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Title: SOL Blitz Review

SOL Blitz Review
Test Taking Tips
  1. Read each question carefully. Twice not or
    except in the question.
  2. First answers are usually correct.
  3. Use the process of elimination. If after you have
    narrowed down the selections to two and you
    cannot decide between the two, go with your gut
    feeling. Most people will feel if an answer
    is right or wrong.
  4. Remember, there is no pattern to correct answers.
    If the last three answers were 'C', the next
    answer could be A, B, C, or D.
  5. If you really have no clue at all, go with the
    longest answer.
  6. There should be no trick questions. If you think
    a question is a trick question, you might be
    thinking too hard.
  7. Take short breaks

Blueprint Summary
11 Questions WHI. 2 Early Humans WHI. 3 Early
River Valley Civilizations WHI. 4 Persia,
Hinduism, Buddhism
13 Questions WHI. 10 East Asia WHI. 11 The
Americas WHI. 12 Late Medieval Period WHI. 13
10 Questions WHI. 5 Ancient Greece WHI. 6 Ancient
9 Questions WHI. 7 Byzantines and Russians WHI. 8
Islam WHI. 9 Early Middle Ages
WHI.01 Geography

Tip Be sure to look at the entire map title,
key (legend), scale, etc
WHI.02 Early Humans

Essential Understandings
  • The life of early hunter-gatherer societies was
    shaped by their physical environment.
  • Early human societies, through the development of
    culture, began the process of overcoming the
    limits set by the physical environment.
  • The beginning of settled agriculture (including
    permanent settlements) was a major step in the
    advance of civilization.
  • Archaeologists continue to find and interpret
    evidence of early humans and their lives.
  • Rivers/waterways were extremely important to
    early civilizations.

1. Homo sapiens in Africa, between 100,000 and
400,000 years ago
  • lived in semi-permanent settlements.
  • had an organized government.
  • had complex tools.
  • were nomadic.

D remember, farms did not exist yet, so early
humans had to follow their food source around
2. What important advance of Paleolithic man
would fall at the question mark on the timeline
  1. Developed hieroglyphics
  2. Learned how to make and use fire
  3. Developed weaving
  4. Developed pottery

B A, C, D are all much more advanced than
developed agriculture
WHI.03 River Valley Civilizations

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Tips
  • Phoenicia alphabet (phonetics/trading purple
  • Kush located south of Egypt on the Nile
  • Natural Barriers mountains, deserts, oceans not

Which civilization lasted approximately 1000
  1. Egyptian
  2. Sumerian
  3. Harappan
  4. Babylonian

C Harappan each block below represents 500
Of the civilizations listed on the chart, which
was the latest to develop?
  1. Israelite
  2. Phoenician
  3. Aryan
  4. Shang/Zhou

B - Phoenician
Which civilization is shown as beginning about
1550 BC
  1. Hittite
  2. Babylonian
  3. Minoan
  4. Shang/Zhou

D Shang/Zhou the other one that is close, the
Hittites, started about 1650 BC.
Which civilization lasted approximately 1500
  1. Sumerian
  2. Egyptian
  3. Harappan
  4. Shang Zhou

A Sumerian each block represents 500 years.
Which Chinese city was NOT located next to a
  1. Yangzhou
  2. Hao
  3. Panlongcheung
  4. Luoyang

B - Hao
What natural barrier lies between India and China?
  1. Gobi Desert
  2. Takla Makan Desert
  3. Plateau of Tibet
  4. Himalaya Mountains

D Mountains are always the best natural
Which river ran next to the cities of Yangzhou
and Panlongcheung?
  1. The Yangtze
  2. The Huang He
  3. The Xi Jiang
  4. The Ganges

A the Yangtze
Which one of the following was a river valley
civilization in Africa about 3500 to 500 b.c.
  1. Mesopotamia
  2. Phoenicia
  3. Hindu Kush
  4. Egypt

D Egypt the others are in the Middle East
The most important reason mans earliest
civilizations began in river valleys was because
these valleys
  1. were used for extensive trade.
  2. offered abundant wildlife for food.
  3. offered rich soil for agriculture.
  4. provided transportation for nomadic peoples.

C - offered rich soil for agriculture
One of the first written codes of law was the
  1. Vedas
  2. Code of Hammurabi.
  3. Eightfold Path to Enlightenment.
  4. hieroglyphics

B Code of Hammurabi
  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d

A - a
  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d

A - a
  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d

A - a
  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d

A - a
WHI.04 India, China and Persia

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Hinduism and Buddhism both began in India, BUT
  • left India to go to China
  • China silk, porcelain
  • Persia Zoroaster, treated conquered people
    well, efficient government (bureaucracy)
  • Confucius respect for elders, ancestor worship

In what city did the Royal Road begin in the west?
  1. Sardis
  2. Nineveh
  3. Lydia
  4. Susa

A Sardis (Lydia is a province, not a city.
Which of the following cities was closest to the
Tropic of Cancer?
  1. Nineveh
  2. Babylon
  3. Thebes
  4. Tyre

C The Tropic of Cancer is a line of latitude in
the southern part of the map. Thebes is the
southernmost city.
Which of the following was NOT a province of the
Persian Empire?
  1. Gedrosia
  2. Greece
  3. Egypt
  4. Media

B Greece is not in the shaded region.
Which of the following provinces had no harbor or
  1. Syria
  2. Bactria
  3. Chaldea
  4. Armenia

B Bactria. Its the only land locked province.
What advantage did the Persian Empire gain from
building the Royal Road and having long
  1. An advantage in trade
  2. An advantage in agriculture
  3. An advantage in irrigation
  4. An advantage in ironworking

A trading is easier on the water and on roads.
The following is a sacred writing of Hinduism
  1. Ten Commandments
  2. Code of Hammurabi
  3. Upanishads
  4. Koran

