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SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE (Notes for Guidance ) The profession of transportation engineering

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SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE (Notes for Guidance ) The profession of transportation engineering Lecture One Radu ANDREI, PhD, P.E., Professor of Civil Engineering – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE (Notes for Guidance ) The profession of transportation engineering


1
SPECIAL TRANSPORTATION STRUCTURE (Notes for
Guidance )The profession of transportation
engineering
Lecture One
Radu ANDREI, PhD, P.E., Professor of Civil
Engineering Technical University Gh. Asachi
IASI
2
The Profession of Transportation Engineering
  • Importance of Transportation
  • Transportation and economic growth.
  • Transportation history. Significant events
  • Employment and specialties in Transportation
    Engineering
  • Problems
  • Additional Readings

3
Importance of Transportation
  • Transportation is essential for a nations
    development and growth.The transportation system
    includes highway, rail, airport and mass transit
    systems .
  • These systems are permanently planned, designed,
    built, operated and maintained by specific
    organizations and agencies
  • New techniques are being applied for operating
    and maintaining these systems , safely and
    economically.

4
Transportation and Economic Growth (1)
  • Transportation is a necessary condition for human
    interaction and economic survival. If a country
    wishes to develop and grow it must have a strong
    internal transportation system as well as
    excellent linkages to the rest of the world.
  • Availability of transportation facilities may
    strongly influence the growth and development of
    a region or of a country. Good transportation
    permits the development of industry and
    commerce, reduce costs for raw materials or
    manufactured goods, encourages competition
    between regions, resulting in lower costs and
    better choices for the consumer.

5
Transportation and Economic Growth (2)
  • Transportation is also a necessary element of
    governing services such delivering mail,
    defending a nation and retaining control of its
    territories.
  • Building or improvement of vast transportation
    systems, involves significant social costs ,
    risks and some change of the natural
    environment. A major task for the modern
    transportation engineer is to balance societys
    needs for fast and efficient transportation with
    the costs and the risks involved , so that the
    most efficient and cost-effective
    transportation system to be created.

6
Transportation History. Significant Events (1)
  • Transportation history involves the development
    of many separate modes of transportation such
    as travel by foot and horseback , the automobile
    and track travel, the development of roads and
    highways, the construction of railroads, the the
    building of canals and inland waterways, the
    creation and use of public transportation like
    bus and metro systems in the cities, the
    development of air transportation including the
    aircraft, airports, and air navigation
    facilities.

7
Transportation History. Significant Events (2)
  • 1794 First toll road in England
  • 1807 Robert Fulton demonstrates a steamboat on
    the Hudson River
  • 1830 Construction of first railroad in USA (
    Ohio and Baltimore )
  • 1838 Steamships service on the Atlantic ocean
    begins
  • 1866 Bicycles are introduced in United States
  • 1903 The Wright brothers fly the first airplane

8
Transportation History. Significant Events (3)
  • 1914 Panama Canal opens for traffic
  • 1927 Charles Linbergh flies from New York to
    Paris
  • 1961 Space flight begins
  • 1960 The American Association for State Highway
    officials (ASHTO) research program
  • 1969 Men land on the Moon and return
  • 1981 Space shuttle Columbia orbits and lands
    safely (it fails returning from its last
    mission, when entered into the Earths
    atmosphere in 2003)

9
Transportation History. Significant Events (4)
  • 1987 The strategic highway Research Program
    (SHRP) in USA followed by similar Strategic
    European Highway Research Programs ( SEHRP)
  • 1992 Intelligent Transport Systems open a new
    era of research and development in
    transportation
  • 1993 The initiation of the huge road
    rehabilitation program in Romania
  • 1998Electric vehicles are introduced in the
    world, as an alternative to internal combustion
    engines

10
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(1)
  • The professional skills required to plan, build,
    and operate the extensive transportation system
    require a variety of disciplines , including
    engineering, planning, law, economic management
    and social sciences.
  • Thus, transportation offers one of the broadest
    opportunities for employment, because it
    involves so many disciplines and modes.
  • Transportation services are provided within and
    between cities by rail, air, bus, truck and
    private automobile.The service sector provides
    jobs for vehicle drivers,maintenance
    people,flight attendants, train conductors, and
    other necessary support personnel.

11
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(2)
  • The service sector provides also jobs for other
    professionals such as lawyers, economists,
    social scientists and ecologists , when their
    skills are required to draft legislation, to
    facilitate right -of-way acquisition, or to
    study and measure the impacts of transportation
    on the economy, society and environment
  • Vehicle design and manufacture involves the
    application of the professional skills of
    mechanical, electrical and aerospace engineers
    and also those of technical trained mechanics
    and workers

12
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(3)
  • Civil engineers are involved primarily for the
    planning, design, construction, operation and
    maintenance of the transportation system
  • Transportation planning deals with the selection
    of projects for design and construction.
  • A transportation planner investigates the
    physical feasibility of a project and makes
    comparisons between various alternatives , to
    determine which one will accomplish the task, at
    the lowest cost, consistent with other criteria
    and constraints.

