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Safety and Security

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Safety and Security ... If a guest asks an employee to unlock a room, the employee should politely explain the hotel s policy and direct the guest to the front desk. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Safety and Security


1
Safety and Security
2
  • Safety and security are two responsibilities of
    hotel managers. Guests expect to sleep, meet,
    dine, and entertain in a facility that is safe
    and secure and are entitled to reasonable care
    under law. Housekeeping personnel can help meet
    this guest expectation and, in some cases, make
    the difference in the propertys safety and
    security system.

3
Safety
  • A term that pertains to discussing disaster
    preparedness, fire prevention and protection,
    protection devices, and conditions that provide
    for freedom from injury and damage to property.

4
  • The two hotel departments most likely to have the
    largest number of accidents and injuries are
    maintenance and housekeeping.
  • One basis for this frequency is the sheer
    labor-intensity of these two departments.
  • In many operations, housekeeping and maintenance
    employ more people than any other department.
  • Another reason lies in the fact that working in
    housekeeping or maintenance involves physical
    activities and equipment use both of which
    increase the risks of accident and injury.

5
  • To reduce safety risks, the executive housekeeper
    must be aware of potential safety hazards and
    develop procedures to prevent accidents.
  • Safety should be a top priority. Ongoing safety
    training programs help ensures that safe
    conditions are maintained in all work areas.
  • To develop programs, management must be aware of
    the laws that regulate the work environment and
    more specifically, how those laws affect
    housekeeping personnel.

6
Employee Morale and Management Concerns
  • Unsafe working conditions have a negative effect
    on employee morale. If employees are preoccupied
    with hazardous conditions in the work place, they
    will not be able to perform the best of their
    ability.
  • For most part, it is difficult to motivate
    employees until unsafe conditions are corrected.
  • One of managements top concerns should be for
    the health and welfare of employees.
  • Employees are one of the most important assets a
    hotel has. If managers want employees to provide
    quality service, they must treat employees fairly
    and with respect. Respect for an employees right
    to work in a safe and hazard free environment is
    a good place to begin.

7
Potentially Hazardous Conditions
  • Accidents and injuries do not have to occur. By
    following three simple rules, employees can
    contribute to a safe, accident-free work
    environment
  • Take adequate time
  • Correct unsafe conditions immediately
  • Do it safely the first time

8
Lifting
  • Housekeeping tasks often involve lifting heavy
    objects. Employees may also be required to move
    furniture in order to complete a thorough
    cleaning task.
  • Incorrectly lifting heavy objects such as bags,
    boxes, and containers may result in strained or
    pulled muscles and back injury.
  • In turn, these injuries can result in loss of
    work and long-term pain and suffering.

9
  • Employees can also incur cuts and scratches when
    lifting items such as trash or dirty linens which
    contain pointy objects or broken glasses.
  • In all instances, employees should know what
    conditions to look for and the special
    precautions to take.

10
Some guidelines for safe moving and lifting
  • Inspect the object before lifting. Do not lift
    any item that you cannot get your arms around or
    that you cannot see over when carrying. Get help
    if it is too heavy.
  • Look for any protrusions, especially when lifting
    trash or bundles of linen. Quite often, these
    items contain pointy objects or broken glass.
    Exercise special care to avoid injury.
  • When lifting, place one foot near the object and
    the other slightly back and apart. Keep well
    balanced.
  • Keep the back and head of your body straight.
    Because the back muscles are generally weaker
    than the leg muscles, do not use the back muscle
    to lift the object.
  • Bend slightly at the knees and hips but do not
    stoop.

11
  • Use both hands and grasp the objects using the
    entire hand.
  • Lift with the leg muscles.
  • Keep the object close to the body. Avoid twisting
    your body.
  • When setting an object down, do not use your back
    muscles. Use the leg muscles and follow the
    procedures used to lift objects.
  • When tucking in sheets, picking up a laundry or
    cleaning a tub, bend with the knee and not on the
    back, nor on the waist to prevent back injury.
  • Use your body weight in pushing and pulling the
    vacuum, not just your arms and shoulder. To avoid
    slipping and tripping, hold the cord and coil as
    you go.

