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Communication Models

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Communication Models PR Management PR Strategy 20.02.2001 Basic Communications Model Communications Fundamentals Communicator Message Audience Networks Internal and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Communication Models


1
Norsk Hotellhøyskole
  • Communication Models
  • PR Management
  • PR Strategy
  • 20.02.2001

2
Basic Communications Model
Source
Message
Medium
Receiver
Feedback
3
Communications Fundamentals
  • Communicator
  • Message
  • Audience
  • Networks
  • Internal and external
  • Formal and informal
  • Upward/downward horizontal

4
Effective Communications
  • Designed for
  • Situation, time, place and audience
  • Specific messages
  • Specific audiences
  • Specific results

5
Diffusion Process
  • Awareness - learns about product/service
  • Interest - gets more information
  • Evaluation - tries it out mentally
  • Trials - uses or tries a little
  • Adoption - uses it and continues to use it

6
Objectives
  • Impact
  • informational
  • attitudinal
  • behavioral
  • Output
  • distribution to uncontrolled media
  • distribution to controlled media

7
7 Cs of Communication
  • Credibility
  • Context
  • Content
  • Clarity
  • Continuity and consistency
  • Channels
  • Capability of audience

8
Four Models of Public Relations
  • Press Agent/Publicity Model
  • Public-Information Model
  • Two-Way Asymmetric Model
  • Two-Way Symmetric Model

9
Press Agentry/Publicity Model
  • Purpose Propaganda
  • Communications 1-Way, Complete Truth NOT
    Important
  • Model Source Receiver
  • Research Little
  • Example
  • Used Today Athletic events, Theatre,
    Product Promotion
  • Percent 15

10
Public Information Model
  • Purpose Spread Information
  • Communications 1-Way, Complete Truth IS
    Important
  • Model Source Receiver
  • Research Little
  • Example
  • Used Today Governments, Business and
    Non-Profits
  • Percent 50

11
Two-Way Asymmetric Model
  • Purpose Scientific Persuasion
  • Communications 2-Way, Unbalanced Effects
  • Model Source Receiver Feedback
  • Research Formative Evaluate Attitudes
  • Example
  • Used Today Competitive Businesses,
    Agencies
  • Percent 20

12
Two-Way Symmetric Model
  • Purpose Mutual Understanding
  • Communications 2-Way, Balanced Efforts
  • Model Group Group Feedback
  • Research Formative Evaluate
    Understanding
  • Example
  • Used Today Regulated Businesses, PR
    Agencies, Associations
  • Percent 20

13
Coorientational Model
Issue
Organizations Definition and Evaluation of
Issue
Public As Definition and Evaluation of Issue
Agreement
Understanding
Congruency
Accuracy
Congruency
Organizations Perception of Public As Views
Public As Perception of Organizations Views
14
PR Roles
  • Communication technician
  • Communications manager
  • - Expert prescriber- Communication
    facilitator- Problem-solving process
    facilitator
  • Media Relations
  • Communications Liaison

15
Organizational Environments and Roles
Low Threat
High Threat
Problem-Solving Process Facilitator
Little Change Much Change
Communication Technician
Communication Facilitator
Expert Prescriber
16
Craft Public Relations (Technicians)
Propaganda
Journalism
Press Agentry Model
Public Information Model
Professional Public Relations
Symmetrical
Asymmetrical
2-Way Asymmetrical Model
2-Way Symmetrical Model
17
How Roles Contribute to PR Department and
Organizational Goals
  • Closed Systems Management Approach
  • Press Agentry/Publicity
  • Public Information Models
  • Open Systems Management Approach
  • Two-Way Asymmetric
  • Two-Way Symmetric Models

18
Key Concepts in Strategic Process
  • Strategic thinking
  • Strategic planning
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Strategy

19
Key Elements of Strategic Processes
  • Environmental Scanning
  • Concrete system yielding reports in understood
    language
  • Stakeholder Management
  • Concrete method for identifying stakeholders
  • Team mapping of assumptions
  • Issues Management
  • Existence of policy plan with philosophy, goals,
    tactics to support strategic plan

20
Strategic Planning in PR
  • Defining the problem
  • Planning and programming
  • Taking action and communicating
  • Evaluating the program

21
A Public Relations Process ROPE
  • Research - clients, problem, publics
  • Objectives - impact, output
  • Programming - theme, action, media, communication
  • Evaluation - impact, output

22
Research
  • Client - organization, products, services
  • Problem - why proactive vs reactive
  • Publics/audience - identification, targeting

23
Publics - Stakeholders
  • Primary - relate to on an active and continuous
    basis
  • Secondary - relate to on a fairly continuous
    basis
  • Tertiary - occasional contact

24
Major Publics
  • Media
  • Employee
  • Member
  • Community
  • Government
  • Investor
  • Consumer
  • Special

25
Objectives
  • Impact
  • informational
  • attitudinal
  • behavioral
  • Output
  • distribution to uncontrolled media
  • distribution to controlled media

26
Programming
  • Statement of theme and/or messages to be
    communicated
  • Action or event around theme or messages
  • Plan media use - controlled, uncontrolled
  • Effectively communicating program

27
Effective Communication
  • source credibility
  • message salient information
  • message effective nonverbal clues
  • message effective verbal clues
  • channel and feedback 2-way communication
  • receivers opinion leaders
  • receivers group influence
  • receivers selective exposure
  • feedback audience participation

28
Evaluation
  • Monitoring and assessment of
  • impact objectives
  • output objectives

29
4-Step PR Process (Cutlip, et al.)
  • Define PR Opportunites or Problem
  • Planning Programming
  • Taking Action Communicating
  • Evaluating the Program

30
1. Defining Opportunities/Problems -- Whats
Happening Now?
  • The Problem or Opportunity
  • Background
  • Causes
  • Precedents
  • Allies
  • Opponents
  • Neutrals
  • Program goals
  • Situation Analysis
  • Internal Factors
  • External Factors

31
2. Planning Programming -- What should we do
and say, and why?
  • Strategic Analysis
  • Objectives
  • Alternatives
  • Risk-benefits
  • Consequences
  • Decision
  • Tactics
  • Significant Publics (Stakeholders)
  • Public 1
  • Public 2
  • Public 3
  • Public 4

32
2. Planning Programming
  • Program objectives for each public
  • Vehicles, media
  • Talent
  • Costs
  • Approvals
  • Commitment
  • Support
  • Participation

33
3. Taking Action and Communicating -- How and
when do we do and say it?
  • Action Program Strategies
  • Communication Program Strategies
  • Message -- content, timing, repetition, follow-up
  • Media -- behavioral changes
  • Program Implementation Plans
  • Assignment of responsibilities
  • Schedule
  • Budget

34
4. Evaluating the Program -- How did we do?
  • Results -- yardsticks
  • Conclusions
  • Revision
  • Renewal
  • Termination
  • Feedback
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