C Upanishads the Ten Commandments are Jewish,
the Koran is Muslim, and the Code of Hammurabi
was a law code for the Babylonians.
All of the following relate to Confucianism except
  1. Ancestor worship
  2. Respect for Elders
  3. Belief in one god
  4. Code of politeness

C Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are the only
monotheistic religions weve studied.
Confucianism isnt even a religion, its a
A belief in reincarnation, karma, many forms of
one major deity, and a caste system are
characteristics of which of the following
  1. Hinduism
  2. Buddhism
  3. Judaism
  4. Zoroastrianism

A Hinduism.
WHI.05 Ancient Greece

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Greece mountainous peninsula
  • Athens democracy
  • Sparta oligarchy/military
  • Persian Wars Greece v. Persia (Greece won)
  • Peloponnesian Wars Sparta v. Athens (Sparta

What was Greeces largest island?
  1. Rhodes
  2. Marathon
  3. Crete
  4. Knossos

C Marathon and Knossos arent even islands.
What sea separates Greece from Asia Minor
  1. Mediterranean
  2. Ionian
  3. Aegean
  4. All of the above

C the Aegean
What is Greeces easternmost city?
  1. Byzantium
  2. Pella
  3. Troy
  4. Athens

A - Byzantium
Troy lay near what waterway that separates Europe
from Asia Minor?
  1. Sea of Marmara
  2. Aegean Sea
  3. Ionian Sea
  4. Dardanelles

D Dardanelles they are the narrowest waterway
between Europe and Asia Minor
In which form of government did social status
play a role?
  1. Monarchy
  2. Aristocracy
  3. Oligarchy
  4. Direct Democracy

B Aristocracy Nobility means a high social
status. Also, the words social status are in the
Aristocracy category.
What form of government was practiced in Sparta?
  1. monarchy
  2. aristocracy
  3. Oligarchy
  4. direct democracy

B Oligarchy
Where was monarchy the form of government around
1450 BC?
  1. Athens
  2. Mycenae
  3. Sparta
  4. all of the above

B Mycenae
Which form of government sometimes had a ruler
who claimed divine right?
  1. monarchy
  2. aristocracy
  3. Oligarchy
  4. direct democracy

A monarchy most monarchs in the ancient world
claimed divine right.
Which form of government was ruled by all
  1. monarchy
  2. aristocracy
  3. Oligarchy
  4. direct democracy

A direct democracy
The Greek civilization was located on which of
the following bodies of water?
  1. Red Sea
  2. Nile River
  3. Indus River
  4. Aegean Sea

D Aegean Sea
Greek civilization was characterized by
  1. Polytheistic religion based on mythology
  2. harmony with nature
  3. ancestor worship
  4. Caste systems in religious law

A - Polytheistic religion based on mythology
An important economic development in ancient
Greece was
  1. an increase in trade with Western Europe.
  2. a shift from a money economy to a barter economy
  3. a shift from a barter economy to a money economy
  4. the use of land routes instead of sea routes

C - a shift from a barter economy to a money
The earliest democratic system of government was
developed in
  1. classical Athens
  2. Sparta
  3. Egypt
  4. India

A classical Athens
The structure shown below was built to honor
which Greek goddess?
  1. Athena
  2. Aphrodite
  3. Apollo
  4. Hera

A - Athena
What is the correct order of the evolution of
democracy in Athens?
  1. Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
  2. Aristocracy, monarchy, tyranny, democracy
  3. Tyranny, aristocracy, monarchy, democracy
  4. Monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, democracy

A - Monarchy, aristocracy, tyranny, democracy
A government that is an oligarchy is
characterized by
  1. a representative rule of government.
  2. rule by a small group.
  3. rule by a dictator
  4. rule by a monarch

B rule by a small group
How did the results of the Persian Wars impact
Western Civilization?
  1. Persian influence increases greatly in the West.
  2. Athens preserved its independence and continued
    innovations in government and culture
  3. Persian and Greek religions merged and spread
    throughout the Mediterranean and beyond.
  4. Cultural advancements slowed and the political
    power of the Greeks weakened.

A - Athens preserved its independence and
continued innovations in government and culture
What key event united the Greek city-states to a
greater degree than they had been before?
  1. The establishment of a constitution by Solon
  2. The development of democracy in Athens
  3. The formation of the Delian League
  4. The fighting of the Persian Wars

D - The fighting of the Persian Wars
The significance of the Persian Wars was that
  1. Athens and Sparta united against the Persian
  2. Greece emerged as the worlds most powerful
  3. the cultural advancements of Greek civilization
  4. Greek democracy was extended throughout the
    Mediterranean area.

A - Athens and Sparta united against the Persian
WHI.06 Ancient Rome

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Alps are in the northern part of Italy
  • Rome republic, then empire
  • Senate was the most powerful govt body during
    the Republic
  • Roman language was Latin
  • Romes two biggest influences of today
    engineering and government
  • Greece was the biggest influence on Rome

Carthage was located on which continent?
  1. Europe
  2. Asia
  3. Africa
  4. Australia

C - Africa
What body of water did both opponents share?
  1. Adriatic Sea
  2. Ionian Sea
  3. Atlantic Ocean
  4. Mediterranean Sea

D- Mediterranean Sea
Through which mountain ranges did Hannibals army
have to travel with elephants?
  1. Himalayas and Alps
  2. Pyrenees and Alps
  3. Apennines and Himalayas
  4. Alps and Apennines

B- Pyrenees and Alps
What was the site of the earliest major battle
shown on the map?
  1. Messana (264 BC)
  2. Zama (202 BC)
  3. Carthage (147 BC)
  4. Cannae (216 BC)