12
  • Wear the right shoes. Working shoes should be
    slip resistant, with a closed toe and fit to give
    you the best comfort.
  • Watch where you are going to prevent slips and
    fall.
  • Use door stopper and not linens or objects that
    could cause a slip or fall.
  • Turn on lights and look all sides before entering
    any room. There may be spills or broken glasses
    on the floor that need to be cleared.
  • If a broken glass is found, sweep the floor and
    place the glass in a container separate from the
    trash.
  • To push the room attendants cart easily, check
    if it has sticking wheels. Without it, it will be
    harder to push and could injure the user. Remove
    sticking thread on the wheels.

13
  • Be careful with loose screw or sharp edges as
    they could catch on ones clothing and cause
    cuts.
  • When pushing the cart, lean forward into the
    cart, rely on ones legs and feel not unto ones
    back or across the body.
  • Keep the cart close, use feet and legs and not
    arms and shoulders.
  • In case a cart falls down, do not try to stop or
    stand it up by alone. It is heavier than you
    think and can cause accidents. Ask for help.
  • Do not overload laundry cart to make it easier to
    pull.
  • When reaching for something, especially in the
    tub, never stand on the edge of a toilet bowl.
    You might loose your balance and fall.

14
Ladders
  • Ladders can be used when cleaning areas on or
    near the ceiling or for such tasks as changing
    light bulbs. When selecting a ladder for a
    particular cleaning job, its condition, height
    and footing should be inspected.
  • Check the ladder for stability and examine
    crosspieces for sturdiness. If the ladder is
    broken or defective, do not use it. Rather, tag
    the ladder, place it out of service, and report
    it to the appropriate housekeeping supervisor or
    the maintenance department

15
  • An aluminum or metal ladder should never be used
    when working near or on electrical equipment.
    Ladders with rubber footings should be used on
    tile floors or in kitchen areas to prevent
    slipping. In all instances, the floor should be
    dry and clean.
  • A ladder must be high enough so that an attendant
    can stand on it and do the job without
    overreaching. Never stand on the top step of a
    ladder. If the area cannot be reached while
    standing on the step below the top step, the
    ladder is too short for he job.

16
  • Ladders should be placed so footing is at least
    one fourth of the ladder length away from the
    wall. Never place a ladder against window or an
    uneven surface.
  • Before climbing, test the ladder for stability
    it should be well balanced and secure against the
    wall and floor.
  • Always be sure to face a ladder when climbing and
    have a clean and dry hands and feet . Do not hold
    any items or tools that may prevent the use of
    one or both hands. Mark the area underneath the
    ladder with caution signs so that guests or
    employees do not walk under the ladder.

17
Machinery
  • Employees should be authorized and trained in the
    use of machinery and equipment before operating
    such devices. Most equipment, machineries, and
    power tools come with instructions.
  • Some employees may need additional training and
    supervised practice before operating equipment
    and machinery on the job by themselves.
  • Many power tools and other machineries are
    equipped with protective guards or shields. These
    safety guards should never be removed.
  • Employees may also be required to wear protective
    eye goggles or gloves. All protective gear should
    be worn per instructions.
  • Equipment and machineries should never be left
    unattended while in use. When not in use, all
    tools and equipment should be turned off and
    stored in the proper place. Never use a piece of
    equipment or machinery that is not operating
    correctly. Contact the appropriate supervisor or
    the maintenance department to have it repaired as
    soon as possible.

18
Electrical Equipment
  • Extra care must be taken when operating
    electrical equipment. Even one of the most common
    housekeeping appliances like a vacuum cleaner can
    be harmful or deadly if operated improperly or in
    unsafe conditions.
  • An employee should never operate electrical
    equipment when standing in water or when hands or
    clothing are wet. It is also unsafe to operate
    electrical equipment near flammable liquids,
    chemicals, or vapors. Sparks from electrical
    equipment could start a fire.

19
  • Equipment that sparks, smokes, or flames should
    be turned off immediately. If it is possible and
    safe to do so, the equipment should be unplugged.
  • In no instance should an attendant attempt to
    restart the equipment. The malfunction should be
    reported to the appropriate housekeeping
    supervisor or the maintenance department.
  • Equipment wires and connections should be checked
    periodically. Equipment with loose connections or
    exposed wires should not be used. An appliance
    should never be unplugged by pulling or yanking
    the cord. This will loosen the connection between
    the cord and the plug and cause sparks and
    shorts. Equipments should be unplugged by
    grasping the plug and pulling it gently away from
    the outlet.

