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Life Cycle of Stars

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Title: Life Cycle of Stars


1
Life Cycle of Stars
  • Chapter 21, section 3

http//www.freewebs.com/bnip1/Astronomy/Hidden20G
alaxy20IC20342.jpg
2
Nebulas and protostars
  • A star is made up of a large amount of gas in a
    relatively small volume.
  • All stars begin as nebulas which are large
    amounts of gas and dust spread out over an
    immense (huge) volume.
  • Gravity can pull some of the gas and dust in a
    nebula together
  • This contracting cloud is called a protostar
    which is the earliest stage in the life of a star

3
Protostars
Eagle Nebula
http//feps.as.arizona.edu/outreach/ images/158286
.JPG
http//larvalsubjects.files.wordpress.com /2009/01
/hubble-eagle-nebula-wide-field-04086y.jpg
4
Birth of a Star
  • A star is born when the contracting gas and
    dust become so hot that nuclear fusion begins to
    occur.
  • How long a star lives depends on how much mass it
    has. Stars with less mass burn their fuel more
    slowly and last longer than stars with more mass

5
Lifetimes of Stars
  • Stars with little mass can live as long as 200
    billion years.
  • Stars that are 15 times bigger than the sun might
    last only 10 million years.
  • The sun is medium-sized and should live for about
    10 billion years, since the sun is about 4.6
    billion years old it is almost halfway through
    its lifetime.

6
Deaths of Stars
  • When a star begins to run out of fuel, the center
    of the star shrinks and the outer part expands.
    The star becomes a red giant or supergiant
  • All main sequence stars eventually become red
    giants or supergiants, what happens next depends
    on the mass of the star.
  • When a star runs out of fuel it becomes a white
    dwarf, a neutron star, or a black hole.

7
Life Cycle of a Star
White Dwarf
Black Dwarf
Small or Medium Star
Red Giant
1.Nebula/Protostar
Giant or Supergiant Star
Supernova
Black Hole
Nuetron Star
8
White Dwarfs
  • Small- and Medium-sized stars become red giants,
    then the outer layers drift off into space. The
    blue-white hot core is left behind and is a white
    dwarf.

9
and Black Dwarfs
White Dwarfs
  • A White dwarf has the mass of the sun but is the
    size of Earth, it is one million times as dense
    as the sun. When a white dwarf runs out of fuel
    and energy it becomes a black dwarf.
  • A black dwarf has stopped glowing because fusion
    has stopped. It is a dead star, not the Death
    Star that is Darth Vaders spacecraft.

10
Neutron Stars
  • Dying giant or supergiant stars can explode, this
    is called a supernova. Left behind is an
    incredibly dense star called a neutron star, only
    about 20 kilometers across.
  • A spoonful of matter would have as much mass as a
    large truck

11
Black Holes
  • Only the most massive stars with 40 times the
    mass of the sun become black holes.
  • After a supernova more than 5 times the mass of
    the sun can be left.
  • The gravity is so strong that gas is pulled
    inward, eventually all of this mass is contained
    with in a sphere only 30 kilometers in diameter.

12
Black Holes
  • The gravity becomes so strong that nothing can
    escape, not even light. This is a black hole.
  • No light, radio waves, or any form of radiation
    can get out of a black hole. Astronomers can not
    see black holes directly.
  • Astronomers can detect black holes indirectly
  • Gas pulled in rotates so fast that it heats up
    and gives off X-rays
  • Scientists can calculate the mass of a black hole
    by it effect on nearby stars

13
Quasars
  • In the 1960s astronomers discovered very bright
    objects that are very far away, about 12 billion
    light-years away
  • Astronomers concluded that quasars are distant
    galaxies, each with a black hole at its center

14
Medium-sized Star (The Sun)
http//www.physics.uci.edu/7Eobservat/SunPluto.jp
g
15
Red Giants
http//www.physics.uci.edu/7Eobservat/ArcturusSun
.jpg
16
Giants and Supergiants
Supergiants
Red giant
http//www.physics.uci.edu/7Eobservat/AntaresSun.
jpg
17
Supernova
http//www.orionsarm.com/tech/supernova3.jpg
18
White Dwarf and Black Dwarf
http//www.celestiamotherlode.net/catalog /images/
screenshots/various/extrasolar_ stars_White_Dwarf_
Sirius_B_1__ Frank_Gregorio.jpg
http//www.tqnyc.org/2006/ NYC063368//blackdwarf.g
if
19
Neutron Star
http//www.ph.ed.ac.uk/nuclear/photo/xray_neutrons
tar.jpg
20
Black Hole
http//www.nrao.edu/images/supermassiveBlackHoleRi
p510.jpg
21
Quasar
http//www.spacetoday.org/images/ DeepSpace/Quasar
s/Quasar3C273Hubble.jpg
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