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70-270, 70-290 MCSE/MCSA Guide to Installing and Managing Microsoft Windows XP Professional and Windows Server 2003

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70-270, 70-290 MCSE/MCSA Guide to Installing and Managing Microsoft Windows XP Professional and Windows Server 2003 Chapter Five Managing Disks and Data Storage – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 70-270, 70-290 MCSE/MCSA Guide to Installing and Managing Microsoft Windows XP Professional and Windows Server 2003


1
70-270, 70-290 MCSE/MCSA Guide to Installing and
Managing Microsoft Windows XP Professional and
Windows Server 2003
  • Chapter Five
  • Managing Disks and Data Storage

2
Objectives
  • Understand concepts related to disk management
  • Manage partitions and volumes
  • Implement fault-tolerant disk strategies on
    Windows Server 2003

3
Objectives (continued)
  • Monitor disk health and import foreign disks
  • Use disk management and maintenance utilities
  • Set up and monitor disk quotas

4
Disk Management Concepts
  • Basic disk Uses traditional disk management
    techniques
  • Contains primary partitions, extended partitions,
    and logical drives
  • Dynamic disk Storage space divided into logical
    volumes
  • More flexible
  • Before using partition or volume, must format
    with a file system

5
File Systems
  • File Allocation Table (FAT) Originally developed
    for DOS
  • Supports volumes up to 4 GB
  • Most efficient on volumes smaller than 256 MB
  • Only 512 entries allowed in the root directory
  • No file-level compression
  • No file-level security
  • Maximum file size of 2 GB
  • FAT32 Enhanced version of FAT

6
File Systems (continued)
  • FAT volumes divided into clusters
  • Cluster Group of sector(s) divided into single,
    nondivisible unit
  • Sector Smallest division of a drives surface
  • 512 bytes
  • Only a certain number of clusters can be
    addressed
  • NTFS Support for much larger volumes,
    file-by-file compression, and file-by-file
    security
  • Windows XP and Windows Server 2000/2003 use NTFS
    version 5.0

7
File Systems (continued)
  • NTFS (continued)
  • Support for volumes up to 2 TB
  • Most efficient on volumes larger than 10 MB
  • Unlimited entries allowed in the root directory
  • File-level compression
  • File-level security
  • File-level encryption (see Chapter 9)
  • Disk quotas, which are a means to limit users
    drive space consumption
  • POSIX support
  • File size limited only by the size of the volume

8
File Systems (continued)
Table 5-1 FAT16 and FAT32 cluster sizes
Table 5-2 NTFS default cluster sizes
9
Basic Disks
  • Hard disk divided into primary and extended
    partitions
  • Each partition acts as separate storage unit
  • Max of 4 primary partitions or 3 primary
    partitions and 1 extended partition
  • Only one partition can be marked as active
    partition
  • System partition
  • Boot partition Where OS files installed

10
Basic Disks (continued)
  • Primary Partitions Partition from which you can
    boot an OS if required
  • Active partition Where computer looks for
    hardware-specific files to start OS
  • Extended Partitions and Logical Drives
  • Extended partition Created from unpartitioned
    space
  • Enable you to exceed the 4-partition limit
  • Not formatted or assigned drive letter
  • Can be further divided into logical drives
  • Formatted and assigned drive letters

11
Basic Disks (continued)
Figure 5-1 Dividing an extended partition into
one or more logical drives
12
Basic Disks (continued)
  • Windows NT Volume Sets and Stripe Sets
  • Volume set Multiple partitions combined to look
    like one volume
  • Single drive letter
  • Stripe set Multiple disks combined like a volume
    set but striped for RAID 0 or RAID 5

13
Dynamic Disks
  • Make it possible to set up large number of
    volumes on one disk and to extend volumes onto
    additional physical disks
  • Simple Volume Dedicated and formatted portion of
    disk space on a dynamic disk
  • Can be extended only if formatted with NTFS
  • Spanned Volume Consists of space taken up by 2
    to 32 dynamic disks
  • Treated as single logical volume

14
Dynamic Disks (continued)
  • Spanned Volume (continued)
  • Data written to disk space sequentially
  • Maximize use of scattered pockets of disk space
    across several disks
  • Able to extend

Figure 5-2 Creating a spanned volume using four
disks
15
Dynamic Disks (continued)
  • Striped Volume form of RAID 0 in which volume
    divided into equal spaces on 2 to 32 disk drives
  • Data divided and written concurrently to all
    drives