20
  • When using electrical equipment, the cord should
    be kept out of traffic areas such as the center
    of hallways or cross doorways. This is not always
    possible, particularly with such tasks as
    vacuuming corridors. In such situations, keep the
    cord close to the wall and post caution signs in
    the work area. If the appliance will be
    stationary and in use for a lengthy period, tape
    the cord to the floor and place caution signs
    over the taped cord.
  • Extension cords are sometimes required
    particularly when an electric outlet is not
    located near the work areas. Extension cords
    should be inspected for exposed wire before use
    just like any other electrical cord.

21
  • There are many types of extension cords not all
    are acceptable for use in a hospitality
    operation. The local fire department can pinpoint
    which types of cords meet the local fire codes
    and regulations.
  • When cleaning guestrooms, room attendants should
    check electric lamps, appliances, and other
    fixtures for frayed wires, loose connections and
    loose plugs. Exposed electrical wire may result
    in shock, injury, or even death when touched.
    Outlet and switch covers should be checked to
    ensure that they are covered properly and not
    cracked or broken. If any of these conditions are
    found, the room attendant should not attempt to
    fix them, rather, potential problems should be
    reported to the appropriate housekeeping
    supervisor or to the maintenance.

22
Chemicals
  • Many housekeeping employees are exposed to
    dangerous chemicals in their daily work routines.
    These chemicals are powerful cleaners, and, when
    used properly with proper protective gear, are
    relatively harmless. However, when used
    improperly, these same helpful chemicals can
    cause nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, cancer,
    blindness, and even death.

23
  • Chemicals are used to clean all areas of a
    lodging property including bathrooms, kitchens
    and floors. Potentially hazardous chemicals are
    also used to kill insects and rodents. Some
    housekeeping situations require employees to
    handle toxic substances to unstop clogs in
    toilets and other plumbing fixtures. Often the
    use of such hazardous and toxic chemicals cannot
    be avoided.

24
  • Continual training in chemical safety is
    necessary for two reasons First, misused
    chemicals can cause serious injury in a short
    period. Second, new employees especially in
    properties with high employee turnover need to
    be trained immediately.

25
Handling Chemicals Safely
  • Read the labels and the material safety data
    sheet.
  • Wear personal protective equipment like goggles
    and hand gloves for protection from spills and
    splashes.
  • To use the chemical correctly, follow the
    direction of the label.
  • Use only one chemical for its intended purpose.
  • Be sure the correct chemical goes in a properly
    labeled container when refilling spray bottles.

26
  • Cap of bottles/ containers should be tight and
    the broken nozzles must be replaced to prevent
    drips.
  • Never mix chemicals the result can be potentially
    deadly like fumes created by mixing bleach with
    ammonia.
  • Use the right amount of chemicals. Excessive
    amount may damage surfaces.
  • If a chemical spills, block the surface. A minor
    spill can be cleaned up. If not sure of how to
    clean up a spill, ask the supervisor.

27
  • If a chemical spill blocks your skin, rinse as
    directed in the material safety data sheet
  • If your eyes are exposed and contaminated by a
    spill, rinse it with a clean water and get
    immediate medical assistance.
  • Handle potentially contaminated items as little
    as possible.
  • Use proper container for disposal of items.
  • Clean contaminated areas.
  • Thoroughly wash hands after using chemicals.

28
Security
  • Security refers to the freedom from fear,
    anxiety, and doubt involving ourselves, as well
    as to the protection and defense against the loss
    or theft of guest, employee, and company property
    and prevention of other emergencies.

29
Security Committees
  • Security committee should consist of key
    management personnel including departmental
    heads. Supervisors and selected hourly employees
    can also contribute important security
    information and add to the committees
    effectiveness.

30
Committee Responsibilities
  • Development of security handbook and the design
    of training and awareness programs.
  • Monitoring, analyzing, and suggesting solutions
    for returning security problems.
  • Maintaining records on such incidents as theft,
    vandalism, and on-site violence.
  • Conducting spot security audits and property
    inspections.
  • Investigating security incidents.
  • Maintain open lines of communication with the
    local police department.

31
Theft
  • Guest theft most hotels assume that guests will
    take items such as matches, pens, shampoo,
    ashtrays, and sewing kit. For most part, these
    items are provided for the guests convenience
    and are actually a form of advertising used by
    the hotel. However, towels, bathrobes, trash
    bins, and pictures are not part of the marketing
    strategy and are not meant to be taken by guests.
    When these items turn up missing, it can add up
    to a large expense for a hospitality operation.