A - Messana
Who won the Punic Wars and how do you know?
  1. Carthage won because Hannibals route continued
    on to Zama
  2. Rome won because the major battle key label was
    placed there
  3. Carthage won because the fighting lasted so long
  4. Rome won because by 146 BC the Roman territory
    had expanded

D Compare Rome in 264 BC and 146 BC
Greece and Rome differed from earlier
civilizations of the ancient world because Greek
and Roman citizens a. believed in one rather
than many gods b. created large empires
containing many national groups c. had a
voice in their government d. prohibited slavery
C - Greece and Rome differed from the earlier
civilizations of the ancient world because Greek
and Roman citizens had a voice in their
Which modern European country occupies the
homeland of the ancient Romans? a. Germany b.
Italy c. France d. England
B - Italy is the European country that occupies
the homeland of the Romans. The Roman Empire
included all of France and part of England and
Which body of water connected Rome with North
Africa and Asia? a. Atlantic Ocean b. Persian
Gulf c. Mediterranean Sea d. Black Sea
C - The Mediterranean Sea connected Rome with
North Africa and Asia. This body of water was
the great highway of commerce between the
cultures of Rome, Greece, Egypt, North Africa,
Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Asia Minor.
The Twelve Tables were important in Rome because
they a. laid the basis for the Roman
Republic b. freed all the slaves in Rome c. gave
Rome its first written code of laws d. gave the
emperor the status of a god
C - The Twelve Tables (about 450 B.C.) gave Rome
its first written code of laws. These laws
limited the power of the patrician judges who
often interpreted the unwritten laws in a way
that was unfair to the plebeians.
What was the basic cause of the Punic Wars? a.
Rome's acceptance of Christianity b. Carthage's
invasion of Italy c. Rome's rivalry with Carthage
for control of the western Mediterranean d.
Carthage's support for the plebeians against the
C - The basic cause of the Punic Wars (264-146
B.C.) was Rome's rivalry with Carthage for
control of the western Mediterranean.
As a result of the Punic Wars, Rome a. lost
its overseas empire b. lost control over most of
Italy c. was burned to the ground d. won control
over the western Mediterranean
D - As a result of the Punic Wars, Rome won
control over the western Mediterranean. Carthage
was completely destroyed (146 B.C.) and its
surviving population was sold into slavery.
The term "Pax Romana" refers to the period
of a. peace and prosperity during the first
two centuries of the Roman Empire b. civil
wars between Roman generals which destroyed
the Republic c. democratic government following
the abolition of the Senate d. slave revolts
which weakened the Republic
A - The term "Pax Romana" is the name given to
the period of peace and prosperity that occurred
during the first two centuries of the Roman
Which major religion was born during a time when
the Roman Empire was near its height? a.
Judaism b. Hinduism c. Islam d. Christianity
D - Christianity was born during the 1st century
A.D. at a time when the Roman Empire was reaching
its height under Augustus Caesar. Judaism can
trace its origins back to a period earlier than
1000 B.C., as can Hinduism.
Why was the Roman Empire divided in half during
the 3rd century A.D.? a. invaders had
conquered the western half b. so that land could
be given to retired Roman soldiers c. to make it
easier to administer d. to prevent a civil war
between rival emperors
C - The Roman Empire was divided by the Emperor
Diocletian about 285 A.D. to make it easier to
administer. Diocletian took control of the
wealthier eastern half and appointed a co-emperor
to rule over the western half.
Which group was responsible for the destruction
of the Roman Empire in the west? a.
Byzantines b. Germanic tribes c. Huns d. Persians
B - The Germanic tribes living north of the
Danube River in Europe were responsible for the
destruction of the Roman Empire in the west.
  • Julius Caesar is an important figure in Roman
    history because he
  • a. fought the First Punic War
  • b. became the first emperor of Rome
  • c. greatly increased the power of the Senate
  • d. expanded Rome's territory and became dictator
    for life

D - Julius Caesar is important in Roman history
because he expanded Rome's territory (in Britain,
Egypt, France, Spain, and Syria) and became
dictator for life (in 44 B.C.). Caesar exercised
nearly absolute power.
  • "I was the adopted son of the great Julius. I
    defeated all of my rivals and became the first
    emperor of Rome." The person speaking is
  • a. Mark Antony
  • b. Octavian
  • c. Marcus Brutus
  • d. Gaius Cassius

B - The person speaking is Octavian, who took the
name Augustus Caesar after becoming Rome's first
  • Which of the following conquered people
    influenced Rome the most?
  • a. Greeks
  • b. Carthaginians
  • c. Gauls
  • d. Britons

A - The Greeks influenced Rome the most. After
Greece was conquered by Rome during the 2nd
century B.C., Greek literature, philosophy,
science, mathematics, and art spread to Rome.
  • Two important contributions of ancient Rome to
    later societies were in
  • a. poetry and drama
  • b. law and engineering
  • c. painting and music
  • d. chemistry and physics

B - Rome made important contributions in law and
engineering. Roman law became the basis for many
legal systems in Europe.
WHI.07 Byzantines and Russians Interact

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Best Byzantine emperor was Justinian
  • Byzantine and Russian religion Eastern Orthodox

About how many miles was it by road from the
Golden Gate to the Augusteum?
  1. 6.5
  2. 1
  3. 5
  4. 3.5

D 3.5 miles
Which of the following was closest to the Great
  1. The Forum of the Ox
  2. The Hagia Sophia
  3. The Forum of Theodosius
  4. The Church of the Apostles

B the Hagia Sophia
The Aqueduct ran between which of the following?
  1. The Forum of Arcadius and the Forum of the Ox
  2. The Church of the Apostles and the Forum of
  3. The Forum of Constantine and the Hippodrome
  4. The Church of St. Salvador and the Wall of

