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Physical Geography of Africa: The Plateau Continent

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Title: Physical Geography of Africa: The Plateau Continent


1
Physical Geography of Africa The Plateau
Continent
  • Chapter 18 Section 1
  • Landforms Resources

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Physical political Map of africa
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A Human Perspective
  • Diamonds are a girl best friend.
  • Diamonds in Africa has been a source of conflict
    and war.
  • Angolas rebel used diamonds to keep their forces
    fighting with the bargaining of arms dealers and
    international traders.
  • It has also enriched countries such as Botswana
    South Africa.
  • The sale of diamonds have funded a war that
    killed more than 500,000 Angolans and left more
    than 4 million homeless.

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A Vast Plateau
  • Africas Plateau
  • 1. A huge plateau cover most of Africa
  • With the exception of Mozambique and Somalia, all
    of Africa lies about 1000 ft. above sea level
  • Geographer know it as the plateau continent
  • Basin
  • Each basin is about 625 miles across and 5,000
    ft. deep.
  • 2. Water collects in the Chad Basin rivers
    flows through the Sudan, Congo Djouf basin.

9
Rivers
  • Nile River flows more 4,000 miles through Uganda
    and Sudan into Egypt.
  • Irrigation for thousands of years.
  • More than 95 of Egyptians depend on the Nile for
    their water.
  • Population density is about 3,320 people per
    square mile compare to 177 PSM in all of Egypt.
  • They contain many waterfalls, rapids gorges
    because of the altitude thus making hard to
    navigate.
  • The 2,900 mile long Congo River forms the largest
    network of waterways, but the 32 cataracts or
    waterfalls makes it in some areas impassable.
  • Meandering rivers examples, Niger River begin in
    the West and heads toward the Sahara and then it
    turns southeast.

10
Population Density/ Languages
11
Distinctive African Landforms
  • Rift Valleys Lakes
  • 3. Rift valleys located in East Africa
  • As the continental plates pulled apart over
    millions of years, huge cracks appeared in the
    earth within time the sank creating long thin
    valleys.
  • 4,000 miles long from Jordan to Mozambique.
  • Lakes have formed at bottom of these rift valley.
  • Lake Tanganyika longest fresh water lake in the
    world, 420 miles long 4,700 in depth.
  • Lake Victoria 2nd largest freshwater lake, only
    270 in depth.
  • Mountains
  • 4. Africa contains mainly volcanic mts.
  • Mount Kenya Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa highest
    mts., both are Volcanic
  • The Ethiopian Highlands were created by volcanic
    activity the Tibesti Mts. In the Sahara Mount
    Cameroon in West Africa.
  • Volcanic rock covers the Great Escarpment it
    marks the edge of the continents plateau in
    Southern Africa.

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Africas wealth of Resources
  • Minerals
  • 1. Gold, platinum, chromium, cobalt, copper,
    phosphates, diamonds many other minerals.
  • South Africa largest produces of chromium
    (stainless steel) 80 of worlds platinum 30
    of the worlds gold.
  • Cobalt, a high grade steel for aircraft
    industrial engines. African nations produce about
    42 of it for the world mostly in Democratic
    Republic of the Congo Zambia.
  • Ore minerals account for more than half of it
    exports.
  • Oil
  • 3. Libya, Nigeria Algeria are among the worlds
    leading petroleum producers.
  • Angola Gabon huge untapped oil reserves.
  • Libya, Nigeria Algeria Angola combine to
    produce over 7 of world oil
  • History
  • 2. In the 19th 20th centuries European colonial
    rulers developed Africas natural resources for
    export to Europe to manufacture goods there.
  • As a result, many nations have been slow to
    develop the infrastructure and industries to turn
    resources into valuable products.
  • 4. Angola recently discovered offshore oil
    deposits this will enable its government to
    spend the money on an ongoing civil war. Cause by
    ethnic division resulting from years of
    colonialism. Little investments in schools,
    hospitals, or infrastructure.
  • Africas great mineral wealth has not meant
    economic prosperity for its population.

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Diversity of Resources
  • Rainforest to roaring river Africa is very in
    diverse in resources.
  • Agricultures is the single most important
    economic activity in Africa. 66 of Africans earn
    their living from farming farms products
    account for nearly 1/3 of the continents export.
  • Commodities
  • 5. Coffee 20 of the world coffee is grown here,
    even though few Africans drink it.
  • Lumber Nigeria leads African nations in lumber
    exports ranks 8th worldwide.
  • Negative It is depleting Africas forests.
  • Every year loggers clear an area twice the size
    of New Jersey.
  • Sugar, palm oil cocoa.
  • 6. Agricultural resources are important to Africa
    and provide a livelihood for many Africans.

16
Climate and vegetation
  • Section 2

17
A warm continent
  • Deserts
  • 1. The Sahara, largest desert in the world.
    Sahara mean desert in Arabic. 3,000 miles, from
    the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea about 1200
    miles north to south. Temp. can rise as high as
    136 degrees to freezing at night in the winter
    other Africans deserts, the Kalahari the Namib.
  • 2. 20 of it consist of sand, mts. Rock formation
    dry plains make up the rest.
  • Tibesti Mts. Elevation of 11,000 fts.
  • Aquifers oasis support vegetation wildlife
    critical for people living here.
  • Tropics
  • 3. 90 of the continent lies within the tropics.
  • 4. July temperatures average between 110 to 115
    degrees.
  • An old saying, Night time is the winter of the
    tropics

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Sunshine Rainfall
  • Moderates areas
  • 5. A Mediterranean climate exists on the northern
    southern tips of the continents.
  • 6. Rain falls in the winter in North Africa
    June July in Southern Africa.