32
  • To reduce the theft of these items, some
    properties keep count of the number of amenities
    inside the room. When the guest request for
    additional item, it is noted at the front desk.
    The room attendant, too, notes how many items are
    in the room, when cleaning the next day. The room
    attendants ability to spot missing item may
    allow the hotel time to charge the guest for
    items that have been taken.

33
  • Another strategy, some hotels place items such as
    towels, bathrobes, and leather stationery folders
    and the like are on sale in their gift shops.
    This may reduce the likelihood of theft since
    guests have the option of purchasing these items.
    Also, having these items on sale helps set a
    standard price that can be levied against guests
    for a missing item.

34
Other helpful ideas to reduce guest theft
  • Use as few monogrammed items as possible.
  • Keep storage rooms closed and locked
  • Affix or bolt guestroom items and fixtures to
    appropriate surfaces.
  • Secure windows.

35
  • Employee theft it is up to the management to set
    the standards for reducing employee theft and
    to act as a good example. A manager who takes
    hotel steaks home to barbeque will not be
    effective when asking employees not to steal
    food, linen, and other hotel property. Management
    should also detail explicit rules and regulations
    concerning employee theft. The employee handbook
    should spell out the consequences of stealing
    hotel property.

36
  • Managers should screen applicants before making a
    job offer. A through background check should be
    conducted, including a check for any criminal
    convictions. Before asking any questions or
    making inquiries, check local laws to ensure that
    the selected screening techniques are not illegal
    or prohibited.

37
  • Good inventory control procedures can also help
    control theft. Detailed records that note any
    unusual, or unexplained fluctuations should be
    kept of all items in stock.
  • It is a good practice to conduct a monthly
    inventory of all housekeeping supplies including
    toilet paper, amenities, and linens. If the items
    in storage do not match the usage rate, or if too
    little stock is on the shelve, it may be an
    indication of employee theft. Employees should be
    aware of the results of monthly inventories
    especially when shortages are discovered.

38
  • In addition to keeping records of items in stock,
    records should be kept of stolen or missing
    items- including those from guestrooms. The
    record should include the name of the room
    attendant and any other hotel employees who had
    access to the room.
  • Keep all storeroom doors locked. Storerooms
    should be equipped with automatic closing and
    locking devices. Locks on storerooms should be
    changed periodically to reduce the opportunity of
    theft.

39
  • Management should designate employee entrances
    and exits. These entrances should be
    well-lighted, adequately secured, and provided
    with round-the-clock security. Employee entrance
    may include a security staff office which
    monitors arriving and departing employees.
  • Employees should know what items they may bring
    onto or remove from the property. Management may
    establish a claim-checking system for bringing
    items onto the premises and a parcel-pass system
    for taking items off the premises. If an employee
    has permission to remove hotel property, he/she
    should be issued a signed permit from the
    supervisor or an appropriate manager before doing
    so.

40
  • Restricting employee parking to a carefully
    selected area can also help control losses.
    Keeping the area well-lighted reduces the
    temptation to steal and also makes the lot safer
    for employees who leave work after dark. The
    employee parking area should not be so close to
    the building that it allows employees to easily
    and quickly transfer stolen property to their
    cars.
  • If the hotel is large or has a very high turnover
    rate, employee are less likely to know their
    fellow workers. In such cases, identification
    badges may be required to prevent strangers who
    pose as employees to gain admittance to the
    property.

41
Bomb Treats
  • Housekeeping procedures for handling bomb treats
    should be part of the propertys security manual.
    Housekeepings role usually consists of helping
    in the search for any suspicious objects that
    could be bombs.
  • Where and how the search is conducted will depend
    on the way the property received the bomb threat.
    Information from the caller or letter may give
    clues on where personnel should search and on
    what type of bomb or object to look for.

42
  • Searches often include stairways, closets,
    ashtrays, trash containers, elevators, exit
    areas, and window sills. It may be helpful to
    take a flashlight to inspect areas with little
    light.
  • Search team employees look for objects that are
    normally not found in an area. Housekeeping
    personnel have an advantage since their daily
    routines promote familiarity with many hotel
    areas. If a suspicious looking object is found,
    it should not be touched or moved notify the
    person in charge of the search team or an
    appropriate supervisor immediately.