Which of the following was the furthest north?
  1. The Golden Gate
  2. The Harbor of Theodosius
  3. The Gate of Charisius
  4. The Church of the Apostles

C the gate of Charisius
The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was a.
Rome b. Jerusalem c. Alexandria d. Constantinople
D - The capital of the Eastern Roman Empire was
Constantinople. This city was built (in 330
A.D.) on the site of the ancient Greek city of
Byzantium. It is from that ancient Greek city
that the Eastern Roman Empire received the name
Byzantine Empire.
Who established the city that was to later become
the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire? a.
Julius Caesar b. Diocletian c. Constantine d.
C - Constantinople, the city which later became
the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, was
established by the Emperor Constantine in 330
Which religion became the strongest rival of
Christianity in the Mediterranean area during the
time of the Byzantine Empire? a. Judaism b.
Buddhism c. Islam d. Hinduism
C - Islam or the Muslim religion became the
strongest rival of Christianity in the
Mediterranean area. Buddhism and Hinduism are
religions that arose in India. They never spread
to the Mediterranean region during the time of
the Byzantine Empire.
Which was an achievement of the Byzantine
Empire? a. regaining Palestine from the
Muslims b. preserving Greek and Roman
civilization c. promoting paganism d. conquering
B - The Byzantine Empire preserved Greek and
Roman civilization after the fall of the western
half of the Roman Empire during the 5th century
The Justinian Code is important because it was a
collection of the a. laws of the Roman
Empire b. teachings of Jesus and the Christian
fathers c. scientific discoveries of the ancient
world d. military tactics used by Roman generals
A - The Justinian Code was a collection of laws
from all over the empire that were organized and
simplified by a committee of officials appointed
by Justinian. The Justinian Code was later
introduced to Western Europe and influenced law
codes in European countries.
Three of the following are reasons why the
Emperor Constantine selected the ancient town of
Byzantium as the site for his new capital of
Constantinople. Which is NOT? a. It had an
excellent harbor. b. Its nearness to Rome would
facilitate communications with the Western
Empire. c. It was strategically located to deal
with the Persians in the east and barbarians to
the north. d. It was on the natural trade routes
connecting Asia with Europe and the Black Sea
with the Mediterranean Sea.
B - Constantinople was picked as capital because
of its excellent harbor, its strategic location
and access to trade routes.
What was a result of Justinian's attempt to
reunite the eastern and western halves of the old
Roman Empire? a. The effort was a complete
failure. b. All of the western lands of the old
empire became part of the Byzantine
Empire. c. The attempt led to a return of
prosperity to Rome and Italy. d. Italy and North
Africa were conquered, but then lost to new
D - As a result of Justinian's attempt to reunite
the eastern and western halves of the old Roman
Empire, Italy, and North Africa were conquered,
but later lost to new invaders.
To which religion were the Russians converted in
the 10th century? a. Roman Christianity b.
Judaism c. Islam d. Orthodox Christianity
D - The Russians were converted to Orthodox
Christianity in the 10th century during the reign
of Vladimir the Great. He ruled Kiev from 972 to
1015. The Russians eventually formed their own
national church called the Russian Orthodox
What name did the princes of Moscow take for
themselves? a. khan b. czar c. patriarch d.
B - Khan is the title taken by Mongol and Turkish
rulers. Patriarch is the name given to the
leader of the Orthodox Church. Pharaoh was the
name of kings in ancient Egypt. The princes of
Moscow took the name of czar. The first prince
to do so was Ivan III "the Great" who created the
state of Muscovy and ruled it from 1462 to 1505.
WHI.08 Islam

Essential Understandings and Tips to Remember
  • Mecca is holiest city, then Medina and Jerusalem
  • Respects Abraham, Moses, and Jesus as Prophets
  • Muslim holy book Quran or Koran
  • Founded by Muhammad
  • Five Pillars

What city in Europe was under Muslim control by
  1. Damascus
  2. Cairo
  3. Cordoba
  4. Baghdad

C - Cordoba
What important teaching or custom is shared by
only two of the three faiths?
  1. Dietary laws
  2. Judgment Day
  3. Life after death
  4. Unmarried spiritual leaders

A dietary laws Catholics do not have any
dietary laws.
On what subject do the three religions hold
different views?
  1. Judgment Day
  2. Life after death
  3. Jesus identity
  4. Use of local languages

C Jesus identity
What is similar about the beginning of all three
  1. Each has several branches
  2. Each was begun before AD 600
  3. Each was begun in Southwest Asia
  4. Each was begun with the same 2000 year period of

C each began in Southwest Asia
One of the most important events in Islam, the
Hijrah, refers to Muhammad's a. years of
meditation in the desert b. conquest of Mecca c.
escape from Mecca to Medina d. birth in Mecca
C - Muhammad and his followers left Mecca because
they believed themselves to be in danger of
attack by leaders of Mecca opposed to Muhammad's
teachings. The year 622 marks the beginning of
Islam as a distinct religion and the beginning of
the Islamic calendar. The Hijrah refers to
Muhammad's escape from Mecca to Medina in 622
All of the following are among the Five Pillars
of Islam, EXCEPT to a. pray five times a
day b. be ceremonially accepted into the
religion c. fast during the month of Ramadan d.
give charity to the poor
B - Any person who accepts Allah as the one God
with Muhammad as his messenger, as well as the
other four Pillars of Islam is a Muslim. Muslims
do not have a ceremony, such as Christian baptism
or confirmation, to signify acceptance as a
follower of their religion.
The Koran, the holy book of the religion of
Islam, a. was written by Muhammad b. has been
amended by later religious leaders c. is a
collection of recollections of the teachings
of Muhammad d. includes the Old and the New
Testament of the Bible
C - The Koran was written 30 years after the
death of Muhammad by followers who remembered his
teachings. Since Muhammad's teachings were based
on his revelations, Muslims believe that the
Koran is the revealed word of Allah. The Koran
cannot be changed or amended because it is the
word of Allah transmitted through Muhammad.
Muslims believe that the Koran can only be
written and read in the classical Arabic of the
7th century.
A city in the Middle East that is sacred to Jews,
Arabs, and Christians is a. Jerusalem b.
Mecca c. Istanbul d. Damascus
A - Jerusalem is one city that is sacred to all
three monotheistic religions in the Middle East
because significant events in the history of each
religion took place there.
During the 700s, most of Spain was conquered by
the a. Germanic barbarians b. Muslims c.
Byzantines d. Huns

