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Contemporary Issues Surrounding Child Abuse and Neglect

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Contemporary Issues Surrounding Child Abuse and Neglect Joann Grayson, Ph.D. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * And that person can be you! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Contemporary Issues Surrounding Child Abuse and Neglect


1
Contemporary Issues Surrounding Child Abuse and
Neglect
  • Joann Grayson, Ph.D.

2
Today We Will Discuss
  • How Maltreatment Affects the Developing Brain
  • Long Term Effects of Child Trauma
  • Protective Factors

3
The New Brain Research
  • How Maltreatment Affects The Developing Brain

4
The interplay between genes and early experiences
determine the landscape of the brain
5
At Birth, babies have
  • Almost all neurons over 100 million (Neurons
    receive, process and transmit information)
  • But neurons are not static they are modified by
    experiences

6
Therefore, the environment will impact how the
brain develops
  • Memory
  • Learning
  • Emotional Regulation
  • Planning

7
Example Shaken Baby
A 2-month-old boy with shaken baby syndrome
8
Example Malnutrition
9
Example Exposure to Alcohol or Drugs
10
Neurons must form connections (synapses)
  • At birth, have a small number of synapses and
    they govern
  • Breathing
  • Heart rate
  • Sleeping
  • Eating

11
The rest of the neural pathways develop as baby
interacts with environment
  • Touch
  • Vision
  • Hearing people speak
  • The brain must be stimulated in order to develop

12
  • By age three, the brain should have about 1015
    (1 quadrillion) synapses
  • Some are strengthened and remain but many are
    discarded

13
  • By teen years, the 1 quadrillion is trimmed in
    half
  • So, the process is active, not static or
    automatic the brain has plasticity

14
Example of normal development
  • Baby cries Someone responds Baby is content

15
Example of Neglect
  • Baby cries No one responds Anxiety
    Stress systems activated Brain change/ Abnormal
    behaviors/Disrupted attachment

16
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17
Other Negative Effects
  • Hyperarousal
  • Fear responses activated The rest of the
    brain usually engaged in complex thinking is less
    frequently activated and not available for
    learning

18
  • Chronic Fear is associated with behavioral
    impulsivity and cognitive disturbances

19
  • Dissociation disengagement (related to
    depression and attachment problems)
  • Child feels helpless, immobilized and powerless

20
  • Prolonged stress can negatively affect
    development throughout the growing years

21
Arousal Problems
  • Increased startle responses
  • Sleep difficulties
  • Anxiety
  • Hyperactivity
  • Irritability
  • Hyper vigilance

22
  • Hyper-arousal may mean youth presumes others to
    be hostile Then lashes out

23
Persistant Avoidance/Numbing
  • Avoid feeling/thoughts associated with
    maltreatment
  • Memory/recall problems
  • Detachment/estrangement
  • Lack of bonding
  • Blunted affect

24
Intrusive/Recurring Memories
  • Repetitive thoughts
  • Dreams nightmares
  • Flashbacks
  • Heightened reactivity

25
Other Repercussions
  • Poor academic performance
  • Lowered IQ/language
  • Poor attention
  • Poor abstract thinking
  • (Learning requires a state of attentive calmness)

26
Implications for Adolescence and Adulthood
  • Continued problems with arousal
  • Persistent avoidance/numbing
  • Intrusive/recurring reactions

27
Longer Term Effects
  • Effects can last a lifetime

28
The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study
29
What is the ACE Study?
  • Collaboration of CDC (Centers for Disease
    Control) and Kaiser Permanente in San Diego
  • Study included 17,421 Adult clients

30
Investigation Question
  • How do adverse childhood experiences affect
    health and mental health in adulthood?

31
What are Adverse Childhood Experiences?
  • Emotional Abuse
  • Physical Abuse
  • Sexual Abuse
  • Emotional Neglect
  • Physical Neglect
  • Mother Treated Violently
  • Parent with Mental Illness
  • Parent with Substance Abuse
  • Parental Separation or Divorce
  • Household Member Imprisoned

32
How Many People Experienced Each ACE?
Emotional Abuse 10
Physical Abuse 26
Sexual Abuse 21
Emotional Neglect 15
Physical Neglect 10
Mother Treated Violently 13
Parent with Mental Illness 20
Parent with Substance Abuse 28
Parental Separation or Divorce 24
Household Member Imprisoned 6
33
Each Person was Assigned a Risk Score According
to the Number of ACEs Experienced
  • 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
  • This score is a measure of the burden
    of traumatic experience

34
Number of Adverse Experiences Percentage of People
No ACEs 33
1 ACE 26
2 ACEs 16
3 ACEs 10
4 ACEs 6
5 ACEs 5
6 or more ACEs 6
35
Results
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were seven times more likely to
    be an alcoholic

36
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were ten times more likely to
    have injected street drugs
  • ACEs account for ½ to 2/3 of serious problems
    with drug use

37
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were twice as likely to smoke
    cigarettes

38
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were 260 more likely to have
    Chronic Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)

39
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were two hundred and forty
    percent more likely to contract hepatitis

40
  • Females with a 4 or more, compared to those
    with a 0, were 1.5 times more likely to
    experience teen pregnancy

41
  • Persons with a 4 or more compared to those with
    a 0, were more likely to experience rape

42
  • Women with 1 ACE had a likelihood of 1.6 for
    having 50 or more sexual partners, while women
    with 6-7 ACEs had a likelihood of 8.2

43
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, had a 250 higher risk for a
    sexually transmitted disease

44
  • Persons with a 4 or more compared to those with
    a 0, were more likely to experience serious job
    problems

45
ACEs had a high Association with a Risk of Adult
Homelessness. The experience of any ACE increased
the risk of homeless by a factor of 8.
46
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were 460 more likely to be
    suffering from depression

47
  • Persons with a score of 4 or more compared to
    those with a 0, were twelve times more likely
    to have attempted suicide

48
Why do ACEs have this relationship with adult
outcomes?
  • ACE disrupted neurodevelopment in
    early childhood emotional,
    cognitive, and social impairments
    child is vulnerable to adopting health risk
    behaviors


49
  • Adverse Childhood Experiences determine the
    likelihood of the 10 most common causes of death
    in the U.S.

50
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51
Protective Factors
  • What you can do to increase resilience

52
Four Categories of Protective Factors
  • Individual
  • Family
  • School
  • Community

53
School Factors
  • Positive adult role models

54
School Factors
  • Positive peer relationships

55
School Factors
  • Schools with high expectations

56
School Factors
  • Schools that provide supports for academic success

57
School Factors
  • Extracurricular activities

58
School Can Do Direct Teaching of Next Generation
of Parents
  • Never shake a baby
  • Proper nutrition
  • Problem-solving
  • Calming techniques

59
Individual Factors
  • Creative Competence
  • Imagination
  • Play
  • Creative Works
  • Humor
  • Mental Distancing

60
Individual Factors
  • Purpose
  • Goal-directed
  • Perseverance
  • Concentration
  • Rational problem-solving

61
Individual Factors
  • Motivation
  • View obstacles as challenges

62
Individual Factors
  • Positive Self-Esteem
  • Reflection
  • Self control

63
Individual Factors
  • Relationships
  • At least one
  • Childs ability to engage others

64
And the Take Away Message?
65
Never, ever doubt this -
  • One person can make a difference in the life of a
    child

66
And that person can be you!
67
Special Thanks To
  • William Ernst, Ph.D.
  • william-e_at_earthlink.net
  • Emily Jacobson
  • All the VCPN student assistants

68
Joann Grayson, Ph.D.
  • graysojh_at_jmu.edu
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