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Curriculum Development

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The Teaching Center Curriculum Development Harvey J. Hamrick, MD The Teaching Center UNC Department of Pediatrics Introduction Principles of curriculum development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Curriculum Development


1
Curriculum Development
The Teaching Center
  • Harvey J. Hamrick, MD
  • The Teaching Center
  • UNC Department of Pediatrics

2
Introduction
The Teaching Center
  • Principles of curriculum development are
    essential to the design of effective educational
    experiences
  • The curriculum for a course of instruction is the
    framework or educational map which directs the
    entire activity and ensures its success. It
    outlines a process whereby selected expertise is
    transformed into learner acquisition.
  • Faculty members who plan educational activities
    need to be well versed in the basic principles of
    curriculum development. The purpose today is to
    present these principles in a concise and
    understandable manner.

3
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Curriculum development, like any other creative
    endeavor, starts with planning and organization.
    It requires that you think about why the proposed
    instruction is important and how it can be
    provided so that the intended learner outcomes
    occur.

4
Process
The Teaching Center
  • In medical education, a systematic process has
    evolved consisting of five steps which guide one
    in developing a competency-based curriculum.
    This is also referred to as an outcomes-based
    curriculum. The competencies/outcomes must be
    specifically articulated and individually
    addressed in terms of how the learner will
    acquire the desired knowledge, skill or attitude,
    and how acquisition of that competency will be
    measured or accessed.

5
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Adherence to such a process often does not occur.
    Faculty in charge of student, resident, or
    fellow training tend to resist such structure
    because it seems confining and does not reflect
    how doctors learn. Medical learning
    experiences (i.e. rotations, lectures, tutorials
    at the bedside, self study, etc.) often are
    presented in very general terms without much
    thought about specific outcomes.

6
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Rationale for Resisting Curriculum Development
  • Competency in medicine requires the highest level
    of interpersonal, cognitive, and procedural
    skills in the context of an ever changing and
    expanding knowledge base. Therefore, time spent
    in creating rigid competency-based curricula is
    not a good investment
  • Faculty know what learners need. Therefore,
    faculty are expected to point out, teach, and
    model for learners the important knowledge areas,
    attitudes, and skills. Learners are expected to
    pick up on the cues (i.e. take responsibility for
    their own education) and thereby become
    proficient.

7
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Rationale for Resisting Curriculum Development
  • Faculty know whether or not a learner is
    progressing appropriately by observing and
    working with the learner in the clinical arena.
  • Objective tests are a good backup method of
    assessment.
  • There is no hard evidence that well designed
    curricula give better results than traditional
    approaches to teaching in medical settings.

8
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Accreditation requirements are mandating change
    and the expectation is that each curricular
    component (i.e. clinical rotation, lecture
    series, required experience) within a training
    program will have a competency-based curriculum
    so that faculty and learners know what is
    expected. In that light, faculty knowledge of
    the steps involved in planning instructional
    experiences is important.

9
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Clarification of Terms and Concepts
  • Competency-based curriculum A curriculum where
    intended learner competencies are stated as
    specific learning objectives. Each objective is
    linked with a plan which describes how it will be
    acquired and how acquisition will be measured.

10
Process
The Teaching Center
  • Clarification of Terms and Concepts
  • Six Core Competencies of the ACGME
  • The intent of the ACGME is for the Core
    Competencies to constitute a central theme
    throughout a residency curriculum. There is a
    major national emphasis on developing innovative
    assessment tools to enhance the role of the Core
    Competencies in medical education.

Patient Care (PC) Professionalism (P)
Medical Knowledge (MK) Practice-based Learning (PBL)
Interpersonal Communication Skills (ICS) Systems-based Practice (SBP)
11
The Teaching Center
  • Five Steps in Planning a Course of Instruction

12
Step 1 Needs Assessment
The Teaching Center
  • Why is this instruction important?
  • What is its priority among competing needs?
  • Who are the learners?
  • What level of preparation will be required of
    learners?
  • What are the desired outcomes?
  • How will success be measured?