B - During the 700s, most of Spain was conquered
by the Muslims. Only a few small Christian
kingdoms were able to survive in the north. This
conquest was part of the rapid expansion by
Muslim Arabs out of Arabia and the Middle East
after the death of Muhammad in 632.
WHI.09 Early Middle Ages
  • Tips
  • Middle Ages/Medieval Period heavy Catholic
    Church influence (only thing to unite Europe
    during this time)
  • Monasteries were places for learning and healing
  • Charles Martel stopped the spread of Islam into
    Europe at the Battle of Tours

Which invaders traveled primarily across the
Mediterranean Sea?
  1. Vikings
  2. Muslims
  3. Magyars
  4. All of the Above

B - Muslims
From what region or country did the Vikings come?
  1. Byzantine Empire
  2. Russia
  3. France
  4. Scandinavia

D - Scandinavia
What region or country suffered raids from all
three types of invaders?
  1. Russia
  2. France
  3. Scandinavia
  4. Byzantine Empire

A - France
Which body of water was NOT used by Viking
  1. North Sea
  2. Atlantic Ocean
  3. Mediterranean Sea
  4. Caspian Sea

D Caspian Sea
During the Early Middle Ages in Europe a.
cities increased in size b. trade with areas
outside of Europe increased c. warfare
frequently occurred d. population increased
C - There were invasions by Germanic barbarians,
Vikings, Magyars, and Muslims. In addition,
frequent wars occurred between rulers and between
nobles. Cities were destroyed and the population
decreased. One effect of this was that trade
within Europe and between Europe and other areas
of the world was ruined
The Early Middle Ages in Europe (500-1000 A.D.)
are often called the Dark Ages because a. there
are no written records from the period b.
literacy and education declined c. all government
disappeared d. the Muslims conquered all of Italy
and Gaul
B - The Early Middle Ages are often called the
Dark Ages because literacy and education
declined. The state of constant warfare reduced
the size of towns and cities trade and travel
nearly came to an end. Many people fled from
urban to rural areas to find safety. Cities had
been the center of education and learning. When
these declined or were destroyed, the cultural
level of European society declined.
Which of the following barbarian tribes
established a kingdom in what is now France? a.
Huns b. Magyars c. Franks d. Vandals
C - The Franks established a Germanic kingdom in
northern Gaul, in what is now France, during the
5th century A.D. In 481 A.D., a Frankish
chieftain named Clovis began to expand his small
kingdom. He gained the support of the Church in
Rome when he and his Frankish subjects converted
to Christianity.
What contribution did the Catholic Church make to
society during the early Middle Ages? a.
preserving learning b. abolishing serfdom c.
encouraging trade d. helping overseas expansion
A - The Catholic Church helped to preserve
learning during the early Middle Ages. The Church
ran most of the schools so that its clergy could
be educated. Many schools were established in
monasteries where monks studied Latin and copied
works written by ancient Greek and Roman writers.
Charlemagne was able to a. convert his
subjects to Islam b. reunite the Eastern and
Western Christian Churches c. avoid war with his
neighbors d. create a strong and stable government
D - Charlemagne was able to create a strong and
stable government. He ruled as king of the
Franks from 768 to 814 A.D. Charlemagne
appointed officials who traveled around his
kingdom checking on how the local governments
were being run by the nobles of his kingdom.
They also reported on how the duties of the
Christian clergy were being carried out.
Feudalism arose in Western Europe because a.
Charlemagne desired it b. commerce revived c.
there was a need for law and order d. the pope
promoted it
C - Feudalism arose in Western Europe because
there was a need for law and order. During the
period 500-1000 A.D., Europe experienced many
wars and invasions. During this period rulers
had to depend on local lords to defend their
lands because transportation was so poor. By the
9th century A.D., a class of mounted warriors
called knights had developed. These knights were
given land in exchange for their military service
to a ruler. This system of exchanging land for
military service is called feudalism.
The fief was an important basis for feudalism
because it was the a. obligation owed by a
serf to a lord b. military service performed by a
knight c. tax levied by a king on a noble d. land
given by a lord to a vassal
D - The fief was the land given by a lord to a
vassal in return for military service. The
vassal promised to defend his lord against
attack. The fief included land and all of the
people living on it. Therefore, peasants living
on land given by a lord to a vassal had to
perform services for the vassal, who was now
their new lord.
Which statement about feudalism in Europe is
CORRECT? a. The feudal manor was
self-sufficient. b. The feudal system provided a
strong central government. c. Feudal lords were
chosen by the Catholic Church. d. Trade was
encouraged by feudal nobles.
A - The correct statement is that the feudal
manor was self-sufficient. The almost constant
warfare during the period 500-1000 A.D. led to
the development of the feudal manor. The decline
of trade and towns during this period meant that
nearly all food, tools, and clothing had to be
produced on the manor.
What position did serfs have in feudal
society? a. They were slaves and could be
bought and sold by their lords. b. They often
could rise in class to become nobles. c. They
could not leave the manor without the
permission of their lords. d. They owned the
lands on which they worked.
C - Serfs could not be bought and sold like
slaves, but they also could not leave the manor
without the permission of their lord. The lands
on which they worked belonged to the lord of the
manor. Nobles looked upon themselves as being
superior to the serfs they ruled, and no serf
could hope to become a noble.
What was a result of the Crusades? a. European
conquest of the Middle East b. fall of the
Byzantine Empire c. growth of trade with the
Middle East d. rise of Charlemagne's empire
B - One result of the Crusades was the growth of
European commerce. Europeans who joined the
Crusades were introduced to products like silk,
spices, and precious stones. The demand for
these luxury goods by wealthy Europeans helped to
revive trade. Although the First Crusade
succeeded in capturing Palestine, that land was
recaptured by the Muslims a century later.
Although several other Crusades were sent into
the Middle East, they all failed.
  • The Black Death was
  • the attack by Mongol and Tatar horsemen
  • on Europe during the 13th century
  • b. a disease that killed millions of
  • Europeans during the 14th century
  • the series of civil wars between the grandsons
  • of Charlemagne for control of his empire
  • d. a succession of extremely cold winters
  • during the 11th century