43
  • Notification is best done face-to-face or over
    the telephone. Avoid using radios, walkie-
    talkies, or beepers. Some bomb devices are
    sensitive to these sound waves and may go off.
  • If nothing is found after completing the search,
    all teams should regroup in a designated area. An
    all-clear sign should be given after all search
    procedures have been performed and management is
    satisfied that the guests, employees, and
    property are not under by real threat.

44
  • Quite often, guests are not notified when bomb
    threats are received. This is because many bomb
    threats are just that threats. However, bomb
    threat emergency procedures should still be
    followed just in case it is a real emergency.
    Generally, these procedures do not include
    notifying guests until a search is completed. If
    a guest does ask an employee what he/she is doing
    during a search, the employee should respond in a
    way that does not arouse unnecessary suspicion or
    fear.

45
  • The safety and security manual should include
    evacuation plans in case a bomb should actually
    be found or explode on the premises. It should
    also include provisions for emergency medical
    services. In these instances, housekeeping
    employees should follow procedures to assist in
    rescue efforts. The local police should be
    notified of all bomb threats. If police respond
    to such calls, the hotel should follow the
    directions laid out by police personnel.

46
Fires
  • Fires are grouped into four classifications based
    on the different products of combustion. Many
    hotel fires are fueled by a combination of
    combustibles. It is very likely that a fire
    started by Class A combustibles could grow to
    include Class B and C materials.
  • Fires start for many reasons. Some fires may be
    caused by an accident or mechanical malfunction.
    Others may be the result of arson.

47
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48
Mission
  • To save lives and property

49
Fire Behavior
  • Burning, also called combustion, is a simple
    chemical reaction. It is described as a rapid,
    persistent chemical change that releases heat and
    light and is accompanied by flame, especially the
    exothermic oxidation of a combustible substance.

50
Accident Prevention
  • An accident can be defined as the result of a
    series of events and conditions that lead to an
    unsafe situation resulting in injury and/or
    property damage.
  • Accident chain, a series of events and conditions
    that can lead to an accident.
  • Classifications
  • Environment
  • Human factors
  • Equipment
  • Event
  • Injury

51
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52
Environment
  • Included here are physical surroundings such as
    weather, surface conditions, access, lighting,
    and physical barriers.

53
Human Factors
  • This includes human and social behaviors,
    training (lack of training), fatigue, fitness,
    and attitudes.

54
Equipment
  • Included here are apparatus, maintenance, and
    serviceability, proper application, and equipment
    limitations.

55
Event
  • The event is the intersection of the foregoing
    components. Something or someone had to bring
    those components together in such a way to create
    the unsafe situation.

56
Injury
  • Deals with the actual injury (or property damage)
    associated with the accident. A near miss or
    close call is an accident without injury or
    physical damage.

57
Fire Safety Rules and Principles
  • When you discover a fire, call out your
    discovery, sound the fire alarm and summon help.
  • Never pass the fire to get an extinguisher. A
    dead-end passageway could trap you.
  • If you must enter a room to combat the fire, keep
    an escape path open. Never let the fire to get
    between you and the door.
  • If you enter a room and your attack with a
    portable extinguisher fails, get out immediately.
    Close the door to confine the fire. Your
    knowledge of the situation will aid those
    responding.

58
  • Fight the fire with the wind or the wind coming
    from your back.
  • Never use and direct a solid stream of water on
    liquid fire as it will cause splashes and make
    the fire more difficult to handle.
  • Never use foam and water on electrical fire, as
    this will cause electrocution.
  • When entering an enclosed space, see to it that
    the space is gas-free and with sufficient oxygen.
  • Regular training and drills are very necessary so
    that each member learns his duties and the order
    in which they must perform.

59
  • To be successful in firefighting, adequate
    preparation is very much required. Well-planned
    actions for every emergency will surely achieve
    firefighting operations safely, efficiently and
    effectively.
  • One of the priorities that should be given due
    attention is the escape route. Be curious enough
    to know all the shortest possible ways to escape
    from a fire zone to a safe place in order not to
    be trapped.
  • Smoke is a visible product of fire that aids to
    the problem of breathing. Rooms filled with thick
    smoke, there will be great possibility of
    suffocation because oxygen content of the room
    will be reduced to a minimum.

