF SCHOOLS
  • Long term systemic effort is more likely to
    produce change than short-term fads.
  • Three general strategies for change
  • Clinical Strategy
  • Growth-centered
  • Normative Procedure

39
The Clinical Strategy
  • Focuses on the nature of relationships among the
    schools subgroups
  • The manipulation of the intergroup and
    interpersonal interactions can foster change
  • Proceeds through the following steps
  • 1. Gaining knowledge of the org. through
    careful observation, analysis, and study (using
    OCDQ, OHI, and OHB)
  • 2. Diagnosis, providing labels for diagnosing
    potential trouble areas (ex. Poor morale, high
    disengagement, etc.)
  • 3. Prognosis, clinician judges seriousness of
    situation and develops a set of operational
    strategies to improve the situation
  • 4. Prescription, How can the situation be
    remedied? Taking necessary steps
  • 5. Evaluation, evaluate the extent to which
    prescriptions have been implemented and are
    successful

40
The Growth-Centered Strategy
  • Involves the acceptance of a set of assumptions
    about the development of school personnel as a
    basis for administrative decision making
  • The assumptions are
  • 1. Change is the property of healthy school
    organizations.
  • 2. Change has direction. (can be positive or
    negative, progressive or
  • regressive)
  • 3. Change should imply progress. (should
    provide movement of org.
  • toward its goals)
  • 4. Teachers have high potential for the
    development and
  • implementation of change. (principals
    are always ready to provide
  • teachers with more freedom and
    responsibility in the operation of the
  • school)

41
A Norm-Changing Strategy
42
Resources
  • All OCDQ, OHI, and OCB instruments, scoring
    instructions, and interpretations (for
    elementary, middle, and high school levels) are
    available online for use at
  • www.coe.ohio-state.edu/whoy
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