B - The Black Death was a disease (plague) that
killed millions of Europeans during the 14th
century. The plague entered Europe by way of
Sicily in 1347. Within two years it spread
northward and affected nearly all of Europe.
Between 1347 and 1350 about one-third of the
population of Western Europe died from the Black
Anglo-Saxon England was conquered in 1066
by a. Charlemagne b. Attila the Hun c. Charles
Martel d. Duke William of Normandy
D - Anglo-Saxon England was conquered by Duke
William of Normandy. William was the descendant
of the Viking (also called Norsemen or Northmen)
invaders who settled in an area of western France
called Normandy.
The signing of the Magna Carta in 1215 by King
John of England a. limited royal power over
the nobility b. established the Church of
England c. created Parliament d. gave equal
rights to all Englishmen
A - The Magna Carta or "Great Charter" limited
royal power over the nobility. King John was
forced to sign the Magna Carta by rebellious
barons who resented his attempts to tax them.
The Magna Carta guaranteed the traditional rights
of the English nobility.
A cause of the Hundred Years' War was the a.
conflict between French kings and the papacy b.
Viking invasions of Western Europe c. rivalry
between French and English kings d. struggle
between Catholics and Protestants
C - In 1337, Edward III of England claimed the
French throne, bringing on the Hundred Years' War
(1337-1453). He and his successors invaded
France a number of times to enforce their claim
until the English gave up their quest to conquer
Joan of Arc is important in French history
because she a. became the first female monarch
of France b. led the fight against Protestantism
in France c. called the first Estates General in
France d. inspired French nationalism during the
Hundred Years' War
D - Joan of Arc inspired the French nationalism
during the Hundred Years' War. Joan was a
teenage peasant girl who appeared before Charles
the Dauphin, heir to the French throne, in 1429.
She claimed to have heard voices telling her to
lead the French in an effort to drive the English
out of her country.
The Holy Roman Empire included most of modern
a. Russia b. England c. Spain d. Germany
D - The Holy Roman Empire included most of modern
Germany. In the eastern portion of Charlemagne's
empire, his heirs lost power to local nobles
called dukes.
The Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella a.
succeeded in unifying Spain under Christian
rule b. supported the Protestant Reformation c.
were defeated by the Muslims of North Africa d.
promoted religious toleration
A - Ferdinand and Isabella succeeded in unifying
Spain under Christian rule. Queen Isabella of
Castile married Ferdinand, heir to the throne of
Aragon, in 1469. This marriage united most of
Spain. They were able to increase the power of
their state.
WHI.10 East Asian Empiresand Africa
  • Tips
  • China heavily influenced Japan
  • China Buddhism
  • Japan Shintoism and Buddhism
  • African trade items gold and salt

Which khanate extended the furthest north?
  1. Khanate of the Golden Horde
  2. Khanate of the Great Khan
  3. Chagatai Khanate
  4. Ilkhanate

B Khanate of the Great Khan
What body of water did Marco Polo cross twice?
  1. Black Sea
  2. Mediterranean Sea
  3. Arabian Sea
  4. South China Sea

B Mediterranean Sea
Which of the following was NOT in the Khanate of
the Great Khan?
  1. China
  2. Gobi Desert
  3. Mien
  4. Tibet

C Mien is located south of the Great Khan, next
to Vietnam
To whom was the samurai required to be loyal?
  1. Heavenly God, earthly lord, and chosen lady
  2. Their lord above all else
  3. Their parents and children above all else
  4. Their heavenly God, earthly lord, and parents

What would samurai rather do than face defeat or
  1. Show humility
  2. Burn their armor
  3. Commit ritual suicide
  4. Kill each other

C Samurai would perform seppuku (ritual
suicide) rather than be captured.
What did chivalry require of knights that Bushido
did not require of samurai?
  1. That they commit suicide rather than face defeat
  2. That they show humility
  3. That they value bravery and loyalty above all
  4. That the regard women as equals

B Show humility.
Which of the following is NOT true of both
Japanese samurai and European knights?
  1. They lived by a code of honor that valued bravery
    and loyalty
  2. They fought for a lord in exchange for something
  3. They entered battle with protective gear and
  4. They would commit ritual suicide than face defeat