Figure 5-3 Disks in a striped volume
16
Dynamic Disks (continued)
Table 5-3 Windows XP Professional and Server
2003 disk structures
17
Managing Partitions and Volumes
Figure 5-4 The Disk Management node of the
Computer Management tool
18
Managing Disk Properties
  • Disk Management tool most commonly accessed via
    Storage section of Computer Management
  • Primarily used for creating, deleting, and
    managing disks, partitions, and volumes
  • Also provides information about them that is
    typically associated with other tools
  • Activity 5-1 Viewing and Managing Disk
    Properties with Disk Management
  • Objective Use Disk Management to view the
    properties of a hard disk and partition

19
Managing Disk Properties (continued)
Figure 5-5 The Properties dialog box for an
existing partition
20
Creating Partitions and Volumes
  • Disk Management is primary tool for creating and
    managing partitions and volumes
  • Activity 5-2 Creating and Deleting a Primary
    Partition
  • Objective Create and delete a primary partition
  • Activity 5-3 Creating an Extended Partition
  • Objective Create an extended partition

21
Creating Partitions and Volumes (continued)
  • Activity 5-4 Creating a Logical Drive
  • Objective Create a logical drive from within an
    extended partition
  • Before creating volumes on Windows Server 2003
    system, must convert disks from basic to dynamic
  • Must have administrative privileges
  • Disk must contain at least 1 MB free space
  • No data lost
  • After upgrade, disk can be locally accessed only
    by OSs that support dynamic disks
  • Primary/extended partitions become simple volumes

22
Creating Partitions and Volumes (continued)
  • Activity 5-5 Converting a Basic Disk to a
    Dynamic Disk
  • Objective Convert a basic disk to a dynamic disk
  • Activity 5-6 Creating a Simple Volume
  • Objective Use Disk Management to create a simple
    volume

23
Extending Volumes
  • Windows Server 2003 supports capability to extend
    NTFS volumes
  • As long as volumes not functioning as boot or
    system volume for system
  • Volumes can be extended
  • In Disk Management
  • From command line by using Diskpart utility
  • Activity 5-7 Extending a Volume with Diskpart
  • Objective Extend an existing volume by using the
    Diskpart command

24
Working with Mounted Drives
  • Mounted drive Appears as folder
  • Accessed through a path like any other folder
  • Can mount basic or dynamic disk drive, CD-ROM
    drive, or Zip drive
  • Must use empty folder on NTFS-formatted volume
  • Reduce number of drive letters in use
  • Activity 5-8 Mounting an NTFS Volume
  • Objective Mount an NTFS volume

25
Fault-Tolerant Disk Strategies
  • Fault tolerance Systems capability to recover
    from hardware or software failure
  • Redundant array of independent disks (RAID)
    Increases availability of disk storage
  • Data written to more than one drive
  • If one drive fails, data can still be accessed
    from one of remaining drives
  • Using combination of other parts of the file and
    associated parity information

26
RAID Levels
  • RAID 0 Uses striping with no other redundancy
    features
  • Extend disk life and improve performance
  • Not fault-tolerant
  • RAID 1 Uses simple disk mirroring
  • Windows Server 2003 includes disk duplexing

Figure 5-7 Disk mirroring
27
RAID Levels (continued)
  • RAID 2 Uses array of disks whereby data striped
    across all disks
  • Disks store error-correction information
  • RAID 3 Like RAID 2, but information written to
    only one disk

Figure 5-8 Disk duplexing
28
RAID Levels (continued)
  • RAID 4 Stripes data and stores error-correcting
    information on all drives
  • Checksum verification
  • Windows Server 2003 does not support RAID 2-4
  • RAID 5 Combines best features of RAID
  • Striping, error correction, and checksum
    verification
  • Striped Volumes (RAID 0)
  • Reduce wear on multiple disk drives
  • Increase disk performance

29
RAID Levels (continued)
  • Mirrored Volumes (RAID 1)
  • Only dynamic disks can be set up as mirrored
    volumes
  • Good form of disk fault tolerance
  • Time to create or update information doubled
  • RAID-5 Volumes
  • Requires minimum of three disk drives
  • Parity information distributed
  • Performance not as fast as with striped volumes

30
RAID Levels (continued)
Figure 5-9 Disks in a RAID-5 volume
31
Software RAID and Hardware RAID
  • Software RAID Implements fault tolerance through
    servers OS
  • Hardware RAID Implemented through server
    hardware
  • Independent of OS
  • More expensive
  • Faster and more flexible

32
Monitoring Disk Health and Importing Foreign Disks
  • Disk Management tool provides information on
    health of disks and volumes
  • Windows Server 2003 can import disks from other
    servers if another server should fail
  • Foreign disks Originate from other servers

33
Disk and Volume Status Descriptions
  • Most common status messages for a volume
  • Failed
  • Failed Redundancy
  • Formatting
  • Healthy
  • Regenerating
  • Resyncing
  • Unknown

