History 210: The rise of the "Great Civilizations": cities, states, societies, 3500 B.C.E. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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History 210: The rise of the "Great Civilizations": cities, states, societies, 3500 B.C.E.

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Title: History 210: The rise of the "Great Civilizations": cities, states, societies, 3500 B.C.E.


1
History 210 The rise of the "Great
Civilizations" cities, states, societies, 3500
B.C.E.500 B.C.E.
2
What were/are the distinctive features of
civilization?
3
What were/are the distinctive features of
civilization?
  • Cities
  • Monumental architecture
  • Large populations 10,000s
  • Powerful states that compel obedience
  • Much greater inequality in
  • Economic function
  • Wealth
  • Social status

4
  • What were the six major civilizations that
    emerged from 3500 BCE?

5
  • What were the six major civilizations that
    emerged from 3500 BCE?
  • Sumer (southern Mesopotamia)
  • Egypt (Nile river flood plain)
  • Norte Chico (central coast Peru)
  • Indus Valley (present-day Pakistan)
  • China (Yellow river area)
  • Olmec (near present-day Veracruz)

6
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7
  • Sumer
  • arose 3500-3000 BCE
  • Cuneiform first written language
  • Epic of Gilgamesh
  • Ziggurat
  • City-states

8
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9
The Great Ziggurat of Ur, 4100 year old
10
  • Egypt
  • Arose around 3100 BCE
  • Great continuity
  • Nile river crucial (ease of travel flooding)
  • Most people were villagers/agriculturalists
  • Pharoahs rulers as God-Kings
  • Defined the law
  • ensured the flooding
  • access to afterlife

11
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12
Step pyramid of Djoser, Egyptca. 2650-2600 BCE
13
  • Norte Chico
  • Central coast Peru
  • Emerged 3000-1800 BCE
  • 25 urban centers
  • smaller cities
  • No walls
  • Little evidence of warfare
  • Less specialization/stratification
  • No grain-based agriculture
  • Quipu accounting system, but no writing system
  • Unusually self-contained only import maize

14
  • Indus Valley
  • Present-day Pakistan
  • Arose 3000-2000 BCE
  • Elaborately planned cities
  • Standardized weights and measures
  • Written script, not yet deciphered
  • No palaces, temples, elaborate graves of kings or
    warriors
  • Less evidence than others
  • Environmental degradation and river changed
    course led to collapse about 1700 BCE

15
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16
  • China
  • Arose on the Yellow river around 2200 BCE
  • Defined be a centralized state
  • Xia Dynasty (2205 to 1766 BCE)
  • Shang Dynasty (1766 to 1122 BCE)
  • Zhou Dynasty (1045 BC to 256 BCE)
  • Mandate of Heaven ruler Son of Heaven envoy
    between heaven and earth
  • Early writing on oracle bones

17
Zhou Dynasty (1050771 BCE) population
concentration
18
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19
Olmec civilization1200-400 BCE
20
Olmec civilization1200-400 BCE
  • Coast of Gulf of Mexico
  • Cities arose from competing chiefdoms
  • Elaborate ceremonial centers
  • First written language in Americas (900 BCE)
  • Influenced many Mesoamerican and North American
    cultures.

21
  • The Rise of the State
  • Coercion and Consent
  • Writing and Accounting
  • The Grandeur of Kings

22
  • Comparing Mesopotamia and Egypt
  • Environment and Culture
  • Cities and States
  • Interaction and Exchange

23
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24
Comparison First Civilizations shared all of the
following features EXCEPT
  • a. empires of continental size.
  • b. class hierarchies.
  • c. monumental architecture.
  • d. sharp gender inequality.

25
Connection Which of the following was NOT an
outside influence that profoundly shaped the
formation of the First Civilization in Egypt?
  • a. Pyramid building from the island of Crete
  • b. Ideas of divine kingship from central or
    eastern Sudan
  • c. Domesticated donkeys and cattle from the Sudan
  • d. The arrival of wheat and barely from
    Mesopotamia

26
Change Which of the following was NOT a
development that distinguished First
Civilizations from even the most advanced
chiefdoms of the Neolithic era?
  • a. States capable of greater oppression of
    subjects
  • b. Larger populations
  • c. Writing
  • d. Social stratification

27
Discussion Starter For you does the term
civilization
  • a. conjure up images of superiority?
  • b. suggest refined behavior?
  • c. bring to mind only positive associations?
  • d. bring to mind a mixed or ambivalent set of
    associations?

28
Discussion Starter Which of the following is
for you the least appealing development that
accompanied First Civilizations?
  • a. Slavery
  • b. Patriarchy
  • c. Social stratification
  • d. Wide-scale warfare

29
Discussion Starter On the whole, was the
emergence of First Civilizations a positive or
negative development for humankind?
  • a. The emergence of First Civilizations was a
    positive development for humankind.
  • b. The emergence of First Civilizations was a
    negative development for humankind.
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