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History of Wind Power

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History of Wind Power Large Wind Systems Range in size from 100 kW to 2 MW Provide wholesale bulk power Require 13 mph average wind sites Technology Overview - Large ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Wind Power


1
History of Wind Power
2
Large Wind Systems
  • Range in size from 100 kW to 2 MW
  • Provide wholesale bulk power
  • Require 13 mph average wind sites

3
Technology Overview- Large Wind Projects
  • Projects operating at greater than 35 capacity
    factors at good wind sites
  • Over 98-99 availability
  • Select projects are delivering power 3
    cents/kWh (with Production Tax Credit)

4
Cost of Energy - Large Wind Projects
12
10
8
Levelized Cost of Energy (cents/kWh)
6
4
2
1990
1995
2005
2010
2000
5
Fastest Growing Energy Source in the World
Source Worldwatch Institute 2000
Global growth by energy source, annual average
1990-1999
6
Taking Off Worldwide
Wind Leaders 1. Germany 2. United States 3.
Spain 4. Denmark 5. India
Total (end of 2000) nearly 17,000 MW
Based on information supplied by International
Energy Agency.
7
2000 A Year for Market Innovations
  • Several companies begin selling green power
    certificates
  • Several states see first large-scale wind power
    project PA, NY, TN
  • Texas RPS fuels building boom

8
2001 Wind Power Expected to Take Off
  • US Wind Capacity expected to nearly double by the
    end of 2001
  • The Northwest will see the largest US wind
    project to date with the Stateline Wind Farm (300
    MW)

9
An All American Resource
World Class Wind Potential
Germanys Potential 100 GW North Dakotas
Potential 250 GW
10
(No Transcript)
11
Drag Device
12
Giant Brush Windmill(1887 1900s)
  • Charles Brush
  • Automatically operated
  • Dynamo
  • Charged batteries
  • Provided light

13
Earliest Use
  • May be sail boats
  • Persia 500 - 900 A.D.
    - Drag, Vertical Axis Device
    - Panemone
    - Grain Grinding Water
    Pumping
  • China 1219 A.D.
    - Grain Grinding Water Pumping
  • Crete
    - Water pumping for livestock.

14
Windmills of Western World (1270 Mediterrean
Coast)
  • Horizontal Axis with Sail Wings
  • Higher Efficiency
  • Wooden Cogs and Ring Gears to Transmit Power.

15
Halladay Fan-Type Windmill (1854 in U.S.)
  • Water Pumping Windmill
  • Pumping water for livestock.
  • Relatively light, steel blades with aerodynamic
    shape.
  • Blades hinged to fold in high winds.
  • Tail to track wind direction.

16
Windmill with Pitch Change Mechanism
17
Palmer Putnams Windmill
18
Darrieus Machine (1973)
  • NASA sponsored research during oil crisis.
  • No tower and major equipment at ground level.
  • Marketed by Flo Wind
  • Failed to withstand forces during high winds
  • Never caught on.

19
Early, Large Large 2 MW Machine (Early 1980s.)
  • Developed by NASA.
  • Response to problem with downwind machine of
    Ulrich Hutter.
  • Large loads.
  • Noisy. Interfered with communications.
  • Tested in Boone, NC and Hawaii.

20
Another Early MW Machine
21
Federal Wind Test Center (1974-1981)
  • Tested Small Intermediate Wind Turbines
  • Culled bad designs.
  • Bergie Design is spinoff.
  • UTRC's Composite, Flexbeam Rotor
  • NREL assumed control in 1989.

22
Danish Machines (1942)
  • F.L. Smidth early designs
  • Three Blade Upwind Machine
  • Hybrid wind diesel systems.
  • DC Generator

23
Vester Egesborg Turbine(1950s)
  • Johannes Juul
  • Student of Poul La Cour
  • First ac machine.

24
Gedser Wind Turbine (1956-1957)
  • Johannes Juul
  • Electromechanical Yawing
  • Asynchronous Generator
  • Stall Controlled
  • Special brakes for overspeed conditions.

25
The Riisage Turbine
26
Competing Turbine Engines
27
The Tvind 2 MW Machine
28
Bonus 20 KW
29
Danish Domination of 1990s
  • Slow, steady growth in Europe Asia
  • Mid-range machines
  • Reliable with high availabilities.
  • Conservative, Lower Efficiency
  • American Company - Zond emerged
  • Green Power, State RPS program, Tax credits
    kick-started American Market in late 1990s.

30
Great California Wind Rush(1980s)
  • Tax Credit based on installed capacity.
  • Lots of bad wind turbines installed.
  • Lot of turbines were inoperable and had high OM.
  • Conservative, Danish machine emerged.

31
Avedore Wind Farm, Denmark
32
Middelgrunden Wind Farm
33
Tuno Knob Offshore Wind Farm
34
Vindeby Wind Farm
35
TVA History
  • In 1980s
  • Tested a 2 MW machine.
  • numerous problems
  • Tested small machines at various locations.
  • Conducted extensive siting
  • 2000
  • Re-examined earlier work
  • Meso scale computer modeling
  • Sodar development
  • Monitoring
  • Walk-throughs
  • October 2000
  • Commissioned 2 MW project on Buffalo Mountain

36
Future of Wind Power
  • Expect cost to continually drop (0.02/kwh by
    2010)
  • Taller towers
  • Increased efficiency, less expensive blades
  • wood composite
  • Drive trains
  • Direct drive
  • Power electronics
  • Revolutionary change
  • The Wind Power Company down 2 blade machine
  • Larger size (1.5 downwind 3.0 MWs)

37
Future of Wind Power - continued
  • AWEAs estimates 100,000 MW in USA by 2020.
  • Transport of wind power from plains states.
  • Off shore wind development

38
(No Transcript)
39
Future for the Tennessee Valley
  • Taller towers
  • Self erecting towers
  • Different Power Test procedures
  • Sodars for wind resource measurements
  • Low wind speed turbines
  • Energy storage

40
TVAs Plans
  • RFP for wind power on Buffalo Mountain.
  • Online by December 2003.
  • Prefer Power Purchase Agreement.
  • Expansion for Green Power Switch.
  • May partner with neighboring utilities.
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