34
Disk and Volume Status Descriptions (continued)
  • Most common status messages for a disk
  • Audio CD
  • Foreign
  • Initializing
  • Missing
  • No Media
  • Not Initialized
  • Online
  • Online (Errors)
  • Offline
  • Unreadable

35
Importing Foreign Disks
  • When server fails, data stored on servers hard
    disks could still be intact
  • Needs to be made accessible to network users
  • Windows Server 2003 supports importing dynamic
    disks from other OSs
  • Should import each disk individually with Import
    Foreign Disk command

36
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
  • Some utilities offer functions or features not
    found in Disk Management
  • Check Disk Tool Scan disk for bad sectors and
    file system errors
  • Automatically fix file system errors or scan for
    and attempt recovery of bad sectors
  • Accessed through volume or partitions Properties
    dialog box
  • Can also run Chkdsk command from command line
  • Include /f option to fix errors automatically

37
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
  • Convert Command Convert existing FAT or FAT32
    partitions and volumes to NTFS
  • Existing files and folders retained
  • When converting system or boot partition, Convert
    command doesnt actually perform conversion
  • Sets flag on partition or volume telling OS to
    convert next time computer restarted
  • Activity 5-9 Converting a FAT32 Partition to
    NTFS
  • Objective Convert a FAT32 partition to NTFS

38
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
  • Disk Cleanup Tool Determine how much disk space
    can be freed by removing unnecessary files

Figure 5-15 The Disk Cleanup tool
39
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
  • The Disk Defragmenter Tool
  • Files may not be saved contiguously
  • Disk becomes fragmented
  • Slows access time and creates disk wear
  • Defragmenting Locate fragmented folders and
    files
  • Move to location on disk so they are in
    contiguous order
  • Activity 5-10 Using Disk Defragmenter
  • Objective Defragment a volume with the Disk
    Defragmenter utility

40
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
Figure 5-17 Results of analyzing volume
fragmentation
41
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
  • Diskpart Command Manage disks, volumes, and
    partitions from command line
  • Configure active partition, assign drive letters,
    control file system mounting, create and extend
    volumes and partitions, implement fault-tolerance
    strategies, import disks, and more
  • Manage disks from scripts used to automate tasks
  • Format Command Used to format disks
  • Specify which supported file system
  • Specify advanced settings

42
Using Disk Maintenance and Management Utilities
(continued)
  • Fsutil Command Gather information and perform
    tasks related to FAT, FAT32, and NTFS
  • Control many advanced file system settings and
    functions
  • Mountvol Command Create, delete, or list volume
    mount points

43
Monitoring Disk Quotas
  • Disk quotas Used to monitor and control amount
    of disk space available to users
  • Prevents users from consuming all available disk
    space
  • Encourages users to delete old files
  • Allows an administrator to track disk usage
  • Allows administrators to track when users are
    reaching available limits
  • Disabled by default

44
Monitoring Disk Quotas (continued)
Figure 5-18 The Quota tab
45
Monitoring Disk Quotas (continued)
Table 5-4 Disk quota configuration parameters
46
Monitoring Disk Quotas (continued)
  • Exceptions can be created for users who require
    more disk space than others
  • On user-by-user basis
  • Activity 5-11 Configuring and Managing Disk
    Quotas
  • Objective Enable and manage disk quota settings

47
Managing Disk Quotas from the Command Line
Figure 5-20 Using Fsutil to query a volume or
partition for quota information
48
Summary
  • Windows XP and Server 2003 support the FAT,
    FAT32, and NTFS file systems
  • Basic disks consist of primary and extended
    partitions as well as logical drives
  • Dynamic disks allow volumes to be created and
    fault-tolerant disk strategies to be implemented
  • Basic disks support up to four primary partitions
    or three primary and one extended partition

49
Summary (continued)
  • Disk Management is the primary tool for managing
    disks, partitions, and volumes
  • Mirrored volumes, also known as RAID 1, mirror
    the contents of one volume to another disk
  • RAID-5 volumes use disk striping with parity to
    allow continued operation of a volume if a single
    disk in that volume should fail
  • There are a number of tools for managing,
    maintaining, and monitoring disks and partitions
    from the command line, including Chkdsk,
    Diskpart, Defrag, Format, Fsutil, and Mountvol

50
Summary (continued)
  • The Disk Cleanup tool allows administrators to
    remove unnecessary files and applications from a
    partition or volume as well as save space by
    compressing seldom-used files
  • Disk Defragmenter is used to optimize the
    performance of a partition or volume
  • The Convert command can be used to convert
    existing FAT or FAT32 partitions to NTFS
  • Administrators can implement disk quotas to
    control the amount of disk space a users files
    can consume on an NTFS partition or volume
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