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TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world... ...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!

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TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world... ...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult! T P R (TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE) TPR is a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world... ...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!


1
TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSETeaching is one of the
easiest jobs in the world... ...Teaching WELL is
one of the most difficult!
2
T P R(TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE)
  • TPR is a method in language teaching which is
    based on the coordination of speech and action.
  • It allows students to react to language without
    thinking too much.
  • The students are required to carry out the
    instructions by physically performing the
    activities.

3
  • TPR was developed by James Asher, who is a
    professor of psychology at San Jose State
    University in California.

4
What is the aim of this method?
  • The aim is to teach language via
  • physical(motor) activity.
  • Asher also pays attention to
  • Language teaching procedures
  • Developmental psychology
  • Learning theory
  • Humanistic pedagogy

5
James Asher thinks that
  • Second language learning is
  • parallel to first language learning.
  • Both of them have parallel processes.
  • Speech ? Commands
  • Commands ? Physical response
  • Physical response ? Verbal response

6
  • Gamelike movements and understandable
    linguistic production
  • ? reduce stress.
  • ? create a positive mood in the learner.
  • ? facilitate
    learning.

7
APPROACH
  • ? Theory of language
  • ? A grammar based view of language
  • ? Verb ? In imperative form
  • ? Theory of language learning
  • ? A stimulus-response view

8
  • TRACE
  • THEORY

9
Trace theory
  • More often or intensive memory connection
  • ?
  • Stronger memory association
  • ?
  • More likely it will be recalled

10
Three hypotheses that Asher suggests
  • Bio-program
  • Brain Lateralization
  • Reduction of stress

11
The bio-program
  • Innate
  • First listening competence and then the ability
    to speak
  • Listening comprehension ? To respond physically
    to spoken language
  • Establishment of listening comprehension ?
    Speech evolves naturally and effortlessly.

12
  • . Listeninggt Accompanied by physical movement
  • . Speech and other productive skills
  • . Sequence Listening before speaking
  • . Mode To synchronize language with the
    individuals body.

13
Brain Lateralization
  • Jean Piaget
  • Asher says that TPR is directed to right brain
    learning while most second language teaching
    theories are directed to left brain learning.
  • Right-left-brain learning (different learning
    functions)
  • - Right-brain activity ? Motor movement
  • - Left-brain activity ? Watching and learning

14
Reduction of Stress
  • Absence of stress ?An important condition for
    successful language learning
  • Asher
  • Language acquisition In a stress-free
    environment
  • Adult language learning environment Stress
    and anxiety
  • . The lower the stress, the greater the learning.

15
  • The keys to stress-free learning
  • ? Using natural bio-program.
  • ? Remembering relaxed and enjoyable experiences.
  • ? Focusing on meaning.
  • ? Getting away from self-conscious and stressful
    situations.
  • ? Devoting full energy to learning.
  • ? Not forcing student to speak

16
DESIGN
  • Objectives
  • Syllabus
  • Learning activities
  • Roles of learner
  • Roles of teacher
  • Materials

17
OBJECTIVES
  • ? Using action-based drills in the imperative
    form.
  • ? Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level.
  • ? Teaching basic speaking skills.
  • ? Using comprehension as a means to speaking.
  • ? Facilitating a suitable comprehension and
    speaking period.

18
  • SYLLABUS
  • Seeing the rules in context (inductively).
  • Using sentence-based grammatical syllabus.
  • Paying attention to meaning rather than the
    form and text
  • TPR works best with about 8 students.
  • A fixed number of items
  • ( Assimilating 12 to 36 new lexical
  • Items)

19
Learning Activities
  • ? Using objects
  • ? Role plays and slide presentations
  • ? Story telling
  • ? Games

  • ? Imperative exercises

20
Roles of learners
  • Primary roles Listener and performer
  • Listening attentively
  • Responding physically
  • To commands given by the teacher

21
  • Recognizing and responding to new combinations
    of previously taught items
  • Producing new combinations on their own
  • Monitoring and evaluating their own progress
  • Being encouraged to speak
  • Speaking when become ready

22
Roles of Teachers
  • An active and direct role in TPR
  • Decider
  • Director
  • Organizer
  • Detailed lesson plan creator
  • OPPORTUNITY PROVIDER


  • Feedback giver
  • A sensitive
    instructor to the
  • STUDENTS

23
MATERIALS
  • ? No basic text
  • ? For beginners
  • - Teachers voice
  • - Actions
  • - Gestures
  • ? After a period
    of
  • learning
  • - Books, pens, cup,
    furniture


24
  • ? In later learning stages
  • - Materials( pictures,
  • word charts etc.)
  • - Realia
  • ? Kits

25
PROCEDURE
  • ? Review ?A fast-moving warm up
  • ? New commands
  • ? Asking simple questions
  • ? Role reversal
  • ? Reading and writing

26
Enjoyable and easy for
teachers as well as students
STRENGTHS
  • Long-term retention (recollection-keep in mind)
  • Immediate comprehension of the target language
  • Stress-free
  • Facilitator in language learning
  • A helpful alternative teaching
  • strategy

27
WEAKNESSES
  • Only suitable for beginner level
  • A challenge for shy students
  • Avoiding students from expressing their own
    ideas
  • Insufficient to teach abstract language

28
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29
CONCLUSION
30
  • TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • Physical response to the commands is important.
  • Physical reaction is given priority speech
    occurs when the learner is ready.
  • Reviewing, giving new commands, asking simple
    questions, role reversal, reading and writing are
    the types of learning activities.
  • Pictures, word charts, kits etc. are used
    during the learning stage.
  • Right-brain acitivities (physical/motor
    acitivities) have a primary role on learning.
  • Syllabus is sentence-based.
  • AUDIOLINGUAL
  • Active verbal interaction is given importance.
  • The focus is on immediate and accurate speech.
  • Reflection, restatement, contarction,
    replacement etc. are types of learning.
  • Tape recorders and audiovisual equipment are
    the instructional materials for this method.
  • Structure, grammar points and rules are also
    important.
  • Syllabus is structure-based and includes the
    key items of phonology, morphology and syntax.

31
SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
AUDIOLINGUAL AND TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE
  • Both of them give importance to speaking skills
    before reading and writing.
  • Teachers are active and central.
  • Drills are important for both of them.
  • Teaching of the grammar is inductive.
  • Classes of ten or fewer are considered optimal.

32
REFERENCES
  • Richards,C. Jack Rodgers,S.Theodore (2002)
    Cambridge University Press Approaches and Methods
    in Language Teaching
  • http//www.sil.org/LinguaLinks/LanguageLearning/W
    aysToApproachLanguageLearning/TotalPhysicalRespons
    e.htm
  • http//www.teacherjoe.us/TeachersTPR.html
  • http//www.onestopenglish.com/section.asp?docid
    146503
  • http//coe.sdsu.edu/people/jmora/almmethods.htm
    TPR
  • http//www.c-english.com/files/tpr.pdf
  • http//209.85.135.132/search?qcacheG1lF__GfxQ4J
    www.springinstitute.org/Files/tpr4.pdftotalphys
    icalresponsecd17hltrctclnkgltr
  • http//www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/article
    s/total-physical-response-tpr
  • http//conference.nie.edu.sg/paper/new20conver
    ted/ab00466.pdf
  • http//wiki.galbijim.com/Total_Physical_Respons
    eDisadvantages
  • http//www.foreignlanguagesweb.com/teaching/met
    hods/tpr.htm
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