D Samurai would commit ritual suicide, but not
European knights.
During the reign of the Tang Dynasty Chinese
civilization and culture reached great heights.
New land was conquered and art, literature, and
poetry flourished. Which term best describes the
era of the Tang Dynasty? a. Age of
Philosophers b. The Golden Age of China c.
Nationalist China d. Mongol China
B - The reign of the Tang Dynasty (618-907) was
also known as The Golden Age of China because
great advances were made in Chinese civilization
and culture during this period.
What is meant by the term "cultural
diffusion"? a. People believe that their own
culture is superior to all others. b. People
guard their customs and will not share them with
others. c. Cultural practices are taught by the
older generation to the younger. d. Customs
and ideas are spread from one society to another.
D - Cultural diffusion is the spread of ideas,
traditions, innovations, and customs from one
society to another. Often believed to have been
isolated throughout its long history, ancient
China was in fact part of the long-distance
trading network, commonly known as the Silk Road.
What effect did the Civil Service Examination
have on Imperial China? a. It encouraged the
study of Confucianism. b. It provided a method to
reward the merit and hard work of
individuals. c. It provided a vehicle for
peasants to advance into a higher social
class. d. all of the above
D - Since the Civil Service Examination was based
on Confucian principles, a person taking the exam
had to study Confucianism carefully. If the
person did well on the exam, he was rewarded with
a well-paying government position in the
bureaucracy thus his hard work and merit were
rewarded. Since nobody was barred from taking
the test, theoretically a peasant could use the
exam system as a vehicle into a higher social
Africa had large and important kingdoms during
the time of the Middle Ages in Europe. All of
the following were major sub-Saharan kingdoms in
Africa, EXCEPT a. Ghana b. Mali c. Songhai d.
D - Carthage was a major kingdom on the coast of
Africa north of the Sahara Desert. It dominated
the western Mediterranean for hundreds of years
until conquered by the Roman Empire in ancient
times. Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were all
important kingdoms south of the Sahara Desert in
West and Central Africa between 500 and 1500 A.D.
Before 1500 A.D. the trade items most sought
after from the African kingdoms south of the
Sahara were a. gold and ivory b. silk and
cotton c. fruit and vegetables d. rubber and
A - The sub-Saharan kingdoms traded their gold
and ivory for salt and cloth brought by caravans
that crossed the Sahara Desert from North Africa.
The trade across the Sahara Desert was an avenue
for the spread of which religion to sub-Saharan
Africa? a. Christianity b. Judaism c. Islam d.
Roman paganism
C - Muslims carried on the trans-Sahara trade
which had grown in the preceding centuries. Many
sub-Saharan Africans adopted Islam which spread
into West and Central Africa across the desert,
and from Egypt along the Nile into Sudan.
Warriors in feudal Japan were known as a.
shogun b. samurai c. bushido d. origami
B The samurai were the warriors of feudal
Japan. Origami is a Japanese art form, bushido is
the code of behavior for the samurai and a shogun
is a military leader.

The code of honor of a samurai warrior was known
as a. bonsai b. kamikaze c. kami d. bushido
D - The code of honor followed by a samurai
warrior in ancient and medieval Japan was known
as bushido. It was a code based on honor,
respect, obedience, and loyalty to one's
Which of the following religions diffused into
Japan from China? a. Shinto b. Buddhism c.
Christianity d. Islam
  • Which of the following religions is native to
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Shintoism
  • Christianity

C - Native means original, or originate.
Shintoism is Japans native religion.
  • This Shinto Shrine would most likely be found in
    what country?
  • China
  • Japan
  • India
  • Egypt

B - Shintoism is Japans native religion.
WHI.11 The Americas
  • Tips
  • All polytheistic
  • All made sacrifices (Aztec and Mayan did human
    sacrifices, Incan sacrificed llamas)

Which of the following was located in the region
controlled by the Moche?
  1. Machu Picchu
  2. Cuzco
  3. Chan Chan
  4. Lake Titicaca

C Chan Chan.
Which of the following ran down the middle of the
Incan Empire?
  1. The Andes Mountains
  2. The Amazon River
  3. The Tropic of Capricorn
  4. Lake Titicaca

A the Andes Mountains
Which of the following is the furthest south?
  1. Lake Titicaca
  2. Cuzco
  3. Machu Picchu
  4. Chan Chan

A Lake Titicaca
Latin America includes which of the following
regions? a. Central America, South America,
and Spain b. Central America, South America, and
Antarctica c. Mexico, Central America, South
America, and the Caribbean d. Mexico, Central
America, South America, and Spain
C - Latin America is a vast region that stretches
from the Mexican-U.S. border in the north to Cape
Horn in South America. It includes Mexico,
Central America, South America, and several
Caribbean islands. The region is comprised of 32
independent nations and some small possessions of
European nations.
WHI.12 The Late Medieval Period
  • Tips
  • Crusades series of wars between Christians and
  • Crusades increased trade between Europe and the
    Middle East
  • Middle Ages/Medieval Period heavy Catholic
    Church influence (only thing to unite Europe
    during this time)
  • Monasteries were places for learning and healing

Where did a young page begin his education?
  1. At tournaments
  2. At his lords manor
  3. At another lords castle
  4. At home with his parents

C at another lords castle
Which of the following was a page supposed to
  1. To take care of horses
  2. Courtly manners
  3. To use a battering ram
  4. To shoot a rifle

B courtly manners
At what age was a page raised to the rank of a
  1. 7
  2. 10
  3. 14
  4. 17

C - 14
What was the main job of a squire?
  1. To serve a knight
  2. To play chess well
  3. To behave chivalrously
  4. To fight in a battle

A To serve a knight
Who had the authority to declare a squire a
  1. Another knight
  2. The squires future chosen lady
  3. A member of the clergy
  4. The knights lord

