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Introduction to Oceanography

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Introduction to Oceanography Ru Morrison COOA University of New Hampshire Oceanographic Disciplines Physical - stratification Chemical - nutrients Biological ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Oceanography


1
Introduction to Oceanography
  • Ru Morrison
  • COOA
  • University of New Hampshire

2
Oceanographic Disciplines
All to answer the question How do phytoplankton
grow?
  • Physical - stratification
  • Chemical - nutrients
  • Biological - phytoplankton

3
1) Physical Oceanography
  • Seasonal Stratification

4
Introducing the Clines
5
A little regional Geography
You are here
Jordan Basin


Georges Basin
Wilkinson Basin
Georges Bank
6
Seasonal Thermocline
COOA REACH station D
7
How to Mix things up a little (or a lot)
If too shallow no seasonal stratification
8
Something Strange afoot in Wilkinson Basin
9
Deep Slope Water
10
Stratification Summary
  • Due to density changes
  • During Winter months waters well mixed
  • Increased sun in Spring warms surface waters ?
    less dense and floats
  • Decreased sun and increased storms begin to mix
    things up Fall
  • Back to mixed in Winter
  • Not that simple as you need to consider salinity
    as well

11
2) Chemical Oceanography
  • Nutrients

12
Nutrients
  • Important and commonly measured elements needed
    for the growth of plants

Too Complicated!
13
Nutrients
  • Important and commonly measured elements needed
    for the growth of plants

Land Runoff
14
Biological Oceanography
  • Run Video

15
Whats Alive?Drifters of the ocean - Plankton
  • Zooplankton
  • Eat phytoplankton
  • Get eaten by bigger things
  • Important in nutrient cycling

16
Whats Alive?Swimmers - Nekton
  • Squid
  • Mammals
  • Reptiles
  • Fish

17
Food Webs
18
You cant see a whale from space but you can see
19
Light from the sun
Visible
UV
Infrared
20
Fluorescence
  • Absorbed light of all colors reemitted as red
    light (683 nm, actually by chlorophyll-a)
  • Can use it to measure phytoplankton biomass

21
Fluorometer
  • Fluorescence used to estimate chlorophyll a
  • Chl-a used to estimate phytoplankton biomass

22
Photosynthesis Biosynthesis
  • 6CO2 6 H2O ? C6H12O6 6O2
  • Photosynthesis makes carbohydrates
  • Whats needed?
  • Light
  • Nutrients for Biosynthesis
  • i.e. To make other stuff such as DNA

23
Seasonal Stratification -What does it do to
phytoplankton?
COOA REACH station D
24
Phytoplankton Summary
  • Fluorescence estimate of Biomass
  • Requires
  • Nutrients
  • Light
  • Spring
  • Onset of Stratification keeps Phytoplankton in
    surface nutrient rich waters ? Spring bloom
  • Summer
  • Nutrients in the surface mixed layer depleted
    during ? decreased quantities
  • Fall
  • Mixing introduces nutrients from bottom water
  • ? Fall bloom usually smaller
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