13
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(4)
  • Transportation design involves the technical
    specification of all features of the
    transportation system so that it will function
    smoothly, efficiently, and in accord with
    physical laws. The design process results in a
    set of detailed plans that can be used for
    estimating the facility costs and for carrying
    out its construction.
  • For a highway, the design process involves the
    following
  • - the selection of dimensions for all geometric
    features ( longitudinal profile, vertical curves
    and elevations, highway cross sections, etc),

14
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(5)
  • -the design of the pavement itself, including
    the structural requirements for every layer of
    the pavement structure,
  • -the design of bridges and drainage structures
    as well the provision for traffic control
    devices, roadside rest areas and landscaping.
  • The most important aspect of the highway
    designers work is to produce a balanced design
    in which all elements of the geometry of a
    highway- its curve radii, sight distance,
    superelevation, grade and vertical curvature- are
    consistent with a chosen design speed, so that if
    a motorist travels at that speed, can proceed
    safely and comfortably his journey.

15
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(6)
  • Transportation construction involves all
    aspects of the building process, beginning with
    clearing of native soil, preparation of the
    surface, placement of the pavement material, and
    preparation of the final roadway for use by
    traffic.
  • Traffic engineers are responsible for operation
    of the transportation system, by the harmonious
    integration of vehicle, driver and pedestrian
    characteristics to improve the safety and
    capacities of streets and highways.

16
Employment and Specialties in Transportation
Engineering(7)
  • Highway maintenance involves all the works ,
    such as pavement patching and repair, and any
    other actions necessary to maintain the
    roadway pavement at a desired level of
    serviceability.
  • Maintenance also involves record keeping and
    data management for work activities and project
    needs, as well as analyses of work activities ,
    to determine that they are carried out in the
    most economical manner.
  • Maintenance involves maintaining an inventory of
    traffic signs and markings, redesign of existing
    highway sections, economic evaluation of
    maintenance programs, testing of new products and
    prioritization of works.

17
Problems (1)
  • To illustrate the importance of transportation
    in our life, for one-week period, clip out
    several transportation-related articles that
    appear in local or national newspapers. Consider
    the issues involved, discuss them and formulate
    your own comments and views.
  • Arrange an interview with a transportation
    professional in your city, and attempt to learn
    about the job he or she performs, why he or she
    entered the profession, and what he or she sees
    as future challenges in his field.
  • Review the classified section of the
    telephone directory of your city and identify at
    least ten different jobs or industries, that are
    related with transportation

18
Problems (2)
  • Keep a diary of all trips you make for a period
    of one week, recording the the purpose of each
    trip, how you traveled, the approximate distance
    traveled , and the trip time. From this estimate
    the proportion of your monthly budget is spent
    for transportation and try to extrapolate these
    data to the trip-making characteristics for all
    students of your group
  • Most departments or agencies for transportation
    incorporate at least five major transportation
    engineering subspecialties within their
    organizations. List and indicate at least three
    tasks falling under each subspecialty.

19
Problems (3)
  • In the hypothesis that a country has a
    population of 23 million people and a average
    ownership of 0,5 cars per person, each driven an
    average of 10,000 Km per year, at 100Km per 7
    liter of gasoline. Officials estimate that an
    additional EUR 75 million per year in revenue
    will be necessary to improve the highway system
    and they proposed an increase in the gasoline
    tax, to meet this need. Determine the required
    in cents per liter.
  • List at least three major detrimental effects
    that are directly related to the construction
    and use of our highway transportation system.
    Do the same exercise for our rail transportation
    system.

20
Problems (4)
  • For the city of Iasi, describe briefly the
    actual transportation system, including its
    transportation modes. Try to formulate your own
    opinion about how this transportation system
    meet the needs and expectations of the citizens
    of Iasi. Which improvements or corrections are
    necessary to by applied ?
  • Estimate the number of motor vehicles in the
    city of Iasi, and the total number of km driven
    each year. What is the total revenue raised for
    each 1cent/ liter tax? Assume that the average
    vehicle achieves 36 Km per 3.785 liter of
    gasoline.

21
Additional Readings
  • Andrei R. Land Transportation Engineering,
    Technical Publishers, Chisinau, 2002
  • Garber j.N., Hoel A.,L, Traffic and Highway
    Engineering, revised second edition, PWS
    Publishing,1999
  • American Highways
  • www.trb.org/trb newsletter
  • www.andnet.ro
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