A the knights lord
Chivalry was a code of behavior for the
medieval a. serf b. clergy c. knight d.
C - Chivalry was a code of behavior for the
medieval knight. The code glorified the values
of a warrior and also emphasized Christian
ethics. A knight was supposed to be courageous,
respect women, and treat his enemies honorably.
Which of the following statements about women in
the European Middle Ages is MOST accurate? a.
women were highly educated b. women and men
worked equally hard on the manor c. women were
considered unimportant d. women were "free" to be
all that they could be
B - In the European Middle Ages women and men on
the manor worked equally hard. Women played an
important role in life. Wives were expected to
care for the house, cook, care for the children,
work in the fields, and take care of the
chickens, sheep, and cows. Even the lord's wife
was busy. She raised the children, supervised
the servants, and made sure that there was enough
food for the family. In addition she was in
charge of spinning, weaving cloth, and sewing.
Noble women in the Middle Ages a. were
expected to bear and raise many children b. were
not allowed to inherit fiefs c. received an
education similar to that of noblemen d.
supervised the running of her husband's manor
A - Noble women were expected to bear and raise
many children. Marriages were arranged for women
of the nobility by their fathers, often as a
means of making an alliance with other noble
families. Although a woman could inherit a fief,
she was not allowed to control it. Instead, her
father, male guardian or eldest son acted as her
legal guardian. Noble women were taught such
practical skills as weaving, sewing, and cooking.
What was the main subject of works of art during
the Middle Ages? a. nature b. Greek and Roman
mythology c. monarchs d. religion
D - Religion was the main subject of works of art
during the Middle Ages. Medieval churches were
decorated with statues of Christ, the Apostles,
or saints. Stained glass windows often
illustrated scenes from the Bible. Most medieval
paintings also had religious themes.
WHI.13 The Renaissance
  • Tips
  • Renaissance focuses on the human and individual
  • Church influence begins to decline
  • Renaissance began in Italy

The Renaissance began in Italy partly
because a. Italian city-states were wealthy b.
Italy was not affected by the Black Death c.
Italy has a pleasant climate d. Italy was unified
under one monarch

A - The Renaissance began in Italy partly because
Italian city-states were wealthy. Many rulers of
the Italian city-states used the revenues from
trade to hire artists and architects to beautify
their cities. Wealthy merchants competed with
each other to become patrons of the arts.
Which idea was most characteristic of the
Renaissance? a. feudalism b. humanism c.
chivalry d. scholasticism

B - Humanism was most characteristic of the
Renaissance. The classical writings of Greece
and Rome emphasized human concerns.
During the Italian Renaissance, the Medici
family a. helped spread the ideas of the
Protestant Reformation b. supported artists and
scholars in Florence c. attempted to make Italy a
unified country d. conducted voyages of discovery
and exploration in Africa

B - The Medici family supported artists and
scholars in Florence. They became wealthy during
the late 14th century from commerce and banking.
The Medici family ruled Florence for nearly a
Renaissance literature was most concerned with
the a. enjoyment of earthly pleasures b. deeds
of legendary heroes c. lives of Christian
saints d. activities of peasants and workers

A - Renaissance literature was most concerned
with the secular meaning the enjoyment of
earthly pleasures.
The term "Renaissance" refers to a a.
revolution against royal authority b. repression
of dissent c. rebirth of learning d. reformation
of religion

C - The term "Renaissance" refers to a rebirth of
learning. During the Renaissance there was a
revival of interest in the literature, art, and
architecture of ancient or classical Greece and
Rome. The Renaissance is considered to be a
period of transition between the Middle Ages and
early modern times.
A "Renaissance man" can be best described as
a a. successful businessman b. brave warrior c.
religious and humble monk d. person of many

D - A "Renaissance man" can be best described as
a person of many talents. Humanists praised the
person who was educated and who had many talents
and achievements. A good example of a
"Renaissance man" is Leonardo da Vinci who
studied painting, architecture, sculpture,
mathematics, anatomy, engineering, and
Which Renaissance artist painted the "Mona Lisa"
and "The Last Supper"? a. Michelangelo
Buonarroti b. Donatello c. Leonardo da Vinci d.
Sandro Botticelli

C - Leonardo da Vinci painted the "Mona Lisa" and
"The Last Supper." Michelangelo is famous for
his painting on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
and his statues of David and Moses. Donatello is
credited with creating the Renaissance's portrait
style. Botticelli is considered one of the
finest Renaissance artists.
Both Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas More a.
became leaders of the Protestant Reformation b.
were Renaissance architects c. opposed humanist
ideas literature and art d. advocated reform in
secular and religious matters

D - Erasmus and More were humanists who advocated
reform in secular and religious matters. Erasmus
(1466-1536) was a Dutch monk and teacher who
dedicated his life to Christian scholarship. In
his best known work, "In Praise of Folly,"
Erasmus criticized the luxury and worldliness of
the Catholic Church. When the Protestant
Reformation began, Erasmus advocated compromise
and suggested reforms. For this stand, he was
attacked by both Catholic and Protestants. Thomas
More (1478-1535) was an advisor to King Henry
VIII of England. In his book, "Utopia," More
described an ideal society without poverty, war,
and religious persecution. When Henry separated
his kingdom from the Catholic Church, More
remained faithful to Catholicism and was
Which idea was a basis for Renaissance art? a.
The human body must always be shown fully
clothed. b. Artists should paint only religious
subjects. c. Only rulers and the nobility can
appreciate great art. d. Art should show the
beauty of the human body and spirit.

D - A basis for Renaissance art was the idea that
art should show the beauty of the human body and
spirit. Like the sculptors of ancient Greece,
Renaissance artists tried to accurately describe
the human body while at the same time idealizing
its beauty. The human figure was shown nude as
well as clothed. The paintings and sculpture of
the Renaissance was displayed in public
buildings, churches, and squares of European
cities for the enjoyment of the entire populace.
Although Renaissance artists used religious
themes in many of their works, they also used
themes from classical mythology and secular life.
  1. a
  2. b
  3. c
  4. d

A - a