13
Step 2 Goals and Objectives (GOs)
The Teaching Center
  • Rationale for developing GOs
  • GOs are the educational steps which define the
    content and outcomes
  • GOs provide an organizational framework for the
    content
  • GOs provide conciseness and clarity to learner
    expectations

14
Step 2 GOs
The Teaching Center
  • Basics of Developing GOs
  • Start with an Overall Educational Goal
  • Develop specific learning objectives which relate
    to the Overall Educational Goal.
  • Each objective should consist of a concise
    statement
  • Use active verbs like apply rather than
    consider how one would use or describe rather
    than be familiar with.
  • Limit the number of objectives to those which can
    be accomplished within the timeframe of the
    course
  • Link each objective with specific teaching
    methods/strategies and with specific outcome
    measures

15
Step 3 Teaching Strategies/Methods
The Teaching Center
  • Important to fit the teaching method to the
    objective
  • Acid/base concepts (i.e. higher level cognitive
    functions) may require several approaches to
    connect with the average learner.
  • Surgical procedures may require precise
    simulations
  • Attitudinal and communication objectives may
    require specific demonstrations or didactic
    sessions.

16
Step 3 Teaching Strategies/Methods
The Teaching Center
  • The number of potential configurations of
    teaching methods, strategies, styles, formats,
    tools, etc. is extensive.
  • - Large group lecture - Assigned readings -
    Small group seminar - Prepared study
    materials
  • - One-on-one tutorial - Simulations and
    demonstrations
  • - Case-based rounds - Computer-based
    learning
  • - Topic-based rounds - Self instruction units

17
Step 4 Implementation
The Teaching Center
  • What must be done to make it happen?
  • Specific questions which must be addressed
  • What is the timeline within the present
    environment?
  • What are the required fiscal, administrative, and
    faculty resources?
  • What are the physical space/facility requirements
    and what is the availability?
  • What are the technological and equipment needs?

18
Step 5 Evaluation
The Teaching Center
  • Link desired learner outcomes to evaluation
    techniques
  • Written and oral exams
  • OSCEs for physical diagnoses
  • Proficiency tests for skills
  • Observed performance (procedures, exam,
    communication skills)
  • Attitudinal ratings
  • Learner self-assessment interviews
  • Learner presentation (case or didactic topic)
    evaluation
  • Small group participation
  • Evaluation of written work

19
Step 5 Evaluation
The Teaching Center
  • Establish assessment techniques for program
    performance
  • Review scorecard for achieving learner outcomes
  • Critique implementation process (timeline,
    teaching methods, use of resources, effectiveness
    of individual sessions)
  • Obtain learner feedback

20
Example
The Teaching Center
Objective ? Competency/ Outcome How Taught ? Teaching Strategy/ Teaching Method How Measured ? Assessment/ Evaluation Core Competency
Perform accurate TM exam Videotape on TM landmarks One-on-one tutorial using teaching otoscope for landmarks and pneumatic otoscope for mobility Demonstration of patient restraint methods and techniques for removing cerumen Student demonstrates successful TM exam on three separate patients PC, MK
21
Example
The Teaching Center
Objective ? Competency/Outcome How Taught ? Teaching Strategy/ Teaching Method How Measured ? Assessment/ Evaluation Core Competency
Demonstrate ability to diagnose and manage common acute medical problems in the Pediatrics ED Selected readings Case-based conferences One-on-one supervision by ED faculty Faculty observations of resident performance in ED setting Resident self evaluation exercise Written case-based exercises completed by residents PC, MK
22
Example
The Teaching Center
Objective ? Competency/Outcome How Taught ? Teaching Strategy/ Teaching Method How Measured ? Assessment/ Evaluation Core Competency
Demonstrate ability to suture simple lacerations One-on-one tutorial using pigs feet One-on-one supervised repair Required handout on wound assessment, cleaning, and use of local anesthesia Certification by faculty of three successful repairs Cognitive written exam PC, MK
23
Example
The Teaching Center
Objective ? Competency/ Outcome How Taught ? Teaching Strategy/ Teaching Method How Measured ? Assessment/ Evaluation Core Competency
Provide telephone advice to parents of acutely ill children Standard protocols Session with HealthLink One-on-one supervised calls Guided role playing calls Parent satisfaction report MK, PC, ICS, PBL, P
24
Conclusion
The Teaching Center
  • It is important to develop a curriculum for any
    course of instruction
  • Use the five basic steps as a guide
  • Needs assessment
  • GOs
  • Teaching Methods
  • Implementation plan
  • Evaluation to include learner achievement and
    program effectiveness
  • Curriculum development should be a flexible,
    dynamic, and creative process which enhances
    faculty teaching expertise and results in more
    efficient and productive learners.
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