20
A grassy Continent
  • Grassland
  • 7. Tropical grassland covers most of the
    continent such as the Serengeti Plain in northern
    Tanzania. World best grassland.
  • 8. What makes its special is that the hard soil
    dry climate makes its difficult to grow trees
    many crops, but it is perfect for growing grass.
    Some of the grass grows taller than the average
    person make it suitable for grazing animals
    wildebeests, gazelles, zebras roam in the
    Serengeti National Park. Animals still make
    annual migrations.

21
Africas extremes
  • Rainfall patterns
  • 1. Central Africa receives the majority of the
    precipitation year round.
  • Other parts has one or two rainy seasons.
  • The closer you are to the equator the more rain
    it receives,
  • Plant life
  • Slash-and-burn agricultural methods are
    endangering the rain forest.
  • When soil is exhausted they move on to another
    area.
  • It has been the nearly complete destruction of
    Madagascars rain forest.
  • 2. North Africa oak trees pine forests in the
    Atlas Mts.
  • West Africa Mangrove tree, the roots are great
    for fish, but they dry up the land by holding
    silt.
  • Rain Forest
  • 9. Congo Basin a square acre of forest can
    contain 100 different types of trees. In the
    equator and in Ethiopia.
  • 10. Home to hundreds species of birds.
  • The canopy of trees which are about 150 fts. In
    height block the sunlight makes it possible for
    different animals to live and decompose there.
  • Example Europe a leaf with take about a year,
    here about 6 weeks.
  • Birds, monkeys, flying foxes, snakes.

22
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Chapter 18 Section 3

23
Human perspective
  • Niger delta, a region that contains most of
    Nigerias oil.
  • An incident that happen on July 10, 2000 killed
    more than 300 people. An explosion shook the area
    and a fire spread along a mile-long stretch of
    the pipeline.
  • This is just one of many accidents that have
    claimed the lives of hundreds of Nigerians.
  • Nigeria has become one of the top oil producers
    in the world, but at a cost of thousand of lives
    major environmental ruins.

24
Desertification of the Sahel
  • Humans
  • 2. Overgrazing of vegetation by livestock exposes
    the soil.
  • Animals trample open land.
  • Farming increase pace of Desertification expose
    soil to wind, erosion.
  • Drill for Irrigation increase salt levels in the
    soil. Affect the growth of vegetation.
  • Population growth indirect affect. More people
    more food.
  • Clear more land, burn more wood for fuel and over
    farm the land.
  • Results
  • 3. Forest have depleted. Khartoum, Sudan and a
    tropical rainforest in Lake Chad.
  • Hard to stop, but getting educated.
  • Sahel means shore of the desert in Arabic.
  • It receives little rainfall. The area has enough
    water and food to survive.
  • People have used this area for farming herding
    since the 1960s the desert has spread in the
    Sahel.
  • 1. Desertification is an expansion of dry
    condition into moist areas next to deserts.
  • Human activity is speeding this process.

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Harming the Environment in Nigeria
  • 1.In 1956, oil found in Nigeria. In the 70s, high
    oil prices made it ones of the wealthiest
    countries.
  • 80 to 90 of Nigerias income.
  • As a result the government borrow on future
    sales. Oil prices fell.
  • It left Nigerian Govt. in debt to U.S. other
    nations. Plus, poor planning corruption left
    them poorer than before.
  • Drilling for oil foreign oil companies damaged
    the land harm people way of life.
  • More than 4,000 oil spills in the Niger delta
    within the last 40 years.
  • Cleanup slow and non-existence.
  • Fire occurred, causing acid rain, deposit of
    soot thus causing respirator diseases.
  • 2. 1998-2000, oil pipeline explosions killed more
    than 2,000 people.
  • Some accidentals, but other by bandits, in
    cooperation with corrupt government official.
  • Drain pipeline and sell fuel villagers come
    afterward to get fuel and sell.

27
Today
  • In May 1999, Olusegun Obasanjo became president
    of Nigeria.
  • He distance himself from armed forces.
  • He started economic reforms fired corrupt govt.
    officials.
  • President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan (inaugurated 6
    May 2010)
  • Member of United Nation OPEC
  • Over half of the population live in extreme
    poverty. Nigeria is off track to meet all the
    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
  • Northern Nigeria has the worlds worst human
    development indicators outside conflict and
    post-conflict zones.

28
Controlling the nile
  • Problems with Dam
  • 4. People had to be relocated thousand of
    Nubians way of life changed.
  • Egypts treasures, the temples Abu Simbel, had to
    be moved.
  • Other lie in the bottom of Lake Nasser.
  • Fertility is decreased no deposit of silt
    (sediment).
  • Farmers have to depend on fertilizers.
  • Raising water table.
  • Salts from deep in the earth have decrease the
    fertility of soil. (floodwater used to flushed
    out the salt.)
  • Aswan High Dam
  • It was built in 1970.
  • Lake Nasser, which Egypt shares with Sudan is an
    artificial lake created behind the dam. 300 miles
  • 3. It gives farmers regular supply of water.
  • Hold floods waters only release them when
    needed.
  • Farmers now have 2 to 3 harvests per year instead
    of 1.
  • Some year round. Increase farmable land by 50.
    Helped avoid droughts floods.

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Lake Nasser
31
Measuring success rate
  • It is hard to measure it success.
  • Malaria other diseases have increased.
  • Since, Lake Nasser holds the floodwaters,
    Egyptians lose millions of gallons of fresh water
    to evaporation.
  • For all the benefits, it has also had it
    problems.

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