60
Safe Practices
  • Smoke only at the designated area.
  • Raise the fire alarm promptly upon discovery of a
    fire.
  • Know how to extinguish fire correctly with the
    use of portable extinguishers and other methods.
  • Know how to recognize fire hazards and to take
    the necessary steps to prevent fire.

61
Fire Triangle and Tetrahedron
  • The combustion process was once depicted as a
    triangle with three sides. Each side represented
    as essential ingredient for fire
  • Heat
  • Fuel
  • Oxygen
  • As researched, it became evident that a fourth
    ingredient was necessary. That fourth element was
    the actual chemical combustion. Thus the name
    fire tetrahedron

62
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63
The Burning Process
  • The process of burning occurs in clearly defined
    stages
  • Ignition
  • Growth
  • Fully developed
  • Decay

64
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65
Growth Stage
  • From the point of ignition, fire begins to grow.
  • Starting out as a spark or a small flame, other
    combustibles heat up, liberate flammable gases,
    and ignite, spreading the chain reaction to other
    flammables and resulting in an increase in size.

66
Several factors in the growth of fire
  • Oxygen supply the amount of oxygen will have a
    direct effect on the speed of growth and the size
    of the fire.
  • Fuel size of the fire will naturally depend on
    the amount of fuel available to burn.
  • Container size in a structure, the container
    would be the surrounding walls and obstructions.
    A large container would permit dissipation of
    heat and slow the growth of fire.
  • Insulation heat that is radiated back into
    unburned areas will accelerate growth.

67
Fully Developed Stage
  • This stage is recognized as the point in which
    all contents within the perimeter of the fires
    boundaries are burning.

68
Decay Stage
  • When the point at which all fuel has been
    consumed is reached, the fire will begin to
    diminish in size.
  • Ultimately, the fire will extinguish itself when
    the fuel supply is exhausted.

69
Modes of Heat Transfer
  • Heat is a by-product of combustion that is of
    significant importance to the fire fighter.
  • The three modes by which heat transfers its
    energy from one substance to another are through
  • Conduction
  • Convection
  • Radiation

70
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71
Conduction
  • When a hot object transfer its heat, conduction
    has taken place.
  • The transfer could be to another object or to
    another portion of the same object.

72
Convection
  • Air that is hotter than its surroundings rises,
    air that is cooler than its surroundings sinks.

73
Radiation
  • When combustion occurs, light is produced. Light
    travels by way of light waves.
  • These light waves range from ultraviolet to
    infrared.
  • Fire produces infrared light waves, and with
    enough concentration, can permit fire to jump
    from the source to a distant object, heat it up
    again, and if intense enough, cause it to ignite.

74
Classes of Fire
  • Class A type made up of ordinary combustibles
    such as cellulose, rubber, or plastic.
    Combustibles such as paper, wood, cloth, rubber
    and other organic solids including petro-chemical
    solids (plastics) make up this class.
  • Class B type are fueled by liquids, gases, or
    grease-type fuels. Oil, gasoline, alcohol, and
    other liquids are more common types found in this
    class of fuel.

75
  • Class C type are basically fueled by
    electricity. In this case, the electricity is
    actually the heat source that propagates the fire
    and often communicates to other fuels of the
    class A or B type to sustain the burning process.
  • Class D type a less common fire type, is fueled
    by metals. A particular class of heavy metals,
    which can be identified on the periodic table of
    the elements and found mostly in the alkali metal
    group, will burn. Most metals in the group are
    magnesium, titanium, zirconium, sodium, and
    potassium, thorium, plutonium, hafnium, lithium,
    zinc, uranium, and calcium.

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Fire Extinguishment
  • Class A fire, is extinguished by cooling the
    fire. The application of water cools the fire by
    absorbing as water is converted to steam. When
    enough of the heat is removed, the temperature of
    the fire is lowered below the ignition
    temperature of the substance and thereby
    collapses the fire pyramid.
  • Class B fires, the application of smothering
    agent is used to prevent oxygen from getting to
    the fuel and propagating the chain reaction of
    fire by removing the oxygen leg of the fire
    pyramid. In this case, the fire collapses due to
    a lack of oxygen.

