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The 6 Elements of Geography

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... 13 E (Africa) 33 S, 71 W 34 S, 150 E Name the global address of: Hanoi, Vietnam ... Physical Characteristics: Mountains, rivers, wildlife, beaches, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The 6 Elements of Geography


1
The 6 Elements of Geography Part 1
2
6 Elements
  • Many geographers use the six essential elements
    to organize their study.
  • The World in Spatial Terms
  • Places and Regions
  • Physical Systems
  • Human Systems
  • Environment Society
  • Uses of Geography

3
The World in Spatial Terms
  • Geographers look at where things are on the
    Earths surface.
  • Changes in settlement patterns over time are also
    important.

4
The World in Spatial Terms
  • It tells us where this place is in relation to
    other places?
  • Or, its LOCATION

5
The World in Spatial Terms
  • Where are we?
  • Absolute Location
  • Latitude and longitude (global location)
  • Sugar Land is located at 29N, 96W
  • Street address (local location)

6
Arctic Circle, 66 1/2ºN
North Pole, 90ºN
Tropic of Cancer, 23 1/2ºN
Tropic of Capricorn, 23 1/2ºS
Antarctic Circle, 66 1/2ºS
South Pole, 90ºS
7
Practice
  • What major city has the following coordinates?
  • 41ºN, 73ºW (USA)
  • 33ºN, 13ºE (Africa)
  • 33ºS, 71ºW
  • 34ºS, 150ºE
  • Name the global address of
  • Hanoi, Vietnam
  • Athens, Greece
  • Tehran, Iran
  • Sugar Land, TX

8
The World in Spatial Terms
  • Relative Location
  • Described by landmarks, time, distance from one
    place to another, etc.
  • Sugar Land is southwest of Houston
  • College Station is 1 hr 45 min away
  • Israel is next to Lebanon Jordan

9
Physical Systems
  • We study the 4 physical systems Earths
    atmosphere, land, water and lifeand the
    interaction b/w them all
  • Physical processes shape and change Earths
    physical features and environments.
  • Climate and weather affect humans.

10
Physical Systems
  • Ecosystem all of an areas plants and animals
    together with the nonliving parts of their
    environment.
  • Earth is the largest ecosystem.
  • Natural events and human activity change
    ecosystems.
  • All of life depends on these ecosystems

11
Human Systems
  • Human systems include population distribution,
    growth and movement
  • Population growth is affected by a populations
    age, birthrate, death rate, and life expectancy.
  • What kinds of things lead to population growth?

12
Human Systems
  • Geographers look at where people live and how
    crowded a place is when they study population
    density.
  • They also study migration or the movement of
    people.
  • One specific type of movement is urbanization

Houston traffic
13
MOVEMENT
  • Movement of people, goods, and information
    ideas
  • Through travel, trade, internet, political
    events, etc.

14
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17
Transportation of humans
Immigration/Migration What are some push factors?
What are some pull factors?
18
Environment and Society
  • One of the most impt. topics is how people
    interact with the environment.
  • Human activities can have positive and negative
    affects on the environment.

Pollution in Houston, Texas on a clear day.
19
Environment and Society
  • Humans adapt to env.
  • Name 3 ways humans ? for the environment
  • Humans modify env.
  • Name 3 ways humans ? the environment
  • Humans depend on env.
  • Name 3 ways humans need the environment

20
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22
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23
Environment and Society
  • Resources are very impt. to study in relation to
    people.
  • Population , demands on resources .
  • Study the locations, quality, and quantity and
    the effect of humans.

Oil Fields in West Texas
24
Places and Regions
  • A place has physical and human characteristics
    that make it special.

Palo Duro Canyon
25
PLACE
  • What is it like?
  • Physical Characteristics
  • Mountains, rivers, wildlife, beaches, etc.
  • Describe Texas
  • physical characteristics

26
PLACE
  • Human/Cultural Characteristics
  • Buildings, roads, clothing, food, people,
    language, religion, etc
  • Describe New Yorks cultural
    characteristics
  • People then develop an image of the
  • place based on experience
  • What do you imagine when you think
  • of China? Saudi Arabia?

27
  • What physical features of Sugar Land make it a
    unique place?
  • What cultural/human characteristics are unique to
    Sugar Land?

28
REGION How are places similar or different?
  • definition area of earths surface with similar
    characteristics
  • Geographers categorize regions in 3 ways
  • A. formal regions
  • B. functional regions
  • C. perceptual/vernacular regions

29
REGION
  • Formal (uniform) regions
  • Defined by govnt. (USA, Brazil, Texas)
  • Or physical features (Rockies, Great Lake States)
  • Or common
  • characteristic
  • (Corn Belt,
  • Rust Belt)

30
REGION
  • Functional regions organized around a set of
    interactions and connection between places
    (usually characterized by a hub, or central
    place, and links to the central place)
  • a newspapers
  • distribution route

31
REGION
  • Vernacular/Perceptual regions
  • people perceive the characteristics of the region
    in the same way (loosely defined)
  • The Middle East (what countries are actually
    included? Is it linked b/c of oil? Islam?)
  • Bible Belt southeastern states in U.S. strict
    Protestants

32
Perceptual Region
  • The states in dark red are almost always included
    in modern day definitions of the Southern United
    States, while those in medium red are usually
    included. Those cross-shaded are sometimes
    included due to their historic connections to the
    South.

33
Uses of Geography
  • Historians use geography to understand history.
  • Not only do they look at when things happened,
    but where and why they happened.
  • Geography helps people understand the present as
    well as the past.

34
Uses of Geography
  • Geographers use many tools including maps,
    charts, and graphs. What else might they use?
  • High-tech tools such as satellites provide
    detailed images
  • Computer databases, like Geographic Information
    Systems, (GIS) store huge amounts of data.

Satellite image of Texas, Louisiana and the Gulf
of Mexico
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