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Qualitative Research Methodologies

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Qualitative Research Methodologies Matthew Schwarz and Valerie Dao Fulbright Research Mentorship Program Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Introduction Introduction ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Qualitative Research Methodologies


1
Qualitative Research Methodologies
  • Matthew Schwarz and Valerie Dao
  • Fulbright Research Mentorship Program
  • Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

2
Introduction
3
Introduction
  • Qualitative research
  • Allows the researcher to understand a problem or
    phenomenon from the perspectives of the people it
    involves.
  • Reveals a complete picture of a certain research
    issue.
  • Seeks to provide a rich understanding of a
    certain research issue.

4
Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research
  • Qualitative
  • Textual data
  • Explore phenomena
  • Flexible, unstructured
  • Describe variation, relationships, and individual
    and group experiences
  • Quantitative
  • Numerical data
  • Confirm hypotheses
  • Rigid, structured
  • Quantify variation, predict relationships, and
    describe characteristics

5
Steps
  • Qualitative research takes place in steps
  • Select an appropriate methodology
  • Define an appropriate sample
  • Implement the methodology
  • Collect relevant data from the sample

6
Methodologies
7
Exploratory Research
  • Qualitative methods allow researchers to explore
    subjects thoroughly.
  • Open-ended questions
  • Probing questions
  • Why questions
  • How questions

8
Qualitative Methodologies
  • The most common qualitative research
    methodologies are
  • Participant observation
  • Depth interviews
  • Focus groups

9
Participant Observation
  • Observe naturally occurring behaviors through
    immersion with a population.
  • Develop insider knowledge.
  • Record detailed and extensive field notes.
  • Notice everything.

10
Depth Interviews
  • Intensive individual interviews.
  • Small number of participants.
  • Explore perspectives on an issue or phenomenon.
  • Dynamic and detailed

11
Focus Groups
  • Generate data on how groups think about certain
    ideas in group settings.
  • Not just facts meaning of facts.
  • Good conversation.
  • Careful moderation.

12
Sampling
13
Determining a Sample
  • Even if it were possible, it is not necessary to
    collect data from everyone in a community.
  • In qualitative research, the researcher needs to
    define and select a sample.
  • The studys research objectives and the
    characteristics of the study population determine
    which and how many people to select.

14
Sampling Methods
  • Three of the most common sampling methods are
  • Purposive sampling
  • Quota sampling
  • Snowball sampling

15
Purposive Sampling
  • Purposive sampling groups participants according
    to pre-selected criteria relevant to a particular
    research question.
  • ex. Motorbike drivers in HCMC
  • ex. Vietnamese businessmen in the USA
  • Sample sizes depend on
  • Resources and time available
  • The studys objectives
  • If the researcher needs a specific number of
    participants, quota sampling is better.

16
Quota Sampling
  • Quota sampling begins with two decisions
  • What characteristics?
  • How many people?
  • Characteristics are selected in order to find
    participants who have experience with or
    knowledge of the research topic.
  • The researcher goes into the community and
    selects the predetermined number of people
    demonstrating the pre-selected characteristics.

17
Snowball Sampling
  • Snowball sampling is a form of purposive
    sampling.
  • Participants refer the researcher to other
    potential participants.
  • Snowball sampling is often used to find and
    recruit hidden populations groups not easily
    accessible to researchers.

18
Recruitment
19
Introduction
  • Once the researcher has selected a research
    methodology and a sampling methodology, the next
    step is to recruit participants.
  • Step 1 Define data collection activities.
  • Step 2 Develop a plan with gatekeepers.
  • Step 3 Establish guidelines for recruiters.
  • Step 4 Implement recruitment plan.
  • Step 5 Adjust if necessary

20
Ethical Considerations
  • Follow the guidelines established by your
    universitys Ethics Committee
  • Respect social and cultural contexts
  • Ensure voluntary participation
  • Obtain informed consent when necessary
  • We will discuss Ethical Considerations in more
    detail in later lectures.

21
Data Synthesis
22
Data
  • Your way of collecting data will depend on which
    qualitative methodology you choose. These
    include
  • Field notes
  • Audio and Video tapes
  • Transcripts

23
Synthesis
  • Understanding vs. Generalizing
  • One of the advantages of using a qualitative
    research methodology is that it can help the
    researcher fully understand the issue.
  • One of the disadvantages of using a qualitative
    research methodology is that it does not allow
    the researcher to make generalizations.
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