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  • Class C fires, fueled by electricity, is overcome
    by removal of the flow of electric current. In
    this case, the removal of fuel, electricity, is
    the action taken to break down the fire pyramid
    and put the fire out.
  • Class D fire, combustible heavy metals differ
    somewhat in their reactions under fire. In some
    cases, the mere presence of water will cause a
    violent reaction, releasing heat and brilliant
    light. In other cases, the mere presence of air
    will cause the reaction. Each metals
    characteristics should be evaluated on its own
    merits.

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Fire Extinguisher classification symbols
  • Classes of fire should be identified primarily to
    determine the type of fire extinguisher that
    would be used.
  • Fire extinguisher classification symbols are
    displayed by shape, color and letter for
    flexibility of the user for better recognition,
    identification and utilization.

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How to use fire extinguishers?
  • P ull the pin
  • This unlocks the operating lever and allows you
    to discharge the extinguisher.
  • A im the base of the flame
  • Point the extinguisher nozzle of hose at the
    base of the flame
  • S queeze the lever
  • This discharge the extinguishing agent.
    Releasing the lever will stop the discharge
  • S weep from side to side
  • Moving carefully toward the fire keep the
    extinguisher aimed at the base of the flame
    and sweep back and forth until the flames
    appear to be out.

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Personal Protective Equipment
  • Helmet
  • Goggles
  • SCBA (Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus)
  • Coat and pants
  • Boots
  • Hood
  • Gloves
  • Radio
  • Flashlight
  • PASS Device (Personal Alert Safety System)
  • Pocket tools

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Full structural protective system
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Four Main Types of Automatic Fire Detectors
  • Smoke detectors all fire emits smoke and gases,
    often long before open flames are visible. The
    smoke detector can therefore be activated before
    the actual outbreak of a fire.
  • Flame detectors the flame detector is activated
    when it is hit by the varying infrared or
    ultraviolet rays from the flames.
  • Heat detectors (thermal contact) is, as the
    name implies, affected by heat. The alarm is
    usually activated when the room temperature rises
    to about 70oC.
  • Differential detectors is activated by an
    abnormally rapid rise in room temperature, e.g.
    3oC in 20 seconds.

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Key Control
  • Proper key control procedures are important for
    guest security and privacy. Key control also
    protects the property by reducing the possibility
    of guest and property theft. Housekeeping is
    primarily concerned with four categories of keys
  • Emergency key
  • Master key
  • Storeroom key
  • Guestroom key

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  • Emergency keys open all doors in the property
    even those that guests have double locked. These
    keys should be kept in a secure place. Some
    properties also keep an emergency key off the
    premises. Distribution and use should occur only
    in emergency situations such as a fire or when a
    guest or employee is locked in a room and needs
    immediate assistance. Most housekeeping personnel
    do not use emergency keys on a day-to-day basis.

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  • Master key also open more than one guestroom.
    Master keys are separated into three levels of
    access. The highest level is the grand master.
    This key opens every hotel room and, many times,
    all housekeeping storage rooms. If the guest has
    turned the dead bolt, master keys will not open
    the door. Master keys can be used in emergency
    situations when it is vital for an employee to
    enter some or all areas of a hotel. Master keys
    are kept at the front desk for such emergency
    purposes.

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  • The next level of master key is the section
    master. This type of master key opens rooms in
    one area of a hotel. An inspector may be issued
    more that one key of this type because he/she may
    be required to inspect the work of more than one
    room attendant.
  • The lowest level of master key is the floor key.
    Generally, a room attendant is given this key to
    open the rooms he/she is assigned to clean. If
    the employee has rooms to clean on more than one
    floor or area, he/she may need more than one
    floor key. Floor keys typically open the
    storeroom for that floor unless the room is
    specially keyed or is accessed by another master
    key.

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  • Guestroom key are those keys distributed to
    guests. This type of key opens a single guestroom
    and, in some cases, other locked areas such as
    the pool. Guestroom keys are stored at the front
    desk when not in use.

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Key Control Procedures
  • A log can be used to monitor the distribution of
    master keys. This log should include the date,
    time and the name of the person who signed for a
    particular key. Every time an employee receives
    or returns a master key, he/she should be
    required to initial or sign the log. The person
    issuing the key should also initial or sign the
    log for each master key transaction. In large
    properties, the linen room attendant distributes
    and secures the keys for the room attendants. At
    smaller properties, the executive housekeeper or
    the front desk may assume this function.

