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Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application

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... flow Oxidant flow Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement Projected 5W/cm3 at ~500oC Summary A New Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design Efficient, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage Materials for Solar Energy Application


1
Thin Film Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Storage
Materials for Solar Energy Application Alex
Ignatiev1,2, Ainur Issova2, Mukhtar Eleuov2 1
Center for Advanced Materials University of
Houston, Houston, TX 77204-5004 2 Institute for
Physics and Technology Almaty, Kazakhstan Almaty,
2011
2
  • Solar Energy Utilization
  • Sunlight Required
  • Energy Storage Needed
  • for Nighttime and Cloudy Operation

3
Hydrogen Storage Options
  • Liquid
  • Cold 22K
  • 5 wt - Adequate
  • EXPENSIVE..

4
Volume for Storage of 5 kg H2 in Different
States (Equivalent to 20 L Gasoline)
5
Nanostructured Polymers
  • Polyanaline Nanotubes
  • Conducting Polymers
  • Nanotube pores
  • High surface area

6
Polyaniline (PANI) Charge Discharge
  • Charge at 300psi for 2 hours
  • Multiple Charge Discharge Cycles
  • Mass Spectrometer Read-out
  • PANI ? 2.5-3 wt H2 Uptake
  • Tested to 12 Cycles-no deg
  • Good Hydrogen Storage and Cycling

7
Volume for Storage of 5 kg H2 in Different
States (Equivalent to 20 L Gasoline)
8
Efficient Use of Hydrogen Fuel
  • Hydrogen for Transportation
  • Internal Combustion Engine
  • Use Fuel Cell
  • Electrochemical Reaction
  • OK - No NOx formed..
  • Only WATER.

9
What is a Fuel Cell?
A device that generates electricity by
combining fuel and oxygen in an electrochemical
reaction.
  • Advantages
  • High energy conversion efficiency
  • Minimal environmental impact
  • Stackable to reach very high power output
  • Reduced noise level

10
Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
  • Hydrogen and oxygen reactants
  • ZrO3 electrolyte
  • Nickel anode
  • Operating temperature is 900-1000C
  • Encapsulation materials challenges
  • High materials costs
  • How to Reduce market cost . ??

11
Apply Thin Film Materials Expertise to SOFC
Challenges
  • Develop New Design Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel
    Cell
  • Thin Film Heterostructure Design
  • - Thin electrolyte- lower temperature operation
  • - Atomically ordered films/interfaces- lower
    resistance
  • Microelectronics Processing - Economies of Scale
  • Lower Fabrication Cost
  • Smaller Size
  • Lower Cost

12
Thin Film SOFC Heterostructure Growth
  • Thin Film Atomically Ordered YSZ Electrolyte
  • Reduce Internal Defects
  • Reduce Interface Defects
  • Pulsed Laser Deposition of Epitaxial YSZ Film
  • on Crystalline Nickel Foil Substrate

Epitaxial Growth
13
Thin Film Heterostructure Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Total Cell Thickness 20-25 mm thick
14
Ni Porosity - Microelectronics Photolithography /
Etching
  • Electrochemically Etched Nickel Anode
  • 60 ?m Etched Pores
  • Nickel Side Electro-etch

15
Thin Film Micro SOFC
TFSOFC I vs. V as a Function of Temperature
Hydrogen / Air - Polycrystalline Single Cell
16
Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Have Nickel Anodes
  • Nickel Excellent Catalyst for Hydrocarbon
    Reduction
  • BUT.Coking at High Temperatures. gt 600 C
  • However Micro Fuel Cell Operates at 500 C NO
    Coking!
  • Hydrocarbon Fuel Operation at 60 Efficiency.
  • Methane/Methanol
  • Ethane/Ethanol

17
  • Thin Film Fuel Cell Stack
  • Require 100V to 200V Operation
  • Series Connection of Cell Elements
  • Interconnect Required
  • Stack Individual Cells Together in Series

18
Thin Film Fuel Cell Stack Components
Cell Element
19
Thin Film Heterostructure SOFC Advancement
Fuel Cell Stack Design (In Progress)
cathode
electrolyte
anode
Micro-patterned Interconnect
TFSOFC
Fuel flow
Oxidant flow
Projected gt 5W/cm3 at 500oC
20
Summary
  • A New Thin Film Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design
  • Efficient, Clean, Compact and Cost Efficient
  • Low Temperature Operation
  • Direct Use of Hydrocarbon Fuel
  • Natural Gas
  • Hydrogen from Dissociation of Water????
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