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  • Employees issued keys should keep the keys on
    their person at all times. Key belts, wrist
    bands, or neck chains are recommended devices for
    keeping track of master keys. Master keys should
    never be left on top of a housekeeping cart, in a
    guestroom or in an unsecured area. An employee
    should never loan the key to a guest or to
    another employee.
  • The room attendant who signed for the master key
    is the employee who is responsible for it and
    should never leave the property.

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  • Finally, a room attendant should never use a
    master key to open a room for a guest. If a guest
    asks an employee to unlock a room, the employee
    should politely explain the hotels policy and
    direct the guest to the front desk.
  • Room attendants are also responsible for
    retrieving guestroom keys if the guest leaves the
    key in the room. Many hotels provide key lock
    boxes on the room attendants cart to store
    guestroom keys. If no lock box is available, room
    keys should be kept in a secured area not on
    top of the cart until returned to the front
    desk. If a room attendant finds a room key in the
    hallway or public area, the front desk should be
    notified immediately. The key should be returned
    to the front desk or placed in the lock box.

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Lost and Found
  • Many times, the housekeeping department handles
    the lost and found function. Lost and found items
    should be stored in an area that is secure and
    has limited access. One employee per shift should
    be assigned to handle the lost and found as part
    of his/her job.
  • In large hotels, the linen room clerk may handle
    the lost and found procedures. In smaller
    properties, the task may be delegated to the
    executive housekeeper or front desk personnel.
    When an employee finds an item left behind by a
    guest, he/ she should immediately turn it over to
    the lost and found. In no instance should lost
    and found items be left in an unsecured spot such
    as on top of a room attendants cart.

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  • Items should be tagged, logged, and secured after
    they have been turned over to the lost and found.
    Tags may be numbered or used to identify the
    item. A log should be used to record the date,
    time, where the item was found, and by whom. The
    log should also have space to record if and when
    the item was recovered by it owner.
  • All lost ad found property should be kept for at
    least 90 days. If items are not claimed after 90
    days, it is up to the management to decide how to
    dispose of the items properly. Many hotels donate
    unclaimed lost and found items to local
    charities. It is important to ensure that the
    lost and found policy of the hotel complies with
    local laws.

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Guestroom Cleaning
  • Security in guestroom areas is important to
    maintain for the safety of the guests and
    employees. Room attendants should respect guest
    property and should not open guest luggage or
    packages, snoop in dresser drawers or closets.
    Some hotels even have a policy that forbids room
    attendants to move guest property. In these
    instances, room attendants are instructed to
    clean around guest objects.

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  • Since guest sometimes hide valuables and
    belongings in pillowcases or between mattresses,
    room attendants must be extra careful when
    removing linens. Other favorite hiding places for
    guest valuables include the top of closets and
    under lamps. If room attendants notice any of the
    following while cleaning, they should immediately
    contact their supervisor, security, or the front
    desk
  • Guns or weapons of any kind
  • Controlled substances or drugs
  • Unauthorized cooking or unsafe electrical
    appliances
  • Foul odors
  • Unauthorized pets
  • Ill guests
  • Large amounts of cash or valuable jewelry

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  • When cleaning, the room attendant should always
    keep the door open and the cart rolled in front
    of the entrance to block access from the outside.
    If a guest wants to enter the room while the
    attendant is cleaning, the attendant should
    politely ask the guest his/her name and ask to
    see a room key. This ensures that the room being
    cleaned is that the guests room. If the guest
    does not have a key, the attendant should tell
    him/her to contact the front desk. A guest should
    never be allowed to enter a room just to look
    around. Again, the attendant should explain that
    this if the hotels policy and is enforced for
    the guests safety and security.

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  • A room should never be left unattended with the
    door open. If an employee must leave the room
    while cleaning, he/she should lock the door on
    the way out. This procedure should be followed
    even if the employee is out of the room for only
    a few minutes.
  • After cleaning the room, all windows and sliding
    glass doors should be locked. The guestroom door
    should also be checked to see that it is locked.

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  • Unfortunately, guests often point the finger at
    the room attendant if an item comes up missing
    from the guestroom.
  • This is just one more reason for room attendants
    to be considerate of guest property and to
    protect the guests room for many possible theft.
    For most part, an employee who is alert and
    careful can contribute to the overall guests
    safe and trouble-free stay.
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